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Full text of "History of the lower Shenandoah Valley counties of Frederick, Berkeley, Jefferson and Clarke : their early settlement and progress to the present time; geological features; a description of their historic and interesting localities; cities, towns and villages; portraits of some of the prominent men, and biographies of many of the representative citizens"

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EDITED TiY Jf. i:. XOKltlS. 




1890 . | 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2016 

JLt> / Gx0'3 

John Morris Company, 

118 and 120 Monroe Street, 



I N presenting to the patrons and readers of the History of the Lower 
Shenandoah Valley this completed volume, the compiler of the work 
wishes to call attention to some facts and circumstances connected there- 
with. To write a history of a section of country, a knowledge of which 
at the outset of the task, except in a general way, is entirely lacking, 
would seem to the casual thinker an extremely impracticable under- 
taking. One would think that a resident of long standing of the section 
selected would be the proper person to compile and write the history 
of that section. Yet one who is a comparative stranger, who comes 
perfectly unbiased on all matters-, who has no prejudices in regard to 
any of those with whom he may come in contact, who has “no friends 
to reward and no enemies to punish ” — this person presents qualifi- 
cations for the work that will readily be recognized, and especially is 
that individual fitted for it if he be in sympathy with the inhabitants 
of "whose ancestors he may write. That such are the facts in the 
present instance is well known, and the compiler hereof is proud to 
say that he is a Virginian, and “to the manner born” of that grand 
old commonwealth. 

Coming, then, to the Valley "with such antecedents, and upon the 
mission he did, it w T as but natural that kindness should meet him on 
all sides, and especially in States that have always been noted for 
their “courage, courtesy and hospitality.” The attentions the compiler 
' has received from all persons, the facilities afforded him for obtaining 
the information sought, the valuable and ancient documents placed at 
his disposal, the libraries opened to him without a single restriction in 
. any case, and the interviews accorded him by all classes of residents 
without stint or cavil, have made his work a positive pleasure, and 



words are but poor symbols to here acknowledge in fitting terms the 
many obligations he rests under for those favors so freely given. 

In consideration of this state of affairs, it would bo a sad return 
for this kindness, to foist upon the courteous citizens of the Valley a 
history hastily compiled. Therefore, the writer has endeavored, regard- 
less of time or expense, to arrive at the true state of all matters upon 
which he has touched, from the time the knightly Spottswood and his 
gallant retainers pressed their chargers forward to the brow of Swift 
Run Gap in 1716, to the present time. That he has accomplished that 
which he set about doing in the fall of 1888 the reader must decide. 
That his dates and facts are correct on all important matters can be 
verified by an examination of the public records which are open to all. 
He has straightened out. a few crooked lines that have always been 
perplexing, and he has placed the first settlers and settlements where 
they undoubtedly belong. 

With the feeling of having performed his task worthily, the com- 
piler feels no hesitation in placing his work before the critical eyes 
of the citizens of the Valley, and would here say: To the officers of 
the various courts of the counties comprised in the work; to the offi- 
cials of the towns and villages of the entire section; to the pastors of 
churches, and to the officers and members of all organizations, social, 
manufacturing and otherwise; and to the press, which, without a single 
exception in the four counties, have made frequent complimentary men- 
tion of the compiler and his work, the writer hereof wishes to offer 
his sincere thanks. J. E. NORRIS. 




CHAPTER I. — Introductory. — The 
Discoverers of America — Raleigh’s Ex- 
pedition — The Origin of the Name Vir- 
ginia — The London and Plymouth 
Companies — Lords Hopton and Cole- 
pepper — Settlement of Jamestown — 
General Assembly of the Common- 
wealth — Instructions to Gov. Wyatt — 
First Acts of Assembly — Counties Or- 
ganized — Benjamin Symms — Berke- 
ley’s Infamous Report — Frederick 
County Created — A Sparse Population 
— The Northern Neck of Virginia — 

History of the Culpepper-Fairfax 
Grant .9-22 

CHAPTER II.— Physical Features. — 
Geology — Its Application to Agricult- 
ure — Theory on the Origin of Matter — 

Nature’s Great Forces — Prehistoric 
Life — Outlines of Geological Study — 
Fertility of the Valley — Mineral Re- 
sources -Timber — The Garden of Vir- 
ginia — Splendor of the Scenery— What 
the Valley Origina-lly was — And What 
it Now is 22-31 

CHAPTER III. — Indian's and Prehis- 
toric. — The Ancient Aborigines — The- 
ories of Their Origin — Their Vast Antiq- 
uity — Were They Autochthons?— The 
Conquering Mound-Builders — The 
Montezumas and the Incas — The Znnis 
— The Indian as a Savage — The Border- 
ers — The Shawnees and Cornstalk — 
Indian Conflicts— Indian Settlements — 
Shawnee Spring and Cabins— Charac- 
ter of the Indian 34-49 

CHAPTER IV. — First Settlers and 
Settlements. — Expedition of Gov. 
Spotswood — The Knights of the Gold- 
en Horsehoe — Arrival of First Set- 
tlers — New Meeklhiburg — The Mor- 
gans — First Cabin — The Hollings- 
worths, Hites and Others — Quaker Set- 
tlements — Early Grants — Xatioualties * 
and Religions— Fairfax as. Hite et al.~ 
Settlement Retarded — List of the Sur- 
veys Made by Washington for Lord v 
Fairfax 49-70 

CHAPTER V. — Organization oe Fred- 
erick County. — Appointment of Offi- 
cers— First Court in 1743— Jail, Pillory, 
Stocks and Whipping Post — Ordinaries 
Licensed — First Grand Jury and Pre- 
sentments — Duncan Ogulliou — The 
First Deed— Some Early Land Trans- 
fers — Vestal’s Iron Works — First 

County Levy — Injustice and Inhuman- 
ity — Arrival of Lord Fairfax — First 
Court-House — List of Early Roads. . .70-90 

CHAPTER VI. — Winchester and 
Washington’s Early Operations. — 
Laying ofE Frederick Town — First 
Street — Prison Bounds — Establishment 
of Winchester — Origin of the Name — 
Washington’s Mission — His Ancestry 
— French Encroachments — Battle of 
Great Meadows — Fort Necessity — 
Population of the Lower Valley — Indi- 
an Atrocities — John Harrow G. 
Washington — Braddoek’s Defeat — 
Washington’s Splendid Letter — Win- _ 
Chester in 1756 — Building of Fore Lou- 
don — History Repeated — Capfc. Bul- 
litt’s Exploit — Capture of Fort Du- 
quesne — The Small-Pox — Death of 
Clerk Wood 90-124 

I CHAPTER VII. — The Revolutionary 
Period and Morgan. — S oldiers of the 
Valley — Causes of the Revolution — 
Bursting of the Storm — Origin of Gen. 
Daniel Morgan: His First Military 

Appointment; as a Custodian; His 
First Command — The Famous \ alley 
Company — The Dutch Mess — Storm- 
ing of Quebec — Muhlcnburg and Kei- 
phenstine — First Court Under the New 
Regime — The Quakers — Taking the 
Oath — Saratoga — Cowpcns — Col. Will- 
iam Augustine Washington — The. 
Whisky Insurrection — Morgan in. Con- 
gress — His Character — His Grave. ..124-127 

CHAPTER VIII. — One Hundred Years 
Ago. — I ncorporation of Winchester — 
Post-Revolutionary Boom — Splendid 
Early Schools— First Newspapers in 
the Valley — Grandiloquent Salutatory 
— Some Fancy Figures — First Fire Com- 
panies — Noted Taverns — Establish- 
ment of Manufactories — Theatricals — 
Prominent Merchants — Young Ladies’ 
Seminary — Fine Stores — First Adams 
Express Company — Post-Office — In- 
dentured Servants — Shaved Pleads and 
“Iron Collar” — Just Received from 
Cork — Vote of the County — Grand G 1- 
e brat ion and Barbecue of 17SS — De- 
scription of Parade — First Execution — 
Brief, but to the Point— List of Jus- 
tices — Longevity of Old Clerks 147-170 

CHAPTER IX. — Frederick County 
and Winchester After IbOrt. — Pop- 
ulation of County and County Seat— 


M ^ 



Early Water Supply — Disastrous 
Floods— Old Stackhouse Mill— War of 
1812-14, — Revolutionary Veterans — The 
Valley again to the Front — Another 
Morgan Appears — The First Company 
and Their Uniform — Lists of ail Names 
Obtainable — Description of Old Court- 
House and Jail— “ Black Betty ” — Pil- 
lory and Stocks — Ye Ancient Market -**' 
House — Dramatic Entertainments — 
Louis Pliillippe in Search of a Din- 
ner — List of Corporation Ollicers— Va- 
rious Proceedings of the Council — 
Fire Engines and Houses — Scared 
Council men — Sharp Spasm of Im- 
provement — Reminiscences and Anec- 
dotes— William Greenway— Sarah Zaue 
— Stores, Stage Lines, Teaming, Dress, 
etc 170-191 

CH APTER X. — Modern' Frederick and 
the Towns. — The Bench and Bar — 
Eminent Early Settlers — Their Famous 
Descendants — Lists of Lawyers — Some 
Noted Names — Superior Court of 
Chancery — Judge Tucker’s Law School 
— Claims for the First Church — Theo- 
ries Thereon — Rev. William Williams — 
Centenary Reformed Church — Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church — Presbyte- 
rian Churches — Methodist Episcopal 
Churches — Catholic Church — U nited 

. Brethren Church — Friends’ Meeting 
House — Baptist. Christian, Church of 
God and Colored Churches— The Ceme- 
teries — Honors to the Heroic Dead- 
Educational — Splendid Schools — Fire 
Companies — Public Improvements — 
Industries — Societies — Stephens City, 
Middletown, and the Villages— General 
Summing Up 191-219 

CHAPTER XT.— Organization of Berk- 
eley County. — Act of Creation — The 
Organization — First Justices — Their 
Duties Formulated— Sheriff , Clerk and 
Attorneys — Gabriel Jones and Alexan- 
der White — The Whipping Post — Rate 
of Taxation — A Judgment in favor of 
G. Washington — Mystery of “Morgan’s 
Spring” Explained — County Seat — 
Prison Bounds — Generals Horatio Gates 
and Charles Lee — A Nice Law Point — 
Indentured Slaves — First Case of Mur- 
der — The Revolutionary Period— Easy 

-Transition — Exit Georgius Rex — The 
New Regime — “Taking the Oath” — 
Taking Care of Soldiers’ Wives — Re- 
markable Will of Gen. Charles Lee — 
Popular Fallacies in Regard to that 
Erratic Soldier — His Real Character 
and Surroundings — His Death 219-242 

CHAPTER XII. — Establishment of 
Martinsburg. — Martinsburg before 
177:3 — The Act Establishing the Town 
— Gen. Adam Stephen — A Candi- 
date against Washington — Theories — 

An Election in 1789 — An Ancient Poll 
List — A Candidate’s Card — A Boom in 
Martinsburg — Mr. Butler’s Tavern— 
Berkeley in the Revolution — Gen. Will- 
iam . Darke — Gen. Horatio Gates — 


“ With Braddock ” — Morgan Morgan — 
Four Noted Ministers— The Bedingers 
—Col. Crawford and Gen. Jessup — 
Felix Grundy, Nathaniel Willis and 
John R. Cook — Sketcli of the Career of 
Hon. Charles James Faulkner. . . , . . *342-262 

CHAPTER XIII. — Primitive Town and 
County. — T he Newspaper as a “Mir- 
ror”— Its Great Value to History — 
Some Interesting Extracts from Jour- 
nals of 1787', 1802, 1812-14 and 1825 to 
1835 — A Wily Prisoner — Timely Adver- 
tisements — Shopping in 1811 — Fine 
Stores — A Quaker Goldsmith and Jew- 
eler — Lots of Shoemakers — Some Noted 
Taverns — War of 1812-14 — Depression 
in Values — The Martinsburg Academy 
— Library Society — Terrible Storm— 
Another Celebration and Three Fine 
Toasts — Prices Current — Disastrous 
Fires — Canal to Martinsburg — A Tem- 
perance Society — A Cyclone— Coal Dis- 
covered — Falling “Stars” — -First Sched- 
ule of Baltimore A Ohio Railroad. .,262-279 

CHAPTER XIV. — Trustees, Council- 
men, Courts and Officers. — T he 
Trustee Form of Government — En- 
larged Powers — The Act— First O dicers 
— Nuisances — Market Rule— -Trustees 
vs. Parrott — James Faulkner as a Just 
ice — “No Property Found” — A Famous 
Dog Case — “ Trustees vs. SiiowdeU et 
ux.” — Spirit of Improvement —Petition 
of Faulkner, et ah — No Riding on. Side- 
walks: — Tax List — Old Market House — 
Incorporation of Martinsburg — The 
Act — First Proceedings — .More Im- 
provements — Fire Engines — The War 
Period — “A Messenger from Win- 
chester” — A Sad Municipal Entry — 
From 1862 to 1865 — Reorganization — 

Still Further Improvement — A New 
Charter — List of Ollicers — Practicin'.!; 
Attorneys .279-297- 

CHAPTER XV. — Modern Marttns- 
burg. — T he Churches— Edueati o u a 1 — 
Improvements — Fine Water System- 
Railroad Shops — Newspapers — Socie- 
ties — Tornadoes and Floods — ; Other 
Towns of Berkeley 297-3 L 7 

CHAPTER XVI. — Some Early Set- 
tlers of Jefferson. — Before the 
Creation of Jefferson County — Stand- 
ing of Her Early Settlers — The Old 
Packhorse Ford — The Great Indian 
Highway — The Beautiful Potomac — 

The Germans — Date of their Arrival — 
Splendor of Scenery — The Ea>t Vir- 
ginia Settlers — The Cavalier Slock 
— Why the Jeffersonians Make Good 
Soldiers — The Famous “Morgan 
Spring” Company — Captain Hugh 
Stephenson — Description of the Com- 
any and its Start — Interesting New 
acts About Generals Lee, Gates and 
Stephen — Their residences — Gates’ Let- 
ter — Some Errors Corrected — Was Lee 
a Traitor? — Was Charles Lee the 
Author of the “Junius” Letters — Re- 
markable Coincidence .317-335 



CHAPTER XVII. — Organization of 
Jefferson County. — The County 
Court — First Commission of tlie Peace— 
Gen. William Darke— Manumission of 
Slaves — Taverns — Erection of Public 
Buildings — Military Appointments — 
Ferdinando Fairfax — Ministers Li- 
censed — The Civil War Period — 
Prompt Patriotism — Shepherdstown, 
the County Seat — Reorganization — 
Restoration of the County Seat — Dr. S. 

J. Cramer — Thomas A. Moore — The 
Circuit Court— Its Able Judges— Rich- 
ard Parker, Ossawattomie Brown’s 
Judge — A Four Years’ Hiatus — Robert 
T. Brown, C. C. C. — Tribute to a Good 
Man — The Later Judges — Complete 
List of Sheriffs 335-353 

CHAPTER XVIII. — Charlestown. — 
Early Settlers and Settlements — Brad- 
doc-k’s Route — The Old Ruin — Primi- 
tive Sports— Capt. William Clieny 
— Business Prospects — The Mexican 
War — Gallant Officers — Col. Ham- 
tramck — Old St. George’s Chapel — A 
Picturesque Ruin — Sketch of the An- 
cient Landmark — Its Origin — The 
Churches — Schools — ' The Press — Socie- 
ties — Public Officers — Lawyers — Enter- 
prises 353-359 

CHAPTER XIX. — Shepherdstown, 

First Settlers — Kolionk-ou-roo-ta — The 
Germans — Establishment of Mecklen- 
burg — A Ferry Contest — Partial Incor- 
poration, 1793 — The Trustee Form — 
Additions to the Town — Change of 
Name to Shepherds town — Trouble 
About the Run — Market House — Large 
Firms of 1810 — The “Cossack” Cele- 
bration — Incorporation — The “ Com- 
monhall” Municipality — Mayor Henry 
Boteler — Town Officers — A Peremptory 
Order and a Scare — Another Change in 
Charter — Religious and Educational — 
History of the Churches — Shepherd 
College — Societies — Morgan’s Grove 
Fair— Newspapers — Towns and Vil- 
lages — The Famous Legend of the 
“ Wizard Clip.” 369-394 

CHAPTER XX. — James Rumsey, In- 
ventor of the Steamboat. — Pipe 
Boiler — Other Machines — Ramsey’s 
Struggles — Proofs of Priority — The 
Boat of 17S3— In Bath — Petition to Vir- 
ginia — Testimony of Gen. Washington 
— His Advice — John Fitch — His Admis- 
sion — The Secret Trial — The Steamer 
at Shenandoah Falls — Its Mishaps — Re- 
moval to Sheplierdstown — Washing- 
ton’s Letter — Second Trial — Eye Wit- 
nesses — The Public Trial Trip — 
Fulton’s Pretensions — Congressional 
Medal to the Inventor 394-431 

CHAPTER XXI. — Harper’s Ferry and 
John Brown’s Raid. — Early Settle- 
ment — Harper’s Mill — Shenandoah 
Falls — Magnificent Scenery — Jeffer- 
son’s Rock — Washington’s Portrait — 


The Grand Rivers — Wild Goats — The 
Government Works — Vandalism — 
Camp Hill — Superintendent Perkins — 
Destruction of the Works — Bursting 
of a Bubble — Disappointment — Church 
and School — Grand Dedication — Dese- 
cration of the Churches— Sketches of 
Some of Them — Storer College — Mis- 
fortunes of the Ferry — - The Great 
Floods— The John Brown Assassins— 
Their Atrocious Plans and Arms — 
Details of the Affair — Gens. R. E. Lee 
and J. E. B. Stuart — Indictment and 
Trial— Perfect Impartiality — Brown’s 
Own Testimony .431-448 

CHAPTER XXII.— Creation of Clarke 
and Some Early Matters. — Some 
Noted Early Settlers — Famous Old 
Families — Rich Lauds and Fine Scen- 
ery-Organization of the Courts — First 
Officers and Lawyers — Building of 
Court-House — “Prison Bounds” Es- 
tablished — “Swearing Out” — List of 
Justices — A Blank from 1861 to 1S64 — 
Military Rule — Reconstruction — List 
of Clerks and Sheriffs — Gen. George 
Rogers Clarke — Gen. Daniel Morgan- — 
Additional Facts about the Old Wag- 
oner — Soldiers’ Rest — Morgan’s Stone 
'Pile Forts — Washington’s Surveyor’s 
Office — G. W. Fairfax — The Soldier- 
Parson, Rev. Charles Mynn Thruston — 
Sketch of the Old Patriot — Old Alex- 
andria Road — Braddoek’s March— Hes- 
sian Prisoners — Lord. Duumoi e’s Ex- 
pedition — The Old Chapel— Cunning- 
hum’s Older Structure — The Ancient 
Graveyard 44S-4G5 

CHAPTER XXIII. — Lord Fairfax and 
Greenway Court. — O rigin of the Fair- 
fax Family — Recovery of Lost Records — 
Romantic Escapade — The Fair Isabel — 
Protestant and Romanist — Witchcraft 
— The First Lord Fairfax — A Family of 
Soldiers — The Great Fairfax — Crom- 
well’s Famous General — A Patriot as 
well as a Soldier — Lady Fairfax — Her 
Pluck — Buckingham’s Tribute — The 
Colepepper Alliance— Our Lord Fair- 
fax, the Sixth — Injustice Toward Him 
— Entangled in Love’s Meshes — Perfidy 
of His Betrothed— The Contract — A 
Romantic Episode — Departure for 
America — Bel voir — George William 
Fairfax and George Washington — Fair- 
fax the First Patron of Washington — 

The Young Surveyors — Greenway 
Court — Death of the Old Lord — Wash- 
ington's Respect — The Fairfax Succes- 
sors 465-481 

CHAPTER XXIV. — Berryville or Bat- 
tle-Town. — Early Nucleus of Battle- 
Town — The Great Road to Alexandria 
—Settlers from “Over the Rid-e” — 
Noted Advertisers — More about Gabriel 
Jones — Negro Harry Wanted — An Ad. 
Worth Preserving — Establishment of 
Berryville — Enlarged — The Trustee 
Form — Incorporation — Officers — Tiie 
Churches — Grace Episcopal — Baptist — 


. ' rfl t 



PAGE. | 

Presbyterian — Methodist Churches — 
Colored Churches — Green Hill Ceme- 
tery — Educational — Early Establish- 
ment of Schools, Public and Private — 
Clarke Courier — Societies — Officers — 
Manufactures, etc. — Courts — County 
Boards — Lawyers — Millwood, White 
Post and Boyce : 461-505 ! 

CHAPTER XXV. — The Great Civil 
War of 1SG1-G5. — The Underlying 
Causes of the Conflict — EarlyAnti-Slav- 
ery Sentiment and Action — The South 
on the Defensive — Culmination of 
Northern Encroachments — Election of 
a Sectional President — Proclamation 
of Emancipation — Acts of Self-protec- 
tion — Nothing Left but to Separate — 
Secession of South Carolina — Prepara- 
tions for War — The Valley to the Front 
— Occupation of Harper’s Ferry — Col. 
Thomas J. Jackson — Appearance of the 
Immortal “Stonewall” — Gen. Johnston 
in Command— The Women of the Val- 
ley — Stuart, the “Yellow Jacket” — A 
True Cavalier — Operations Around 
Martinsburg — Removal of the Engines 
— Fight at 'Falling Waters — At Win- 
chester — Johnston’s Brilliant Move- 
ment — Four Brave Valley Boys go to 
Their Death — Stonewall Jackson's 
Fearful March to Romney — Origin of 
the Soubriquet “Stonewall.” .505-520 I 

CHAPTER XXVI. — Operations in the 
Valley During 1602. — Banks Crosses 
the Potomac — Jackson Otters Battle, 
but is Ordered Back — Strategic Move- 
ments — Shields in Command — Battle 
of Kernstown — Jackson Retreats with 
a Small Loss — A Wounded Wolf — Stone- 
wall’s Wonderful Strategy — The Fight 

at McDowell — ‘‘Bank’s Races”— A 
Disgraceful Stampede of the Federal 
Forces — Marylander >\s\ Marylander — 
“Jackson’s Commissary,” Gen. Banks 
— -Port Republic and Cross Keys — Death 
of Gen. Turner Ashby — .His Gallantry, 
Courtliness and Humanity — Close of 
the Valley Campaign of 1862 — Jack- 
son’s Investment of Harper’s Ferry — 
Surrender of the Federal Forces— im- 
mense Stores Captured — The Sangui- 
nary Encounter at the Old Packhorse 
Ford— Closing Scenes of 1802 520-537 

j CHAPTER XXVII. — From 1863 Onward 
to tiie Collapse. — Ewell Surprises 
Milroy — Large Amount of Supplies 
and Prisoners — Gen. Rhodes makes a 
Capture at Martinsburg — Gen. Lee en- 
ters Maryland by way of the Lower 
Valley — Imboden’s Successful Affair 
at Charlestown— Capture of the Feder- 
al Garrison— Early Falls Back to the 
Valley — An Incident after the Battle 
of Winchester — Graphic Description by 
John F.sten Cooke — The Heroine still 
in V iaehester — The Valley Campaign 
of 1664 — Sheridan Appears on the Scene 
— Battle of Winchester — Early Falls 
Back to FLlier’s Hill — The Valley Dev- 
astated — Unprecedented Incendiarism 
and Pillage — The Confederate Com- 
mander Prepares a Surprise — Battle of 
Cedar Creek — Gen. Wright Robbed of 
Honors Justly Due Him — The True 
Story of Cedar Creek — New Facts — End 
of the Struggle, etc .537-556 

CEIAPTE R XXVI 1 1. — Gen e a logy and 
Biography 556-804 

INDEX 805-813 



Allen, David IT 

Baker, Henry S. . . . 

Baker, William B. .. 

Burton, James II . . 

Catlier, James 

Davenport, Braxton 
Glaize, George F. . . 

Graichen, F. A 









Holliday, F. W. M 77 

Lucas, Daniel B 839 

McGuire, Hugh 25 

Page, John E 473 

Shepherd, Ilenry E 389 

Smith, Gen. John 255 

Williams, Philip 59 


Carter Hall Frontispiece 

Harper’s Ferry 222 

Hollingsworth House 96 

Morgan’s Grave 143 

Old Chapel Cemetery 508 

Old Xorborne Church 440 

Residence of the late D. H. Allen 5‘02 

Wm. II. Leeman’s Commission . . 447 


► tf 

Lower Shenandoah Valley. 


I ! 


The Discoverer? of America — Raleigh’s Expedition — Tiie Origin of 
the Name Virginia — The London and Plymouth Companies— Lords 
II op ton and Colepepper — Settlement of Jamestown —Tobacco 
Introduced— A Sad Day— Some op Our Ancient Mothers— First 
General Assembly of the Commonwealth — Instructions to Gov. 
Wyatt— First Acts of Assembly — Counties Organized— Benjamin 
Symms— Berkeley’s Infamous Report— Frederick County Created — 
A Sparse Papulation— The Northern Neck of Virginia— History 
of the Culpepper-Fairfax Grant. 


b I 

« i ITHOUT entering into a detailed history of Virginia, a few 
prominent facts in relation to the early events leading up to 
the settlement of the Shenandoah Yalley will not only be interesting 
as an example of the steady and certain march of progress, but 
necessary for the better understanding of the matters herein con- 
tained. And even after the recital of the events connected with the 
counties forming the Lower Shenandoah Valley shall have been com- 
menced, it may be necessary to frequently diverge from the main cur- 
rent, in order to gather and make complete their annals, for much of 
the Colonial and Revolutionary history, as well as a large portion of 
the Civil War operations and incidents, so closely connect the counties 
of the Great Yalley that a suppression of anything not immediately 
associated with th^ section indicated would make this work frag- 
mentary, incomplete and unsatisfactory. Therefore an outline sketch 
of the earliest important movements toward the settlement of Vir- 
ginia, inclusive of several ancient documents and portions of docu- 
ments pertaining thereto, and never before appearing in a history of 
this section or of the State, will be given. 

The first discoverers of the American continent, at least from its 




oi br» 



eastern coast, were undoubtedly the Sea Rovers of the North, or 
Norse men, the early settlers of Iceland. The evidence is indisputa- 
ble, as Carlyle shows in his “Early Kings of Norway.” In one of 
the Sagas (the word meaning sayings) of the early chroniclers of 
Iceland, an account is given of a voyage to a strange and large land 
by Eric the Red, who from the description given touched at Baffin’s 
Bay, thence following down the coast touched land among other 
points at about Capes Henry and Charles, and as low as the Caro- 
linas and the southern cape of Florida. The Icelanders, during their 
long winters, wrote a great deal, and, it seems, very aceuratelv, for 
in other matters which they recorded they have been found, after 
investigation, to be entirely correct. 

That still earlier voyages to the Western continent along the 
Pacific coast were made and settlements effected centuries before Eric 
and his Sea- Wolves saw’ the wild-grapes along the coast of what is 

now 7 Rhode Island, is beyond question, for the splendid “ barbaric 
civilizations ” of the Aztecs and the Incas attest the fact. But the 
first practical discoverer of the land w r e now 7 so much love was Chris- 
topher Columbus, whom' circumstances ruthlessly robbed of the honor 
of conferring upon it his name, it being awarded to another, Americas 
Vespucius, a Florentine, notwithstanding the untiring zeal and exer- 
tion, the trials and sufferings of the immortal Genoese. Yet Colum- 
bus had not seen the continent proper until 1498, about one year 
after John Cabot and his son Sebastian had landed upon w 7 bat is now 
knowm as Newfoundland. This mariner, Cabot, an Italian, sailed 
under the patronage of King Henry VII., and having ranged the 
coast from Labrador to Florida, claimed the country in the name of 
the crown of England, in July, 1497. 

The entire eastern coast of the continent remained for many years, 
nominally only, in the possession of the English government, for not 
until 1584 did the crowm send out any expedition to take formal 
possession of the same. In that year, how r ever, Queen Elizabeth dis- 
patched her favorite, Sir Walter Raleigh, to the new domain, wdio 
arrived in Pamlico Sound, thence proceeded to Albemarle Sound, 
raised the English standard, thanked God for the conquest, returned 
to his royal mistress and gave such a glowing description of the 
country that the Virgin. Queen bestowed upon the beautiful virgin 
land, in attestation of her own unmarried state, the now honored and 
loved name — Virginia. 




Not until the year 1607 could any permanent settlement be made 
by the white man, although several efforts in that direction were 
inaugurated, but a number of enterprising and adventurous persons 
of London and Plymouth, England, at last petitioned the King, James 
I., to grant them charters for two companies to “possess and cultivate 
lands in America,” which w T as granted, the Letters Patent bearing 
date April 10, 1606, and the names of the corporations being The 
London Company and The Plymouth Company. The following first 
clause of the preamble to the charter is taken from Hening’s Statutes 
at Large, Vol. I: 

I, James, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. Whereas our loving and 
well-disposed subjects, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Somers, 
Knights, Richard Hackluit, Clerk, Prebendary of Westminster, and 
Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hanliam, and Raleigh Gilbert, Es- 
quires, William Parker, and George Popham, gentlemen, and divers 
others of our loving subjects, have been humble suitors unto us, that 
we would vouchsafe unto them our license, to make habitation, plan- 
tation, and to deduce a colony of sundry of our people into that part 
of America commonly called Virginia, either appertaining unto us, or 
which are not now actually possessed by any Christian prince or 
people, situate, lying and being all along the sea coasts, between four 
and thirty degrees of Northerly latitude from the Equinoctial line, 
and five and forty degrees of the same latitude, and in the main land 
between the same four and thirty and five and forty degrees, and the 
islands thereunto adjacent, or within one hundred miles of the coasts 

This magnificent empire v T as divided between the two companies, 
the first of which, composed of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, 
Richard Hackluit, and Edward-Maria Wingfield, and others, forming 
The London Company, sent Capt. Christopher Newport, with one 
hundred and five persons, to commence a settlement in what is now 
North Carolina. The vessel sailed December 20, 1606, but owing h> 
the circuitous route taken and adverse winds, they did not arrive until 
May, 1607, and not at their objective point, Roanoke Island, but 
instead, found themselves on a beautiful peninsula, which they had 
reached by way of a stream they named James River. And thus was 
founded the little colony of' Jamestown, the corner-stone of the most 
progressive, the most liberal, the most humane, and the grandest 
empire upon which the smile of the Creator has ever beamed. 

In consequence of the increased and vastly increasing responsibili- 





ties of the London Company, they surrendered their charter in the 
early part of 1609, and formed a larger company with enlarged pow- 
ers, which was given a charter by the King in May of that year. The 
new organization was entitled The Treasurer and Company of Advent- 
urers and Planters of the City of London for the first Colony in Vir- 
ginia. The incorporators and stockholders of this new company num- 
bered over twelve hundred, including a large proportion of the noblest 
names of the period in England, which names are found to-day in all 
parts of Virginia, and from that stock doubtless has arisen that race 
of Virginians which has given to the Old Dominion its reputation for 
courage, courtesy and hospitality. 

In addition to the two charters enumerated, King James, who seems 
to have been pretty free with his favors to favorites, in 1611-12 granted 
a third one covering the same territory, with increased numbers and 
powers, and naming as an additional stockholder “our trusty and well- 
beloved subject, George, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury,” the holy 
and thrifty prelate, possibly, having an eye on the good picking in 
the new colony or a worthy anxiety about the souls of the Indians, or 

Up to this year, 1611, the entire population was comprised in one 
colony, or settlement, and numbered about 700 souls, but at this time 
a separation, for purposes of convenience, was resolved upon, and those 
living farther up the river formed another colony, calling it Henrico , 
in honor of the King’s son. This was the first move on this continent 
toward the' formation of shires, or counties, for not until 1634 were 
the separate settlements, although they had grown in number to eight, 
recognized as such. In this year, 1611, were brought to America the 
first cows, goats and hogs, those animals not being native to this con- 
tinent. But the most important arrival was “twenty females,” the 
first white women who ever trod the soil, there being none in the col- 
ony up to that time, or at least no record of the fact. In 1611 tobacco 
(called by the Indians uppowoc ) was introduced at Jamestown from 
the West Indies, the weed originally growing upon those islands and 
no where else on the face of the globe, according to the best investi- 
gations of the subject. 

The first legislative assembly ever held in Virginia, was convened 
in June, 1619, by Sir George Yeardley, then governor of the colony, 
at which a number of acts were passed, some of which are preserved 
for the perusal of the curious in Hening’s Statutes at Large, \ ol. I. 




Historians state that another assembly was held in 1620, and still 
another in November and December, 1621. On the 24th of July, 1621, 
Sir Francis Wyatt received a commission as Governor, and with it a 
set of “Instructions,” a summary of which is as follows: 

“ To keep up religion of the church of England; to be obedient to 
the King; do justice; not injure the natives; forget old quarrels. 

“To be industrious: suppress drunkenness, gaming and excess in 
cloaths; to permit none but the council and heads of hundreds to wear 
gold in their cloaths ; none to wear silk till they make it. 

“Not to offend foreign princes; punish piracies; to teach children; 
to convert the heathen. 

“To make a catalogue of the people and their condition; of deaths, 
marriages, and christenings; to take care of estates; keep list of all 

“Not to plant above one hundred pounds of tobacco per head; to 
sow great quantities of corn; to keep cows, swine, poultry, Ac. ; to 
plant mulberry trees and make silk, and take care of the French men 
in that work; to plant an abundance of vines. 

“ To put prentices to trades, and not let them forsake their trades 
for planting tobacco, or any such useless commodity. 

“To take care of the Dutch sent to build mills; to build water- 
mills and block-houses in every plantation. 

“That all contracts be performed and breaches thereof punished; 
tenants not to be enticed away. 

“ To make salt, pitch, tar, soap, oil of walnuts, search for minerals, 
dyes, gums, &c., and send small quantities home. (England.) 

“ To make small quantities of tobacco, and that very good, and to 
keep the store houses clean. 

“To take care of Capt. William Norton and certain Italians sent 
to set up a glass house.” 

Then follows a number of instructions to Governor Wyatt’s officers 
and' others, and closing with the oath to be administered to the gover- 
nor himself. And thus began the first regular and systematic admin- 
istration of the law in "Virginia, and although the customs of the times, 
and the necessities of the occasion, demanded harsh measures, even 
bordering on barbarism, yet in the main the most of the enactments of 
these primitive legislatures were ordinarily just and humane, of course 
with a due allowance of leniency and favoritism toward those in whose 
veins was thought to run the blue blood of nobility. From these 



initial acts of over two hundred and fifty years ago have resulted a 
set of laws now within the statute books of Virginia that have no 
superiors and few equals in any country for intensity of justice and 
breadth of learning. 

Before proceeding to the organization of counties and the grant of 
the Northern Neck of Virginia, from which sprang, through successive 
development, • the now populous and productive Lower Shenandoah 
Valley, it will be interesting to many to peruse a few of the first re- 
corded acts of the first session whose proceedings appear in regular 
order and numbered from 1 to 35. The following are some of the 
most interesting: 

1. That there shall be in every plantation where the people use 
to rneete for the worship of God, a house or roome sequestred for that 
purpose, and not to be for any temporal use whatsoever, and a place 
empaled in, sequestered only to the burial of the dead. 

2. That whosoever shall absent himselfe from divine service any 
Sunday without an allowable excuse shall forfeite a pound of tobacco, 
and he that absenteth himselfe a month shall forfeit fifty pounds of 

3. That there be an uniformity in our church as neere as may be 
to the canonsfin England; both in substance and circumstance, and 
that all persons yield readie obedience unto them under paine of cen- 

4. Tlmt the 22d of March be yearly solemnized as a holiday, Ac. 

’ [This act was in relation to the escape of the colony from massacre 

by the Indians on March 22, 1622 . — Ed.J 

That no minister be absent from his church above two months in 
all the yeare upon penalty of forfeiting halfe his means, and whoso- 
ever shall absent above fowre months in the yeare shall forfeit liis 
whole means and cure. 

7. That no man dispose of his tobacco before the minister be sat- 
isfied, [paid] upon pain of forfeiture double his part of the minister’s 
means, and one man of every plantation to collect his means out of the 
first and best tobacco and corn. 

9. That the governor shall not withdraw the inhabitants from 
their private labors to any service of his own upon any colour what- 
soever, and in case the public service require ymployments of many 
hands before the holding a General Assembly to give order for the 
same^ Ac. 



14. For the encouragement of men to plant corne, the prise shall 
not be stinted, but it shall be free for every man to sell it as deere as 
he can. 

17. That all trade for corne with the salvages (Indians) as well 
publick as private after June next shall be prohibited. 

19. That the proclamations for swearing and drunkenness sett out 
by the governor and counsell are confirmed by this assembly. 

21. That the proclamation for the rates of commodities be still 
in force, and that there be some men in every plantation to censure the 

22. That there be no waights nor measures used but such as 
shall be sealed by officers appointed for that purpose. 

23. That every dwelling house shall be pallizaded in for defence 
against the Indians. 

24. That no man go or send abroad without a sufficient partie 
well armed. 

25. That men go not to worke in the ground without their arms 
(and a centinel upon them). 

26. That the inhabitants go not aboard ships or upon any other 
occasions in such numbers as thereby to weaken and endanger the 

28. That there be dew watch kept by night. 

30. That such persons of quality as shall be founde delinquent 
in their duties, being not fit to undergoer corporal punishment, may, 
notwithstanding, be ymprisoned at the discretione of the commander, 
and for greater offences to be subject to a ffine inflicted by the month- 
lie court, so that it exceed not the value aforesaid. 

32. That at the beginning of July next the inhabitants of every 
corporation shall fall upon their adjoining salvages as we did the last 
yeare, those that shall be hurte upon service shall be cured at the pub- 
lique charge; in case any be lamed to be maintained by the country 
according to his person and quality. 

34. That no person within this colony upon the rumor of sup- 
posed change and alteration, presume to be disobedient to the present 
government, nor servants to their private officers, masters or overseers, 
at their uttermost peril. 

In 1634 the entire country comprised in what was then known as 
Virginia was divided into eight shires, or counties, and to be governed 
as the shires of England were; Lieutenants to be appointed more 



especially to take care of those under them in their contests with the 
Indians. Sheriffs, sergeants and bailiffs, also, were to be appointed. 
Tiius began the more perfect subdivision of the country. In one of 
the acts passed by the Assembly in February, 1644-5, appears the 
name of Rappahannock, as applied to a district of country, and it is 
barely possible that it had been created a county by the governor 
and council without any note of it being made f,or a time by the bur- 
gesses, as was sometimes the case. In 1648, however, Act I of the 
Grand Assembly recites that “for the reducing of the inhabitants of 
Chickcoun and other parts of the Neck of land between Rappahannock 
river and Potoinack river be repealed, and that the said tract of land 
be hereafter called and knowne by the name of the county of North- 
umberland .” The reference in this quotation to the famous “ Northern 
Neck of Virginia” is the first upon record that the editor has been 
able to find. 

About this time, that is 1642, an act appears in Hening’s Stat- 
utes at Large, p. 252, that should immortalize the subject thereof, 
and who deserves a monument far more than the arrogant, despotic 
fawner-at-the-feet-of-royalty. Lord Berkeley,* whose infamous ideas on 
liberty and education are given below the following enactment, which 
was a confirmation of the testator’s will by the General Assembly: 


Passed March 1642-3. — 18th Charles I. 

Be it also enacted and confirmed upon consideration had of the 
godly disposition and goodly intent of Benjamin Symms , deed., in 
founding by his last will and testament a Free school in Elizabeth 
county, for the encouragement of all others in the like pious perform- 
ances, that the said will and testament with all donations therein 
contained concerning the free school and the situation thereof in the 
said county, and the land appurteining to the same, shall be confirmed 
according to the true meaning and godly intent of the said testator 
without any alienation or conversion thereof to any place or county. 

This is undoubtedly the first private bequest to the cause of edu- 
cation in the entire southern half of the country, if not the entire 
continent, and the name of the glorious old devisor should be kept 
green in the memory of all who love their fellow man. Contrast this 
act of grand old Benjamin Symms with the annexed ideas on the same 
subject of Lord Berkeley, thirty years later. His lordship, who was 

‘This was not Norborne Berkeley, Baron cle Botetourt, who was governor of Virginia a few 
years prior to the American Revolution, and who was known as the “ good Governor Berkeley.” 




then Governor of Virginia, had addressed to him a series of questions 
from Charles II. , through his commissioners, in regard to the state of 
the colony in Virginia. To the twenty-third conundrum propounded, 
which was in relation to “instructing the people, religion, ministry, 
etc.” this peculiar man closed his reply as follows: 

“ But I thank God, there are no free schools nor printing , and I 
hope we shall not have these hundred years ; for learning has brought 
disobedience, and heresy, and sects into the world, and printing has 
divulged them, and libels against the best government. God keep us 
from both.” 

Another important event happened about this time. In 1615 
coined money was introduced by act of the Grand Assembly, all cur- 
rency up to this time being “tobacco,” which was the standard of 
value — -so many pounds of tobacco bought so much of anything else. 
In 1652 Lancaster county was formed, Westmoreland in 1658, and 
Bappahannock in 1656. In 1659 the notorious act for the “ suppres- 
sion of Quakers ” was passed. Vessel masters were prohibited from 
bringing them to the colony, and when one of that faith was caught 
he was imprisoned and sent out of the country; if he returned he was 
treated still more severely, and again sent away, but if he returned 
the third time he was treated as a felon and executed with the prompt- 
itude that distinguished our forefathers in such matters. In 1692 
Bappahannock county was divided, and Bichmond county formed from 
that portion north of the Bappahannock river, and that south of the 
river to be called Essex. An act for the “ establishment of a p>os/ 
office in the country ” v r as passed in March, 1692-3, and in October 
of the same year an act for “ascertaining the place for erecting the 
College of William and Mary,” the first college on the American con- 
tinent. It is supposable that had the Bt. Hon. Lord Berkeley been 
then living that he would have put his official foot fiat down on that 
educational scheme, but despots drop beneath the scythe of Old Time, 
as well as other mortals, and his lordship had passed to his reward 
many years before. 

Having given in brief some of the most important events that led 
to the settlement of the state east of the Blue Bidge mountains, the 
progress made and the movements westward brings the writer to the 
period when the division of the territory led to the formation of the 
counties of the Great Valley. Accordingly, in 1720, the General 
Assembly passed an act for the erection of the counties of Spottsyl- 




vania and Brunswick, the preamble of which and that portion relating 
to Spottsyivania are here given: 

PREAMBLE, That the frontiers towards the high mountains are 
exposed to danger from the Indians, and the late settlements of the 
French to the westward of the said mountains, 

Enacted , Spottsyivania county bounds upon Snow creek up to 
the Mill, thence by a southwest line to the river, North Anna, thence 
up the said river as far as convenient, and thence by a line to be run 
over the high mountains to the river on the northwest side thereof, so 
as to include the northern passage thro’ the said mountains, thence 
down the said river till it comes against the head of Rappahan- 
nock, thence by a line to the head of Rappahannock, and down 
that river to the mouth of Snow creek; which tract of land from the 
first of May, 1721, shall become a county, by the name of Spottsyi- 
vania county. 

This immense county, named in honor of the then governor, Alex- 
ander Spottswood, included, in addition to the territory within the 
bounds stated in the act lying east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, all 
of the fertile region now known as the Shenandoah Talley from the 
Potomac to the southern limits of what is now Augusta county, and 
extending westward to the uttermost limits, which meant as far as the 
English could carry their conquering flag, for the French had extend- 
ed their settlements along the Mississippi. In 1734 another division 
occurred. Spottsyivania was divided and its northern half erected 
into the county of Orange, as will be seen by the following act of the 
General Assembly, passed in August of the year stated: 

WHEREAS divers inconveniences attend the upper inhabitants of 
Spottsyivania county, by reason of their great distance from the court 
house and other places, usually appointed for public meetings, Be it 
therefore enacted, Ac., that from and immediately after the first day 
of January, now next ensuing, the said county of Spottsyivania be 
divided, by the dividing line, between the parish of St. George, and 
the parish of St. Mark; and that that part of the said county, which is 
now the parish of St. George, remain, and be called, and known by the 
name of Spottsyivania county ; and all that territory of land, adjoining 
to, and above said line, bounden southerly by the line of Hanover 
county, northerly, by the grant of Lord Fairfax, and westerly, by the 
utmost limits of Virginia, be thenceforth, erected into one distinct 
county, and be called and known by the name of the county of Orange. 

Four years later than the above date, 1734, the county of Frederick 
was created by ay act passed in November, 1738, the district compris- 
ing what is now Shenandoah, a portion of Page, Warren, Fred- 




•©rick, Clarke, Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan, and the counties ex- 
actly westward of this section. Previous to the erection of Orange 
county the portion of the Yalley comprised in this work, the Lower 
Shenandoah Yalley, had so few inhabitants other than the Indians 
that it was not taken into consideration. Just think of that for a 
moment! This wonderful valley, one of the richest spots on the face 
•of the earth, with its vast mineral and agricultural wealth, its teeming 
busy thousands, only one hundred and fifty years ago not thought 
worthy to be even accounted a portion of the county. The act of 
1738 is as follows: 

WHEKBAS great numbers of people have settled themselves of 
late, upon the rivers of Sherrando,* Cohongoruton,*)* and Opeckon, 
and the branches thereof, on the northwest side of the Blue ridge of 
mountains, whereby the strength of this colony, and its security upon 
the frontiers, and his majesty’s revenue of quit-rents, are like to be 
much increased and augmented: For giving encouragement to such as 
shall think fit to settle there, 

Be ii enacted, c See., That all that territory and tract of land, at 
present deemed to be a part of the county of Orange, lying on the 
northwest side of the top of the said mountains, extending from thence 
northerly, westerly, and southerly, beyond the said mountains, to the 
utmost limits of Yirginia, be separated from the rest of the said 
county, and erected into two distinct counties and parishes; to be 
•divided by a line to be run from the head spring of Hedgman river 
to the head spring of the river Potowmack: And that all that part of 
the said territory, lying to the northeast of the said line, beyond the 
top of the said Blue ridge, shall be one distinct county, and parish; 
to be called by the name of the county of Frederick, and parish of 
Frederick; and that the rest of the said territory, lying on the other 
side of the said line, beyond the top of the said Blue ridge, shall be 
•one other distinct county, and parish ; to be called by the name of the 
county of Augusta, and parish of xVugusta. 

It was also enacted that the new counties should remain a part of 
the county of Orange till it should appear to the governor and council 
that there were enough inhabitants for appointing justices of the 
peace and other officers, and for erecting courts for the administration 
of justice. Five years elapsed from the passage of the act till the 
population was sufficient to justify the appointment of the necessary 
officials for the conduct of public business, as the records show that 
the first court in Frederick was held in November, 1713. The organi- 

*SlieDandoali. tFotomac. 



zation of this court, the names of its officers and the incidents accom- 
panying that event will be deferred to another chapter. 

For the better understanding of the situation of matters (espe- 
cially in regard to land titles) in Frederick at the time of the organi- 
zation, an account of what is known as the “ Fairfax Grant ” will be 
in place at this juncture, for Frederick, it will be remembered, then, 
and until 1772, comprised the entire section known as the Lower 
Shenandoah Valley, which was a considerable portion of that immense 
grant, the famous Northern Neck of Virginia. 

For many years succeeding the settlement at Jamestown grants or 
charters were made to persons in England, generally favorites of the 
sovereigns, for tracts of land in the New World, and among those so 
granted was one that was afterward known as the tract of the Northern 
Neck of land in Virginia, the history of which is as follows: At 

or about the beginning of the reign of Charles the Second, whose 
father Charles the First was beheaded by order of Cromwell in 1649, 
a party of gentlemen applied for a grant to the tract named and their 
desires were acceded to, and to confirm the same the grant was re-is- 
sued and made more explicit in the twenty-first year of the same mon- 
arch, Charles II. The parties receiving this princely gift -were 
“Italph, Lord Hopton; Henry, Earl of St. Albans, by the then name 
of Henry, Lord Jermyn; John, Lord Culpepper; John, Lord Berkeley, 
of Stratton, by the name of Sir John Berkeley; Sir William Morton, 
one of the Justices of the Court of King’s Bench, by the then name 
of Sir William Morton; Sir Dudley Wyatt; and Thomas Culpepper.” 
They were given, as the record states, “their heirs and assigns for- 
ever, all that entire tract, territory, or parcel of land situate, lying, 
and being in America, and bounded within the head of the rivers 
Fiappahannock and Quiriough or Patomack rivers, the courses of said 
rivers as they are commonly called and known by the inhabitants, and 
descriptions of those parts, and Chesapeak bay, together with the 
rivers themselves, and all the islands within the banks of those rivers, 
and all woods, underwoods, timber, trees, streams, creeks, mines, Ac., 
Ac.” The above named grantees in the course of time having either 
died or sold their interests, the property passed into the possession of 
Henry, Earl of St. Albans; John, Lord Berkeley; Sir William Mor- 
ton, and John Tretheway, and these gentlemen, in turn, conveyed 
their rights in the grant to Thomas, Lord Culpepper, eldest son and 
heir of John, Lord Culpepper. Now this “ Thomas, Lord Cul- 




pepper,” had an only daughter who married the young “ Thomas, Lord 
Fairfax, Baron of Cameron, in that part of Great Britain called Scot- 
land,” and the old gentleman (Culpepper) having died, left the young 
Lord Fairfax in possession of the richest tract of land on this conti- 
nent. Thus it was that came about the term “ Fairfax Grant,” but it 
was not a Fairfax grant, simply an inheritance by marriage, yet one 
that held just the same, and the son of that Lord Fairfax not only got 
all out of it he could, but tried to get more, as will be shown farther 

It is thought, and with good reason, that the original grant only 
contemplated the section of country in the Neck east of the Blue 
Ptidge mountains, as the slender geographical knowledge of this con- 
tinent and its vastness led all to suppose that the Bivens Bnppahan- 
nock and Potomac had their head-waters in the Blue Bidge; but a 
few thousand square miles of land did not make any difference to a 
king when he was giving away farms, that cost him nothing, to his 
friends, and it is altogether probable that if Lord Hopton ct al had 
requested that the grant should extend from the Chesapeake to sun- 
down the generous monarch would have so ‘‘nominated it in the bond.” 
But Lord Fairfax, who had an eye to business, discovering that the 
Potomac headed in the Alleghany mountains, went to England and 
instituted suit for extending his grant to the head spring of the Po- 
tomac, and his suit being successful, with certain conditions, it gave 
him what are now Page, Shenandoah, Warren, Clarke, Fredericks 
Berkeley, Jefferson, Morgan, Hardy and Hampshire counties, in ad- 
dition to the section east of the Bidge now known as Lancaster, North- 
umberland, Bichmond, Westmoreland, Stafford, King George, Prince 
William, Fairfax, Alexandria, Loudoun, Fauquier, Culpeper and 
Madison. The “ certain conditions” mentioned were that the exten- 
sion of the grant should not interfere with any grants made by the 
General Assembly of Virginia, and confirmed by the Crown, for that 
body had already granted to various parties large tracts of land in the 
Valley, which confirms the idea that it was generally the impression 
that the grant of Charles II. only included the section as above stated 
east of the Bidge. Notwithstanding this stipulation of the Court of 
King’s Bench, Fairfax endeavored to dispossess those who held land 
through the colonial government, and especially did he fight in the 
courts the claim of one of tne first settlers of this section. 






Geology'— Its Application to Agriculture— Theory on the Origin of 
Matter— Nature’s Great Forces — Pre-iiistoric Life — Outlines of 
Geological 'Study— “A Question of Rocks ” — Topography and- 
Boundaries— The Quiriough— Fertility of tiie Valley — Mineral 
Resources — Timber — The Garden of Virginia — Splendor of the 
Scenery'— What the Valley Originally was — And What It Now is. 

A LTHOUGH the matter has been until a very recent date, and is 
still to a large degree, ignored, yet the fact is gaining greater 
weight with every day, all over the civilized world, that the geology 
of a country is the most important feature to the inhabitants of that 
country, for within the crust of the earth lie all the elements of 
.wealth that man may enjoy in this world. 

The soil, as the result of rock-disintegration, is the great depos- 
itory of all the wealth within the possible grasp of man ; not only 
mineral, but vegetable and animal, as well. Upon the geological 
structure of a country depend the pursuits of its inhabitants. Agri- 
culture is the outgrowth of a fertile soil, mining results from mineral 
resources, and as a consequence commerce and all the industries which 
produce it, springs from those two sources. The permanent effect 
of the soil upon the populations that subsist through the products of 
that soil is as strong and inevitable as upon the vegetation that also 
springs from it. It is a maxim in geology that the soil and its under- 
lying rocks forecast to the trained eye the character of the inhabitants, 
their number, and the quality of the civilization of those who will in 
the coming time occupy it. Indeed, so close are the relations between 
man and geology that the law is plain and fixed that a new country 
may have its outlines of history written, wheu first looked upon, 
and it is not, as many suppose, one of those deep, abstruse subjects, 
that must be relegated to a few investigators and thinkers, whilst tcfthe 
practical masses it shall be as a sealed book. The youth of the country 
may learn the important outlines of geology, and apply the inevitable 
laws of that science thereby obtained to their own localities, with no 





more trouble than to master the multiplication table ; nor need they be 
possessed of any extraordinary attainments other than those required' 
to understand a few of the technicalities of the study, which they will 
find as entertaining as profitable. To educate the son of the average 
farmer usually means to send him off to college and give him what 
is termed a classical education, and he returns to his home, perhaps 
as a graduate, yet as incapable, except in rare instances, of telling the 
geological story of his father’s farm as any of the “hands” engaged 
thereon. Of how much more practical value would it have been had 
this youth dropped his “political economy” and a few theoretical 
studies, and taken up in earnest the analyzation of soils, and learned 
to hammer out the geological history of the rocks upon the farm where 
he was born! A few lessons during his collegiate course would have 
enabled this young gentleman to comprehend how the soil was formed, 
from what it originated, what it contained, and what it lacked to bring 
it up to full productiveness. He would realize that every step in 
farming is a purely scientific operation and that the better the matter 
is understood, the better will be the class of farming. 

Tim science of geology makes a stride backward in the physical 
history of the planet we inhabit to a point considered by man as the 
“ beginning,” yet which is, possibly, as far from the beginning as is the 
incomprehensible End to the Now, for to the Creator a million years is 
as a day. Geology digs down into the crust of the earth and traces 
through successive stages of development the history of this rolling 
ball to its rudimental condition in a state of fusion. The theory has 
come to be almost generally accepted that the sun and its planetary 
system were originally a common mass, “without form and void,” the 
planets became detached at the creation whilst in a gaseous state, and 
being separated from the grand central mass of heat, cooled and finally 
crystalized lpon their surfaces. Thus the earth began to write its 
own histor upon the imperishable rocks, where the geologist may go 
and read the strange, eventful story. The earth as a wheeling ball of 
fire, set in motion by the Omnipotent, having eventually cooled at the 
surface, and formed a crust in the slow process of time, prepared the 
way for animal and vegetable life. In its center intense heat and fierce 
flames still rage with undiminished vigor. Volcanoes are outlets for 
these deep-seated fires, where are generated those inconceivable forces, 
illustrated by a column of molten rock (lava) thrown to a height of 
over 10,000 feet above the crater whence it issued, and which has 



caused upheavals within a few years past that have destroyed hundreds 
of thousands of lives, as in the case of Java; laid waste one of the 
loveliest spots on earth. Ischia, in the bay of Naples ; and sent conster- 
nation and ruin to hundreds in South Carolina. The amount of lava 
ejected at a single eruption from one of the volcanoes of Iceland would 
cover a space of ground ten miles square, and as high as the tallest 
peak of the Rocky Mountains. Our world is still in process of con- 
gealing, and has been through untold ages, yet the crust is estimated 
to be only about thirty or forty miles in thickness. The globe being 
25,000 miles in circumference, and its diameter, as per consequence, 
about 8,333 miles, deduct forty miles from the last figures, and then 
try to realize in what close proximity man is to the seething, boiling 
mass of metal and stone of over 8,000 miles in diameter. The condi- 
tions are about the same as the shell of an egg and its contents. Is 
it any Avonder, then, that this molten mass occasionally breaks through 
the crust? Is it not more wonderful that man is here at all? Yet he 
is here, and has, seemingly, almost penetrated the great secret of “ orig- 
inal origin.” In the silent depths of the rocks he has delved and 
dragged to the light the skeletons of living organisms of ages, so re- 
mote that to think of them bewilders the mind. Those fossil remains 
are fragments of history, which enable the geologist to extend his 
researches into that immeasurable past and not only determine their 
former modes of life, but to study the contemporaneous history of their 
rocky sepulchres, and group them into systems. Such was the pro- 
fusion of life that the great limestone formations of the globe consist 
almost entirely of organic remains, and the soil of a considerable por- 
tion of the earth originated from them by disintegration and erosion. 
The same process is now going on. First, as nourishment it enters 
into the structure of plants, forming vegetable tissue; passing thence 
as food into the animal, it becomes endowed with life, and when death 
occurs it returns to Mother Earth, whence it sprung, and adds fertility 
to the soil. 

There are two kinds of rocks, forming two systems, and are known 
respectively as stratified and unstratified , the former having been 
produced by sedimentary action, that is, organic or animal life, and 
other matter, being deposited at the beds of oceans or streams; and 
the latter formed by the action of intense heat. These two systems 
are called, also, for convenience igneous and sedimentary. They are 
further distinguished as crystalline and uncrystalline, and the reader 



can better understand these distinctions when it is stated that the 
action of fire produced the crystalline, whilst water was principally the 
agent in forming the uncrystalline. A magnifying glass of even small 
power will show r the difference between the twx> classes. Take, for 
instance, a bit of gneiss or granite and you will see well defined crys- 
tals; then examine a piece of ordinary, or better still, fossiliferous 
limestone, and you will see the skeletons, or shells, of innumerable 
marine organisms, that lived and moved at the beds of primeval 
oceans. These two systems are composed of four great divisions, viz: 
Eozoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The lowest division, the 
Eozoic, v r liich signifies dawn of life , was formerly known as Azoic, 
meaning without life , and so called from the fact that no traces of life 
could be found in it ; it w T as supposed to be, and no doubt is, the base 
of all the accumulations above it, and the roof or shell inclosing the 
internal fires, being the first crust formed after the gaseous, or semi- 
liquid globe began to cool ; it is composed of primitive gneiss and 
granite. Comparatively recent researches, hov T ever, have revealed the 
fact that even in this oldest of all uncovered things traces of life are 
to be- found, and consequently the term Azoic had to be changed to 
Eozoic. This division consists of four subdivisions: First, Lauren- 
tian, from the fact that its principal outcroppings are along the St, 
Lawrence river, and consists mostly of granitoid gneiss. Second, 
Huronian, or Green ^Mountain, and outcrops as imperfect gneisses along 
the shores of our great upper lakes. Third, Montalban, or White 
Mountain, with outcroppings at the mountains after which it is named, 
and consists of gneisses, but lithologically dissimilar from the Lau- 
rentian gneisses. Fourth, Norian, or Labradorian, so called from its 
principal outcroppings being of Labrador feldspar. The second divis- 
ion, the Palaeozoic, is subdivided into five groups, knowm as the Cam- 
brian (lower, middle and upper); Silurian; Devonian; Carboniferous, 
and Permian. In the Permian occurs the magnesian limestone of 
the western States, and in the Carboniferous the coal measures, the 
millstone-grits and the beautiful fossiliferous limestones, as well as the 
limestones of this valley. The third division, the Mesozoic, is com- 
posed of three groups: Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous, consisting 

of what are known as secondary rocks, sandstones, shales, and some- 
times overlaid by fossiliferous limestones. The fourth great division 
is the Cenozoic, or recent formations, and consists of glacial drift, peat 
bogs, alluvial deposits, and ordinary soil, varying in character as the 
underlying rocks vary. 


hat U s* 




From the rocks of a given section, as has been said, spring animal 
as well as vegetable excellence, and a clever illustration of that fact 
was enunciated by the late eminent Prof. Agassiz, who, in reply to 
the question of a horse-breeder desirous of obtaining the professor’s 
opinion as to the best mode, scientifically, of producing high-class 
stock, said, “It is entirely a question of rocks.” A substantial con- 
firmation of this theory lies in the fact that the. Blue Grass region of 
Kentucky produces a breed of horses that outstrip the world for speed 
and endurance. The physical structure of the Kentucky thorough- 
bred is much finer than the horse of other sections, and an examina- 
tion of the bone of the former shows it to be almost as ivory in com- 
pactness as compared to the bone of the Conestoga and other low-bred 
horses. The soil of the Blue Grass region is a peculiar limestone, 
and all of its products are of the best. The reason is apparent. 

The foregoing remarks lead to the fact that limestone is the soil, 
par excellence, that produces the best results in almost everything — 
health, fertility, size, strength, and even personal courage; that is, a 
courage that comes from conviction, and not from brute instinct, which 
is inherent in the savage, prompted by his mode of life for self- 
preservation. The Shenandoah Y alley, and particularly the counties 
forming the section comprised in this work, has been overlooked by 
the State authorities in the matter of geology, and there is almost 
nothing of any consequence in print in regard to its resources in this 
respect, save what has been embodied in the pamphlets and descriptive 
circulars of the land companies of the various counties, but that there 
is a wide field for the speculative as well as the operative geologist its 
wondrous mountain formations and rich valleys attest. The hills of 
this section contain much that is not only interesting to the investi- 
gator, but will some day, when sufficient capital and the proper appli- 
ances are brought to bear, bring immense revenues to the inhabitants 
of this region. 

The Lower Shenandoah Valley, for the purposes contemplated in 
this work, comprises the counties of Frederick and Clarke, Va., and 
Berkeley and Jefferson, TY.Va., and extends, roughly stated, from Cedar 
Creek on the south to the Potomac on the north, and from the Blue 
Bulge mountains on the east to the North mountain on the -west. 
The mean length of the section is about forty-three miles, and the 
moan width about twenty-nine miles. More definitely stated, Fred- 
erick is twenty-eight miles long and eighteen wide; Clarke, seventeen 






miles long and fifteen wide; Berkeley, twenty-tliree miles long and 
thirteen wide; Jefferson, twenty-two miles long and twelve wide. It 
is abundantly watered, being bounded and enclosed on three of its 
sides by three of the most beautiful streams of water on the continent. 
Along the northern border flows the historic Potomac, a stream which 
for romantic beauty, where nature has been exceedingly lavish in ac- 
cording her charms of wood and rock, has no superior anywhere. The 
Potomac has borne several names. From the Chesapeake bay to its 
junction with the Shenandoah Hirer at Harper’s Ferry, it was called 
when the white man first settled at Jamestown (or at least the white 
man so named it), the Paw-taw-mak, in consequence of the tribe of 
Indians of that name living along that stream. That portion of it 
west of the junction at Harper’s Ferry was called by the Indians 
Cohongoruton or Cohongoluta. It was known by still another name, 
for in the grant of the Northern Neck by Charles the Second, as 
recited in the confirmatory act of the General Assembly of Virginia in 
1736, it is called Quiriough, but just where Charles, or his petitioners,, 
obtained that queer title is not now known. This last name appears 
no where else than in the Fairfax grant, so far as the writer has been 
able to ascertain. Along the eastern border of these counties flows 
the picturesque and brawling Shenandoah, as it comes tumbling and 
foaming over rocks and ledges and fallen trees. This stream was 
originally called and written Oerando, then Sherando, then Shanadore, 
until by that strange process of change in nomenclature, it came to be 
known as Shenandoah, but just how and when “the deponent sayeth 
naught.” On the southern border flows the also historic stream, Cedar 
creek, which Buchanan Bead has almost immortalized in his poem 
commemorating the famous ride of Sheridan when he managed to 
reach his command, which had been reformed after having been 
hurled back by Early, in time to participate in the final victory. This 
stream, heading in the Little North mountain, makes its way with 
many a twist and turn to the Shenandoah river, having watered with 
its tributaries all the upper portion of Frederick county. The Ope* 
quon creek, which rises a few miles to the southeast of Winchester,, 
flows eastward a short distance, and, taking a sudden turn northward,, 
pursues its course through the “slate formation,” until it enters the 
Potomac several miles east of Martinsburg. This stream, the Ope- 
quon, it is claimed by several historians, has the honor of having had 
upon its banks the first settler who came to the valley of Virginia, but 



which is a mistake, as the present writer will endeavor to show farther 
along. The northwestern portion of Berkeley and a portion of Fred- 
erick are also watered by Tuscarora, Mill and Back creeks. There 
are a number of smaller creeks, including the Bullskin in Clarke, 
Abraham’s creek at Winchester, and other tributaries of the main 
water courses. The country abounds in springs, some of the largest 
on the continent, and there are a number of mineral springs of the 
highest value, whose curative waters annually draw hundreds of 
persons from all sections of the country. Several of these resorts 
are most elegantly and conveniently arranged for the accommodation 
of the public, and present attractions for health and pleasure that have 
given them a world- wide reputation. The medicinal springs are of all 
grades and colors of sulphur, white, black, blue, yellow and gray; there 
are also chalybeate and other waters. The general geological formation 
being limestone, there are numerous caves throughout the entire sec- 
tion, some of them of most wondrous beauty and size. 

Geologically considered, this valley is placed in the Carboniferous, 
or fourth group of the Palaeozoic, or second subdivision of the two 
great systems into which the crust of the earth is divided. It also 
partakes in part of the Cambrian and Silurian epochs. This geolog- 
ical period, or strata, gives the coal measures and the gray, or blue 
limestone, which affords from its disintegration the soil whereon man 
in all portions of the world has been enabled to produce the finest 
crops of all the most useful and most nourishing of the gifts of Mother 
Earth — wheat, corn, oats, and the hardy fruits and vegetables. Al- 
though from the Massanutton mountain to the Potomac the soil is as 
a rule limestone, yet there are ledges of shoal rock, and a singular 
outcropping of slate. This slate upheaval varies in width from two to 
six miles, and extends from the northern end of the Fort mountain 
. to the Potomac. The Opequon, with the exception of a few miles 
eastward from where it rises in the Little North mountain, follows 
this slate country, and in all its sinuosities never leaves it till it emp- 
ties into the Potomac. The geological explanation of this singular 
freak of nature (one, by the way, that is very rare) is, that at some 
period in the remote past the Massanutton, or Fort mountain, contin- 
ued northward from where it appears to-day so abruptly broken oil 
above Strasburg; and that some grand upheaval of the earth swept 
away this lower portion of the elevation, leaving the slate base as we 
now see it. The theory is not only plausible, but forces itself upon 




the mind, when the structure of the Fort mountain is examined. The 
width of the slate formation and the general width of the range of 
hills named are the same, whilst at the base of the peak, which is so 
prominent an object going southward from Winchester, the slate strata 
correspond exactly with those all the way along for forty-five miles. 
In fact, this swept-away range doubtless extended far to the north- 
ward, for across in Maryland they have what they cal] the “ slate 
hills,” a section that is not as good for farming as their other lands; 
and even up through Pennsylvania the slate ledges continue. Those 
slate lands in the Lower Shenandoah Yalley have been highly culti- 
vated and upon them are some excellent farms. All the rest is pure 
gray limestone soil, extremely fertile, and especially in Jefferson and 
Clarke counties, the soil has been pronounced, and the results have 
shown for the past hundred years, that this section has no equal in 
the same space for richness and productiveness. 

That there is great mineral wealth in the mountains throughout 
this entire section is not a matter of mere speculation, for investiga- 
tion and the practical opening of a number of mines of different kinds 
have given a glimpse of the possibilities that are in store for those 
who will reach forth and reap the harvest. It has been said by scien- 
tific experts that there is enough iron ore of the most superior quality 
in the mountains of this section from the Potomac to the Fort mount- 
ain to supply the world for all time to come, and that it is susceptible 
of easier working, as it lies nearer the surface, than the deposits of 
Pennsylvania or Alabama. Only to a very limited extent have the 
mines already opened been worked, yet considerable quantities are 
shipped to Pennsylvania furnaces. The ores are various, as not only 
have large deposits of brown oxides, carbonates and black bands been 
found, but brown and red hematites, which give the best results, being 
much richer. Coal, to a certain extent, lias been mined, but appliances 
have been lacking to make the efforts in that direction entirely suc- 
cessful. In the western portion of Berkeley county, however, fine 
veins of true anthracite have been known and worked to a limited ex- 
tent for many years. This new T anthracite field is destined in the not 
distant future to yield handsome returns. Geologists and experienced 
mining operators have pronounced this Berkeley anthracite vein to be 
a continuation of the anthracite deposits of Pennsylvania. Copper 
and lead have also been found and w r orked to a limited extent, and 
indications of silver have been reported. Hick mines of manganese 




have been worked for man}" years, and umbers and ochres are worked 
with profit. The finest building stone is to be found everywhere, and 
the most of the fossiliferous limestone is susceptible of the highest 
polish, whilst the lime produced is of the best quality, containing 
little or no magnesia. Clays of all varieties are in abundance, and 
there are found in several localities what is thought to be a genuine 
“fuller’s earth.” All varieties of timber are here found in inexhaust- 
ible quantities: oak, hickory, ash, walnut, maple, poplar, beech, birch, 
white pine, cherry, spruce, hemlock, linden, etc. — the mountains from 
base to summit being covered with them. 

The Shenandoah Valley has been very aptly termed the “ Garden 
of Virginia,” for the happy mean of its climate makes it a most desir- 
able place for the residence of man. The warmth of its summers is 
modified by the cool mountain breezes, whilst the chilling breath of 
winter is tempered by the sheltering arms of these same mountains, 
and their proximity always assures, during the most heated terms, 
abundant refreshing rains. It has been compared favorably with the 
climate of California, but it has the salubrity and evenness of the 
Pacific coast region, without its drawbacks of “dust and dampness” — 
all rain or none at all. The rains of this section fall in season, and 
the snows of winter are gradually melted and flow down into the val- 
leys to bring fertility to the soil and freshness to the landscape. To 
realize what this valley is as far as the mind can comprehend through 
sight, one should take a position on an elevated spur of the Blue 
Bidge and facing westward drink in the beauties of this modern Ar- 
cadia. Whilst breathing the pure fresh air of the mountains cast 
your eyes upon the impressive scene that lies before you. Below 
gleam the pellucid waters of the many streams, skirted by tall trees 
with drooping foliage; the chamoedaphnes in’ full bloom, and burden- 
ing the air with their fragrance; the mighty forests and smiling fields 
that lie in almost endless expanse, distance lending to the landscape 
the effect of the most carefully kept garden. Far away to the right 
and left, glinting and gleaming in the sunlight, winds and brawls 
the beautiful Shenandoah; here and there hid by the foliage over- 
reaching its bright waters; anon appearing as some huge silvery ser- 
pent; again concealed by a sweep of the mountains; and still beyond 
it seems diminished to a shining thread. In front of you across the 
valley are stupendous mountain ranges, all clothed in luxuriant verd- 
ure, at places curving far into the plain, and at those places and at 



the summits, bathed in a sea of golden light; at others, receding, 
thrown into dark, sombre, forbidding shades. Beyond are mountains 
piled on mountains like an uptossed ocean of ridges, until they melt 
away in clouds and distance, imagination fancying others still farther 
on. High in the blue ether float clouds of snowy whiteness, and far 
above them, in majestic flight, sails the bird of the mountain, with an 
air as wild, as free, as the spirit of liberty. Everything seems to be 
rejoicing. Innumerable songsters are warbling sweetest music, and 
wild flowers, with scarce the morning dew from off their lips, are 
opening their bright petals to the wooing sun; whilst even the tiny 
insects, flitting through the air, join in the universal sense of over- 
powering delight! These grandest scenes of nature are within a few 
hours’ ride by rail of our busiest cities, yet there are thousands to 
whom these glories are as unknown as the wilds of Africa. Xo won- 
der, then, that when the savage had by decreasing numbers made it 
comparatively safe for the white man to take up his abode here, that 
numerous adventurous spirits cut their way through the wilderness 
and forded raging streams to plant their cabins upon this virgin soil. 
But it was not then what it is now, in many respects. There were no 
comfortable habitations; no stores from which to get supplies; no 
physician in case of sickness; no schools; no churches; no roads that 
could be called such, only narrow Indian trails; none, or very little, 
of those comforts of life that now make our civilization the best the 
world has ever witnessed. The entire face of the country was covered 
with tall grass, so tall that one on horseback could tie it across the 
saddle. This prairie condition not only existed in the valleys, but ex- 
tended to the tops of the mountains, and along the hillsides grew in 
abundance pea vines, which afforded the best of food for cattle and 
even horses. There was no timber, or at least very little, with the 
exception of narrow fringes along the water courses. The deer, the 
elk, and even the buffalo roamed and fed on the rich grasses, and the 
streams were alive with fish and aquatic animals. 

j ; ' 





The Ancient Aborigines— Theories of Tiieir Origin— Their Vast Antiq- 
uity— Were They Autochthons?— The Conquering Mound Build- 
ers— TnuiR Stupendous Works— Their Numbers and Their Retreat 
Westward— The MontezumAs and the Incas — The Z unis— The Indian 
as A Savage— The Borderers— The, and Cornstalk— I n_ 
dian Conflicts— Indian Settlements— Shawnee Spring and Cabins— 
Character of the Indian— His Manners, Customs, Habits, Dress 
Amusements and Religion. 

A S heretofore stated, when the first white settlers entered the val- 
jL~1 L ley of the Shenandoah the Indian reigned in absolute suprem- 
acy, and had doubtless for centuries lived and hunted and fought and 
died in this splendid country. How long he had inhabited this region 
undisturbed is now a matter lost to conjecture, even, but that he had 
been disturbed is beyond peradventure, and by a race of people far 
higher than himself in the scale of primitive humanity, and whose 
origin is as far beyond the scrutiny of the present dwellers on the 
earth as is that misty Past whereof we 3aiow naught save that it 
teas. That this prehistoric race- — these antagonists of the ancient abo- 
rigines — the so-called Mound Builders, were a superior people to the 
Indian, the numerous works they left, many of which are extant to- 
day, amply attest. 

There are theories and theories in regard to the origin of the Red 
Indians. Some place them far back in the conjectural history of the 
world; others affirm that they are the lineal descendants of two of the 
“lost tribes” of Israel; still others argue that in consequence of cer- 
tain apparently similar characteristics they possess in common with 
the ancient Scythians, that they had the same origin. All these theor- 
ists, as a general rule, agree that at some remote time the ancestors 
of the Indians made their way from Asia by way of what we now call 
Alaska. Thoy even place the date as far back as the period when 
America and Asia were not divided by straits. But whatever the time 
at which they came, or from what point, one thing is certain, that their 



migration was at so remote a period as to have caused them to bear 
characteristics of physique in many respects entirely different from 
any other race of men known to the comparative anatomist, whilst 
their language contains peculiarities of construction, form and inflec- 
tion that render it at once strong and unique, having no affinity for 
any other language spoken by man, so far as the researches of com- 
parative philologists have ascertained— there not being in any of the 
Indian dialects a single word traceable to any other speech ever uttered. 
These facts are not only singular but startling, for all other languages 
can be traced back to a common origin of two or three great groups — 
all the languages and dialects, for instance, of the Caucasian, or white 
race, being discoverable in the Sanscrit, that most perfect of written 
languages, as well as the most ancient, of what we term the Aryan 
stock, those prehistoric dwellers at the foot of the Hindoo Kosh — the 
so-called u era die o£ the race.” l_G’?6j_03 

Whence, then, came our lied Man? He may either have landed 
upon this western continent at so early a date after the Creator had 
made the world habitable for man, that his ancestors and their lan- 
guage and all knowledge of them had been swept into oblivion, or he 
may have been what the ancient Greeks claimed for themselves, an 
autochthon , “a springer from the soil.” That two entirely distinct 
races of people occupied the North American continent is probable, 
for when one nation can be shown to have been engaged in warfare it 
implies that they had somebody to fight them. From the Gulf of 
Mexico to the great lakes, and stretching from the Rocky mountains 
eastward to within one hundred and fifty miles of the Atlantic coast 
may be found hundreds of artificial fortifications, and other earth- 
works, all of the same character, and evidently reared by the same 
people. Along the water courses, especially in the western States, 
and particularly in the State of Ohio, but extending through all the 
middle States, may be found numerous mounds of defense and offense, 
mounds of observation, memorial mounds, sacrificial mounds, sepul- 
chral mounds, and elevations the purposes of which cannot now be 
well conjectured, two or three of the latter being the alligator, the 
serpent, and the eagle mounds in Ohio, the exact shape of these ani- 
mals being reared from four to six feet above the level of the plains 
upon which they were erected, and in length from four to eight hun- 
dred feet. The people who constructed these immense works were 
not only numerous but must have been considerably farther advanced 



in civilization than their antagonists. That they had a religion their 
altars and sacrificial mounds give evidence, and that they were some- 
what skilled in the erection of fortifications, the localities and sur- 
roundings of their works attest. Situated mostly on the bluffs of 
streams they combine picturesque scenery, susceptibility of defense, 
and convenience to transportation, water and productive lands. These 
are not requisites in the nomadic life of the Indian and unmistakably 
constitute the Mound Builders as a partially civilized and agricultural 
people. All these earth-works were originally thought to have been 
simply graves of the Indians, but of late years and after proper inves- 
tigation they have been shown to be the work of another race of people. 
The earliest account that the writer has been able to glean in this 
matter is to be found in a letter published in the Virginia Journal 
and Alexandria Advertiser of March 2, 1786, wherein the correspond- 
ent says: 

“ Nov. 1st we left Wheeling and landed about 13 miles below, at a 
place called Grave Creek, from a heap of earth raised in ancient time, 
about half a mile from the river, called by some an Indian Grave: 
This I viewed- — it stands on an extensive plain of excellent bottom land 
covered with -wood; is raised in pyramidal form, the base about 120 or 
130 feet, and the height about 60 or 70 feet. The angle of ascent is 
about 45 degrees, the top about 50 or 60 feet diameter and sunk in a reg- 
ular circle like a bason, about 4 or 5 feet, leaving a perfect marginal 
rim around the circle; this pyramid is covered with trees, some white 
oak I believe 9 feet in circumference; the trees on the plain do not 
appear as ancient as those on the pile of earth. — The tradition is that 
this was an Indian burial ground; I am more inclined to believe it a 
tower of defense, or a place devoted to acts of worship.” 

Many of these prehistoric mounds have been known to the settlers 
in this valley ever since its occupation, and some of them have been 
opened, revealing much that is not only curious but puzzling: stone 
axes, flint arrow-heads, spear-heads, pottery of various kinds, the bones 
of fish, birds and other animals, and numerous skeletons, some of very 
large size. Located near a great many of the larger mounds — mounds 
of fortification — are to be seen “ pitholes,” depressions in the ground, 
which were evidently the houses of those who occupied the forts. 
Many of these pits, which are now very shallow, have been examined 
and at the original bottom of them have been invariably found ashes 
and bones of animals, such as the turkey, squirrel, raccoon, opossum, 

• 7 ■ 

' ” 


* ■ - • ■ _ :• i 




deer, bear and fish, showing that these depressions served as the liv- 
ing places of the inhabitants, where they slept and ate. Roofs of 
wood or the branches of trees may have been used to shelter them 
from rain and sun, as a people who had the patience and the ingenuity 
to erect the wonderful and stupendous mounds we now find, would 
have undoubtedly had an eye to their own personal convenience and 
comfort. As to the religion of these ancient dwellers, it has been ar- 
gued that they were sun-worshipers, from the fact that the front, so to 
speak, of nearly all their works looks to the eastward, but this fact may 
be accounted for upon another theory, that they came from the west- 
ward and consequently made that portion of their works upon the 
east, toward their antagonists, who were slowly receding eastward, 
the strongest. 

The Indians adapted many of the burial mounds to their own uses 
after they again became possessors -of the land from which these 
“strange people from the far sea” (meaning the Pacific) had driven 
them, and it is, indeed, thought by very eminent archaeologists that a 
third race, distinctive from the Red man and the Mound Builder, oc- 
cupied this soil for a time, for between the remains of the Mound 
Builders at the bottoms of the elevations and the Indian graves nearer 
the surface, are to be found a third class of interments, called by the 
scientists intrusive graves, which bear characteristics differing from 
the other two, but which may bo accounted for from difference in 
class or rank, as all primitive races, and modern peoples, too, for that 
matter, have endeavored to give their high and mighty dead a sepul- 
chre varying from that of the common herd when placing them in the 
bosom of Old Mother Earth, who, however, receives all her children, 
king and thrall, with the same fond embrace. 

Whether more than the two great nations now known as the North 
American Indian and the Mound Builder dwelt upon this continent, 
is but a matter of speculation, for no evidences of a third occupation 
of the country are discernible, save in the matter of graves, which is at 
best small proof. The Indians at first dwelling, possibly, in the 
v/armer sections of the west and southwest, along that portion of the 
coast comprising at present California, Mexico and Central America, 
were encroached upon by a race of hardy adventurers who had landed 
upon or made their way to the northwestern portions of the continent, 
and these interlopers, in the course of time increasing very rapidly in 
consequence of their partial advancement in civilization, gradually be- 




came as numerous as the original occupants, and forthwith set about 
their conquest, for it seems that the next thing that primitive man is 
impelled to do after he has satisfied the cravings of his stomach, is 
to fight something or somebody. Now these ancient warriors — these 
conquering Mound Builders, whom we so call because we know no 
better name for them — kept pressing his inferior foe backward and 
still backward, everywhere erecting his fortifications and establishing 
his towns and altars, till the Indian was driven eastward to the Atlan- 
tic coast. This conquest may have been accomplished only after cen- 
turies of fighting, but that the inferior race was driven to the east is 
almost beyond doubt, for the following reasons: Running north and 
south across the State of New York and a portion of Pennsylvania, a 
series of mounds averaging about ten miles apart is still to be seen, 
although in some instances they are almost obliterated by the hand of 
man. These offensive and defensive earthworks represent the line at 
which the Indian made his “last ditch,” for beyond these fortifica- 
tions there is no trace of the Mound Builder eastward. Becoming 
desperate, as a pursued and oppressed people will upon occasion, the 
Indian rallied, turned upon his oppressor and eventually beat him back 
to the western coast, where, after the lapse of centuries, the Mound 
Builders founded the splendid barbaric civilizations which resulted in 
the Montezumas in Mexico and the Incas of Peru. The mysterious 
tribe of Indians known as the Zunis are also supposed to be lineal 
descendants of the Mound Builders, a portion of that ancient race, 
possibly, who always adhered to their time-honored religious rites, 
.who looked upon the gilded advancement of t their people as a prof- 
anation in the eyes of their gods, and who took up their dwelling 
places far away from the splendor of the courts of their emperors. 

The idea that the Mound Builders were an older race than the 
Indian has been generally believed, but thinkers are now beginning to 
consider the Red man as one of the Almighty’s earliest pieces of 
handiwork. That he was exceedingly inferior to his great antagonist, 
and entirely unacquainted with the least semblance of the arts of war 
is very apparent. He knew nothing of the value of fortifications, 
and in all his contact with the white man he was never known to 
erect any mode of defense whatever, not the simplest piling of one log 
on another. When he endeavored to repel the Mound Builder, from 
whom he may possibly have gained his first lessons in fighting, it is 
thought that his only weapon, was nature’s first implement of warfare, 



the club, the Mound Builder using the bow and arrow, and from whom 
the Indian learned the trick of that effective weapon. The Indian of 
to-day has no knowledge of any of his ancestors having made a flint 
arrow-head, and none of those with whom the white man has ever come 
in contact has related any tradition that his people ever made them. 
How an extremely hard piece of flint can be chipped as accurately and 
as delicately as we find in thousands of cases, by a people who seem to 
have had no knowledge of a single metal, is one of those inscrutible 
mysteries destined never to be solved by this age. But these little 
stone missiles have been literally found by the peck. A more ingen- 
ious, a more patient people than the Bed Indian did that work. He 
simply used them after obtaining from his conqueror the “trick of the 
bow and arrow.” The retreating Mound Builder left stores of them in 
his flight as a modern army leaves its ammunition when hard pressed. 
Why, the skill of the most experienced lapidary of to-day would be 
taxed except with the best tools to make a fac-simile of a first-class 
flint arrow-head. The lordly Indian of not many centuries ago was 
simply an inferior barbarian with the skin of a wild beast around him 
and a club in his hand. 

The question has frequently been agitated as to whether the 
Indian was naturally warlike and cruel, many contending that up to 
the time that he came in contact with the white man that he was not; 
his advocates and apologists even going so far as to say that he lived 
in a state of absolute peace, that his principal occupation was to hunt 
the wild game, roam through the sylvan dells of the flowery forest, or 
recline beneath the shade of some stately oak, etc., but the facts do 
not bear out this Arcadian theory. When the white man began his 
settlements in the new 'world he found the Bed Man at war with his 
own kind: nation arrayed against nation, and tribe against tribe, and 
when some luckless settler wandered away from his cabin alone he 
rarely returned; neither age, sex nor helplessness was respected. An 
infant would be snatched from the breast of its mother and its brains 
dashed out against a tree or rock with less feeling than we of to-day 
would kill a chicken. The sentiment of mercy seemed not to have an 
abiding place in the savage breast, and gratitude was unknown ; 
treachery seemed inherent, and this faculty was cultivated to such 
extent that whilst in the act of receiving favors and kindness from the 
white man, the ungrateful recipient would strike his friend to the 
earth with his tomahawk. Years of contact with civilization leave no 



impress upon this savage — he is a savage and nothing more. An 
instance of his extreme treachery and ungratefulness to those who 
would have, benefited him may be recalled in the incident happening 
about fifteen years ago, when a party of gentlemen, commissioners of 
the government, were brutually murdered by a number of what were 
supposed to be the better class of Indians, the savages rising whilst 
holding a council with the party and striking 'the unsuspecting and 
unprepared whites to the earth. True it is that the Bed men had 
great cause for enmity against the white invaders, who encroached 
upon their favorite hunting grounds, but their acts of barbarity and 
fiendish cruelty outweighed the wrongs inflicted in that respect. The 
old pioneers of this valley learned to cope with the savage foe, and 
soon beat him at his own game. Bitter experience produced those 
sturdy borderers, the Boones, the Frys, the Bradys, the Wetzells and 
the Poes, those fearless advance guards in the march of civilization 
who cut the w T ay with rifle and “long knife” that the wheels of progress 
might onward pass. 

There seems to have been two grand divisions of Indians in Vir- 
ginia when the settlement was made by the whites at Jamestown, those 
inhabiting the country east of the mountains being ruled by Powhattan, 
and those beyond the mountains by some other powerful chieftain, the 
ancestor, doubtless, of the lordly Indian known afterward as Cornstalk. 
The Indians of the east called those across the mountains the Massa- 
womacs, their hereditary and natural enemies. This entire valley 
along the Shenandoah Fiver, at least, is supposed to have been lield 
by the powerful confederacy of Shawanees, at the time the first set- 
tlers came here, and were ruled by the father of the great Cornstalk, 
who must then have been a boy in some wigwam along the beautiful 
river just mentioned. This great warrior may have been born and 
reared near the famous Shawnee Spring at Winchester, which is sup- 
posed to have been the headquarters, or court, of the Indian emperor, 
as it is the only locality in the valley that is known distinctively by 
the title “Shawnee.” The Indians as a body, however, left this sec- 
tion about the time of the arrival of the whites, and took up their 
abodes beyond the Alleghany mountains. There is no tradition left 
of any great battle having been fought in this valley by the Shawnees 
and their enemies across the Bidge, but a number of extensive lines 
of graves are to be found, now almost obliterated, along the south 
river as well as in the main valley. The last great battle between pow- 



erful tribes occurred at about the mouth of the Antietam creek on the 
Maryland side of the Potomac. The Delawares, who inhabited the 
eastern and a portion of the middle sections of Pennsylvania, and the 
Catawbas of the South, appear to have been at deadly enmity from time 
immemorial. The Delawares had gone on an expedition against the 
Catawbas, but the latter, pursuing the former, overtook them at the 
Potomac at the old Packhorse Ford, east of Shepherdstown, when a 
battle ensued which resulted in the total annihilation of the Delawares, 
with the exception of one, who, however, being pursued was overtaken 
at the Susquehanna and killed and scalped, but the old chronicler who 
relates this event was considerably mistaken, for the Delawares 
many years after that battle were a large tribe, some of their decend- 
ants still living on reservations of land in the West at this date. 
Another battle is said to have occurred at the mouth of the Opequon 
between these same tribes, who would go hundreds of miles for the 
sake of scalping their enemies or getting scalped themselves. Other 
Indian engagements occurred in the adjoining valleys, and one espe- 
cially at the Hanging Eocks, in Hampshire county. The large num- 
ber of graves existing at this point gives evidence of a very sanguin- 
ary affray. •These graves have been lately (1889) opened and many 
skeletons and relics have been unearthed by agents of the Smith- 
sonian Institute at Washington. 

Many evidences of Indian settlements were a few years ago to be 
seen along the Shenandoah river, at Shannondale Springs, along Cedar 
creek, the Opequon and Back creek. The Tuscaroras resided on the 
creek of that name in the county of Berkeley. In addition to the set- 
tlement near Winchester known as the “ Shawnee Cabins ” and “ Shaw- 
nee Springs,” an Indian town was in existence till a comparatively 
late date on Babb’s Marsh, three or four miles northwest of Win- 
chester. “Abraham’s Delight,” as the old Hollingsworth place was 
named by Abraham Hollingsworth before 1732, was one of the favor- 
ite camping spots, in consequence of water, for the Indians, and the 
famous Morgan Spring on the farm of the present Col. W. A. Morgan, 
near Shepherdstown, was known far and wide among the aborigines. 

As to the character of the Indian, it varied little save in degree of 
ferocity. Frequently some chief would attain greater importance than 
his fellows in consequence of the exhibition of sterner stuff in his 
make-up and shrewder qualities in the conduct of a tribal campaign, 
and occasionally one of these chiefs would loom up as a savage Han- 




iiibal or a Caesar. Powhattan and Logan and Cornstalk were exam- 
ples of this class. Of Cornstalk it is said that “he was gifted with 
oratory, statesmanship, heroism, beauty of person and strength of 
frame. In his movements he was majestic; in his manner easy and 
winning.” Of his oratory, Col. Benjamin Wilson, an officer in Lord 
Dunmore’s army, says: “I have heard the first orators in Virginia, 

Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, but never have I heard one 
whose powers of delivery surpassed those of Cornstalk.” In proof of 
these claims is the fact that he was the head of a great confederacy of 
tribes, and led them at the battle of Point Pleasant. He met his 
death at Point Pleasant in 1777, under the following circumstances: 
Cornstalk had gone to the fort for the purpose of interviewing Capt. 
Arbuckle, the commandant. He was accompanied, by Chief Red Hawk 
and a few attendants. About the time the council closed, two of the 
soldiers returning from a deer hunt, on the opposite side of the river, 
"were fired upon by some Indians concealed on the bank, and 4 ‘ whilst 
we were wondering,” says Stuart, an eye-witness, “who it could be 
shooting contrary to orders, or what they w r ere doing over the river, 
w r e saw 7 that Hamilton ran down to the bank, who called out that Gil- 
more was killed. Young Gilmore w r as from Rockbridge; his familv 
and friends had been mostly cut off by the incursions headed by Corn- 
stalk in 1763; he belonged to the company of his relative, Capt. 
John Hall. His companions hastily crossed the river, and brought 
back the bloody corpse, and rescued Hamilton from his danger. The 
interpreter’s wife, lately returned from captivity, ran out to inquire 
the cause of the tumult in the fort. She hastened back to the cabin 
of Cornstalk, for vdiom she entertained a high regard for his treatment 
of her, and told him that Elinipsico (son of Cornstalk, w ho had lately 
arrived at the fort) w T as charged wfith bringing the Indians that had 
just killed Gilmore, and that the soldiers were threatening them all 
with death. The young chief denied any participation in the murder. 
The canoe had scarcely touched the shore until the cry was raised, 
* Let us kill the Indians in the fort' and every man, with his gun in his 
hand, came up the bank pale with rage. Capt. Hall was at their head 
and their leader. Capt. Arbuckle endeavored to dissuade them, but 
they cocked their guns, threatened him with instant death if he 
attempted to bar their way, and rushed into the fort. Elinipsico 
hearing their approach trembled greatly. Cornstalk said: * My son, 

the Great Spirit has seen fit that w'e should die together, and has sent 




you here; it is his will; let us submit. It is best.’ He turned and 
met the enraged soldiers at the door. In a moment he fell, pierced 
with seven bullets, and expired without a groan. Elinipsico sat un- 
moved upon his stool, received the shots of the soldiers, and expired 
without a motion. Red Hawk endeavored to escape by the chimney, 
but was shot and fell into the ashes.” The old writer, Stuart, says 
that “ no arrests were made.” It possibly would h v ave been a rather 
tough job to have arrested that company of Rockbridge six-footers 
with guns in their hands, for killing three or four of the red devils , 
as they called the Shawanees. Of all Indians the Shawanees are said 
to have been the most bloody and terrible, holding all other men, 
whites as well as Indians, in contempt as warriors in comparison with 
themselves. This opinion made them more fierce and restless than 
any other savages, and they boasted of having killed ten times as 
many whites as any other Indians. They were a well-formed, ingen- 
ious and active people, presum ptious and imperious in the presence of 
others not of their nation, and always cruel. It was chiefly the Sha- 
wanees that defeated Eraddock, killing that General and Sir Peter 
Halkett in 1755. They also defeated Major Grant and his Scotch 
Highlanders at Fort Pitt in 1758. 

In regard to the manners, customs, habits, employments, amuse- 
ments, dress, food, habitation, etc., of the Indians, the author has 
compiled the following from various sources reaching back to colonial 
times, which may be found interesting as well as a matter for preser- 

When the English first arrived at Jamestown it has been claimed 
that the North* American continent was not as thickly inhabited by 
the, aborigines as is generally supposed. In fact, it has been doubted 
as to whether their settlements extended to the prairie country of the 
west, for that class of lands would not afford adequate shelter for 
much of the game desired by the savages, and none at all for the lat- 
ter during the severe winters. It has been computed, therefore, by 
Trumbull, that only about 150,000 were within the compass of the 
thirteen original States. It is altogether probable that all mount- 
ainous or timbered regions, however, contained large populations, 
even to the lakes and to the Pacific coast, for, as has been attempted 
to be shown by the writer, the Indian is an old inhabitant of America. 
In their physical character the different tribes within the boundaries 
of the United States were nearly the same. Their persons were tail, 




straight, and generally well proportioned. Their shins were of a red, 
or copper -brown color; their eyes black, and hair long, black and 
coarse. In constitution they were firm and vigorous, and capable of 
sustaining great fatigue and hardship. 

As to their general character, they were quick of apprehension, 
and not wanting in genius, at times being friendly and even courteous. 
In council they were distinguished for gravity and a certain elo- 
quence; in war for bravery and stratagem. When provoked to anger 
they were sullen and retired, and when determined upon revenge no 
danger would deter them ; neither absence nor time could cool them. 
If captured by an enemy they never asked life, nor would they betray 
emotions of fear even in view of the tomahawk or of the kindling 


Education among these rude savages of course had no place, and 
their only evidence of a knowledge of letters was in a few hiero- 
glyphics; the arts they taught their young were war, hunting, fishing, 
and the making of a few articles, most of which, however, were pro- 
duced by the females. Their language was rude, but sonorous, met- 
aphorical and energetic, being well suited to the purposes of public 
speaking, and when accompanied by the impassioned gestures and 
uttered with the deep gutteral tones of the savage, it is said to have 
had a singularly wild and impressive effect. They had some few war 
songs, which w*ere little more than an unmeaning chorus, but it is be- 
lieved they had no other compositions which could be called such or 
worthy of preservation. Their manufactures were confined to the con- 
struction of wigwams, bows, arrows, .wampum, ornaments, stone 
hatchets, mortars for pounding corn, the dressing of skins, weaving 
of coarse mats from the bark of trees, or a wild hemp. The articles 
they cultivated were few in number: Corn, beans, peas, potatoes, 
melons and a few others. 

Their skill in medicine was confined to a few simple preparations 
and operations. Cold and warm baths were often applied, and a con- 
siderable number of plants were used with success. For diseases they 
knew but little remedy, but had recourse to their “Medicine men/' 
who treated their patients by means of sorcery. They had few dis- 
eases, however, in comparison to those prevailing among civilized 
people. The women prepared the food, took charge of the domestic 
concerns, tilled the scanty fields, and performed all the drudgery con- 
nected with the camp. Amusements prevailed to some extent, and 




consisted principally of leaping, running, shooting at targets, dancing 
and gaming. Their dances were usually performed around a large 
fire, and in those in honor of war they sang or recited the feats which 
they or their ancestors had achieved; represented the manner in 
which they were performed, and wrought themselves up to a wild de- 
gree of martial enthusiasm. The females occasionally joined in some 
of these sports, but had none peculiar to themselves. , Their dress was 
various. In summer they w T ore little besides a covering about the 
waist, but in winter they clothed themselves in the skins of wild 
beasts. They were exceedingly fond of ornaments. On days of show 
and festivity their sachems wore mantles of deerskins, embroidered 
with shells or the claws of birds, and were painted with various 
devices. Hideousness was the object aimed at in painting themselves, 
which was intended to strike terror into the hearts of their enemies. 
Chains of fish bones and skins of wild-cats were worn around the 
neck, as marks of royalty. 

In the construction of their habitations; 'the Indians exercised but 
little judgment, their huts, or rather wigwams, consisting of a strong 
pole, erected in the center, around which other poles were driven 
obliquely into the ground and fastened against the. center pole at the 
top. These were covered with the bark of trees, and were but poor 
shelters, when considering the amount of material to be obtained in 
the primitive woods. The domestic utensils did not extend beyond a 
hatchet of stone, a few shells and sharp stones which they used in 
place of knives; stone mortars for pounding corn, and mats and skins 
for sleeping upon. They sat, ate and lodged upon the ground. 
With shells and sharp stones they scalped their enemies, dressed their 
game, cut their hair, etc. They made nets of thread or twine, twisted 
from Indian hemp, or of the sinews of the moose and deer, and fish 
hooks from bones bent for the purpose. Their food was of the coars- 
est and simplest kind — the flesh, and even the entrails of birds and 
beasts, and in season corn, beans, peas, etc., together with the fruit, 
nuts and herbs of the forest. They cooked their meat on sticks held 
’ to the fire, but in some instances boiled it and corn by putting hot 
stones in the water. Parched corn was much used, especially in 
winter, upon which they lived in the absence of other food. Their 
money, called wampum, consisted of small beaels wrought from shells, 
and strung on belts and in chains. These wampum beads varied in 
value, according to color, they being black, white, blue, and purple. 




A belt of wampum was given as a token of friendship, or as a seal or 
confirmation of a treaty. 

There was little among the aborigines that could be called society. 
Except when roused by some strong excitement, the men were gener- 
ally indolent, taciturn, and unsocial ; the women were too degraded to 
think of much besides their toils. Removing too, as the seasons 
changed, or as the game grew scarce, or as danger from a stronger 
tribe threatened, there was little opportunity for forming those local 
attachments and those social ties, which spring from a long residence 
in a particular spot. Their language, also, though energetic, was too 
barren to serve the purposes of familiar conversation. In order to 
be understood and felt, it required the aid of strong and animated ges- 
ticulation, which could take place only when great occasions excited 
them. It seems, therefore, that they drew no considerable part of 
their enjoyments from intercourse with one another. Female beauty 
had little power over the men, and all other pleasures gave way to the 
strong impulses of public festivity, the burning and torturing of 
captives, seeking murderous revenge, or the chase, or war, or glory. 
War was the favorite employment of these savages. It roused them 
from the lethargy into wdiich they fell when they ceased from their 
hunting excursions, and furnished them an opportunity to distinguish 
themselves — to achieve deeds of glory, and taste the sweets of re- 
venge. Their weapons were bows and arrows, headed with flint or 
other hard stones, which they discharged with great precision and 
force. Some tribes clothed themselves in the thick skins of wild 
beasts, as a defense against the arrows of their enemies. When they 
fought in the open field they rushed to the attack with incredible 
fury, at the same time uttering their appalling war-whoops. Those 
whom they took captive, they usually tortured with every variety of 
cruelty, and to their dying agonies added every species of insult. If 
peace was concluded, the chiefs of the hostile tribes ratified the 
treaty by smoking in succession the same pipe, called the calumet, or 
pipe of peace. 

The government of the Indians in general was an absolute mon- 
archy, though, it differed in different tribes. The will of the sachem 
was law. In matters of .moment, however, he consulted his counsel- 
ors, but his decisions were final. War and peace, among some tribes, 
were determined on in a council formed of old men, distinguished by 
their exploits. When in council they spoke at pleasure, and always 



listened to the speaker with profound and respectful silence. Says an 
old writer: “ When propositions for war or peace were made, or treat- 
ies proposed to them, by the colonial governors, they met the ambas- 
sadors in council, and at the end of each paragraph or proposition, the 
principal sachem delivered a short stick to one of his council, intimat- 
ing that it was his peculiar duty to remember that paragraph. This 
was repeated till every proposal was finished. They then retired to 
deliberate among themselves. After their deliberations were ended, 
the sachem, or some counselors to whom he had delegated this office, 
replied to every paragraph in its turn, with an exactness scarcely ex- 
ceeded in the written correspondence of civilized powers. Each man 
actually remembered what was committed to him, and with his assist- 
ance, the person who replied remembered the whole.” 

The religious notions of the natives consisted of traditions, mingled 
with many curious superstitions. Like the Greeks, Romans, Persians 
and Hindoos, they believed in the existence of two supreme powers, a 
Great Spirit and an Evil Spirit. They in a manner worshiped both, 
and in some instances are said to have formed rude images embody-, 
ing their ideas of their deities. They also had great reverence for 
the sun, thunder, lightning, fire, water, and, in fact, any force they 
could not understand or control, which is precisely in accordance with 
the habits of all barbaric or primitive peoples. Their manner of wor- 
ship was to sing and dance around large fires. Resides dancing they 
offered a sort of supplication or prayer, and burned a powder composed 
of pounded roots, also blood, deer suet, and tobacco. Marriage among 
them was generally a temporary contract. The men chose their wives 
agreeable to fancy, and put them away at pleasure. A wedding, how- 
ever, was celebrated with some ceremony, and in many instances 
was observed with fidelity, not infrequently continuing through 
life. Polygamy was common, there being no thought, apparently, of 
its being right or wrong. The treatment of females was cruel and 
oppressive. They were considered by the men as slaves and treated 
as such. Those forms of decorum between the sexes, in which lay 
the foundation for the respectful and gallant courtesy with which 
women are treated in civilized society, were unknown to them, and 
the females were not only required to perform severe labor, but often 
felt the full weight of the passions and caprices of the men. The 
ceremonies after death varied but little among the tribes. The corpse 
was usually laid in shallow holes dug with sharpened sticks, upon a 




layer of brush and wrapped in a skin. The arms, utensils and orna- 
ments of the deceased were buried with the remains. Some were 
buried in a sitting posture with face toward the east. Lamentations 
and cries accompanied an interment, which was more owing to cus- 
tom, than in consequence of any grief or regret entertained by rela- 
tives or friends, as they could witness the torture or slaying of their 
own sons without beiim moved in the least. Stoicism seems to be the 


invariable accompaniment to the character of all primitive people, 
their mode of life rendering that state of mind necessary. 

They had no idea of distinct and exclusive property; lands were 
held in common, and every man had a right to choose or abandon his 
situation with or without regard to any one else. Their knowledge of 
computation is thought not to have been extensive; in fact, very lim- 
ited. The year was known as a cohonk , being so called from the note 
of the wild goose. The term was more particularly applied to a win- 
ter, however, as the geese migrated southward at the approach of that 
season. The months were known as moons, the days as suns, but the 
division of the day into hours was unknown. They kept their 
accounts of any matters of sufficient importance by knots on a string, 
or notches in a stick. 

The Indian’s mission, whatever it was, in the economy of nature, 
has seemingly been fulfilled. It is extremely doubtful that a single 
one of this ancient race will be alive at the expiration of one hundred 
years hence. He is one of the world’s mysteries, and will probably 
remain so to the end of time. 





Expedition of Gov. Spots wood— The Knights of the Golden Horse- 
shoe— Arid val of First Settlers— New Mecklenburg— The Mor- 
gans— First Cabin— The Hollingsworths, Hite and Others— Quaker 
Settlements— Early Grants— The Great Indian Highway— Settle- 
ments on the Opequon— Some Early Names— The Bullskin Settle- 
ments— nationalities and Religions— Fairfax vs. Hite et als.— 
Settlement Retarded— List of the Surveys Made by Washington 
for Lord Fairfax. 

P OSSIBLY the first white man who ever laid eyes upon the beau- 
tiful, fertile, and now populous Shenandoah Valley, was Gov. 
Alexander Spotswood in the year 1716. There may have been 
white prisoners carried off across the Blue Ridge by the Indians, but 
none ever returned to tell the tale till the adventurous governor and 
his followers made their famous trip. Col. Alexander Spotswood was 
a highly educated and gallant soldier in the service of his sovereign, 
and withal an accomplished and enterprising man, who was imbued 
with liberal and progressive ideas, and whose suggestions to the 
British ministry, had they been promptly and fully carried out, would 
have prevented much trouble with the French and resulted in great 
advantage to Britain in America. He was appointed lieutenant-gov- 
ernor in 1710, and immediately began a course that was conservative 
and progressive; evidently being desirous of not only furthering the 
interests of his royal master, but the colony of Virginia as well. He 
had for several years in contemplation the exploration of the country 
west of what were then known as the “ high mountains,” but in con- 
sequence of the hostility of the Indians it was almost impossible to 
penetrate this western terra incognita , , but having finally consum- 
mated his plans he determined to go upon the expedition. August 1, 
1716, the Knightly Governor, in company with a troop of horsemen, 
consisting of fifty persons in all, began their westward march from 
the colonial capital. The company comprised a number of gentlemen, 
military officers, rangers, servants, etc., with a goodly supply of pro- 



visions, ammunition, and, as an old chronicler puts it, “a varied 
assortment of liquors.” After several fights with the hostile savages 
who dogged the footsteps of the party almost from the moment of 
starting, and at the expiration of thirty-six days, at about one o’clock, 
of September 5, 1716, Gov. Spotswood, who was slightly in the 
advance, reached the brow of a declivity at the top of the Blue Ridge 
at Swift Run Gap, and the whole glorious view burst upon his enrapt- 
ured sight. For some moments, as the members of the Governor’s 
party gathered around him, not a word or sound broke the stillness of 
the awe-inspiring scene, but they soon dismounted from their horses 
and drank the health of the King. And what a vision met their gaze 
as they looked to the westward, northward and southward. As far as 
the eye could reach the most enchanting landscape presented itself. 
To the front of them, to the right and left, rolled miles of tall grass, 
whose golden-green shimmer in that September sun was a marvel to 
behold; the gently undulating expanse of Nature’s virgin fields; the 
silvery streams in serpentine coils wound in and out for miles away, 
whilst in the far distance mountain upon mountain seemed piled one 
upon the other, until lost in the blue and gold of the clouds, challeng- 
ing the eve to define where cloud began and mountain ceased. Never 
before had these explorers witnessed the like of this enrapturing fairy 
scene, and they gazed long and intensely, as thousands have done 
since then, and as others may do to this day. Even to the present 
dwellers in the valley the gorgeous and bewildering landscape visible 
from almost any point of the Blue Ridge Mountains is a continuous 
revelation, they never tiring in their admiration of its beauties: and 
an old mountain hunter who has stood, perchance, upon every peak of 
this range rarely fails to rest his hands upon his trusty rifle and gaze 
down into the green valley with the glistening Shenandoah brawling 
far beneath him. Upon the return of Spotswood and his party the 
governor, in commemoration of the event, had a number of golden 
horseshoes struck, each of which had inscribed upon it, “ Sic jurat 
transcendere Montes ” — “Thus he swears to cross the mountains.” 
From the date of Spotswood’ s expedition till, possibly, 1725, there 
is no record of any attempt to make a settlement in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and even then it was not made from the direction of the seat 
of the colonial government, that is, from the eastward; but instead, 
the fame of the great Virginia Valley, for its splendid land, fine water 
courses, and beautiful mountains, attracted the attention of some 



thrifty Germans who had settled in Pennsylvania, along the Susque- 
hanna, and in York and Lancaster Counties. A number of these 
people moved southward, through Maryland, and crossed the river a 
few miles above where now is Harper’s Ferry, settling along the 
Cohongoruton (Potomac), from the junction of that stream with the 
Gerando (Shenandoah), westward for ten or fifteen miles. These Ger- 
mans were undoubtedly the first persons to make a 'permanent settle- 
ment in the Y alley of Virginia, and they founded a village in their 
midst about 1726 or 1727, calling it Xew Mecklenburg, in honor of 
that portion of their fatherland from which they had emigrated to 
America. The names of most of these Germans may be found to-day 
in the northern portion of Jefferson County, and belonging to many 
of the oldest and most respectable families of that section. Mecklen- 
burg, as will be shown further along, was changed to Shepherdstown 
after Mr. Thomas Shepherd came in, but the village was not organized 
by law until 1762. Mr. HovMl Brown, county surveyor of Jefferson, 
puts the settlement of Mecklenburg at 1728, but the names of those 
v r ho settled there cannot now be obtained, as the date of their location 
w T as prior to the issuance of any grant in that section, they being sim- 
ply “squatters” upon the land, and afterward purchasing their rights 
to the property. Many of these settlers purchased from Bichard Ap 
Morgan, a Welshman, who obtained a grant for a large body of land 
not long after 1780. This Bicliard Ap Morgan w T as the great-grand- 
father of Col. W. A. Morgan, of Morgan’s Spring, whose father was 
named Abel, and whose grandfather was Abraham, the last named 
being killed by a stone falling upon him when building the small 
stone mill which stands just north of High Street in Shepherdstown. 
On High Street between Princess and Mill Streets, there is a small log 
house which is believed to have been built by the first Morgan, and is 
doubtless one of the first, if not the first, buildings erected in the entire 
Shenandoah Valley. This log structure is joined on wdiat is known as 
the “ horse and saddle ” plan, and is yet in good preservation, although 
bearing evidence of great antiquity. Many of the farms surrounding 
the homestead of Col. Morgan originally belonged to the Morgan es- 
tate, being cut off and sold at various periods, and among the pieces 
of property thus separated the one on which stands the old log cabin 
passed into the possession of Dr. Beynolds several years ago. Another 
Morgan, according to Hawks in his “ History of the Episcopal Church 
of Virginia,” settled in the low'er valley, but whether he confounded 



the two families is difficult to say. He at least places his “ first set- 
tler ” at a period ante-dating Kercheval’s “first settler by six years. 
Hawks says: “ Morgan Morgan was a native of Wales, whence he emi- 
grated in early life to the province of Pennsylvania. In the year 1726 
he removed to what is now the county of Berkeley, in Virginia, and 
built the first cabin which was reared on the south side of the Poto- 
mac, between the Blue Ridge and the North 'Mountain. He was a 
man of exemplary piety, devoted to the church; and in the year 1740, 
associated with Dr. John Briscoe and Mr. Hite, he erected the first 
Episcopal Church in the valley of Virginia. This memorial of his 
zeal, it is believed, is still standing, and now forms that part of the 
parish of Winchester which is known as “Mill Creek Church.'” This 
statement was published in 1836. 

From the settlement of Pennsylvania by the arrival of William 
Penn and his treaty with the Indians in 1682, a large influx of im- 
migrants came to the new colony, among whom were, of course, many 
of the same faith as Penn, thrifty, well-to-do people; also a large 
number of Protestant Germans, all of whom settled upon the rich 
lands along the Susquehanna and other water courses of Pennsylvania. 
These people in time hearing of the fertile valley of Virginia sought for 
locations therein, and among the first to obtain a grant from the gov- 
ernor of Virginia was Alexander Ross, a Quaker, who secured forty 
thousand acres, locating the same north and west and south of where 
now stands Winchester. This was in 1730, or thereabouts, for the 
original survey made by the surveyor of Ross, named Ro. Brooks, 
laying off the boundaries of a tract of land containing 583 acres on 
Abraham’s Creek, about one mile southeast of Winchester, is still in the 
possession of the Hollingsworth family, for whose ancestor the survey 
was made. This survey is dated November 23, 1732, and Abraham 
Hollingsworth was the party to whom the land was conveyed. The 
Hollingsworths say that Abraham had been living there as a squatter 
on the land for several years prior to the time that Ross, who having 
obtained his grant from Gov. Gooch, sent his agent around over 
his domain to collect pay from those who were settled thereon. Abra- 
ham not only paid Ross for his farm, but afterward, to save litigation 
and trouble, also paid Lord Fairfax a nominal sum to quiet his claim, 
for that thrifty scion of nobility, as will be further shown, had a 
wonderful eye for the main chance. Abraham Hollingsworth, from 
these facts, was doubtless the first settler of this immediate section (now 

"7 | 



the upper portion of Frederick County), for the creek along which his 
land was located was named after him, showing that he had settled at 
that spot some time before. The father of Abraham Hollingsworth, 
whose name was David, paid a visit to his son in this same year, 1732, 
and was killed by a buffalo over near the North Mountain, whilst on a 
hunting expedition. There was a Parkins family at this time living 
not far from Hollingsworth’s. A number of Quakers about this period, 
some of whom purchased from Ross, made settlements on Apple-pie 
Ridge, and elsewhere not far off, among whom were the Bransons, 
Luptons, Walkers, Beesons, Barretts, McKays, Hackneys, Neills, Dil- 
lons and others, and about eight or nine miles southwest of Winches- 
ter were several families of Fawcetts, many of whose descendants 
migrated westward, but some of whom still occupy the original lands. 
It is said that those who settled on Ross’ lands, and the Quakers gen- 
erally, were free from all depredations of the Indians, for the fame of 
Penn as a pacificator and as a man who always treated the aborigines 
with justice, paying them for their lands, etc., reached far and wide 
among the savages. 

All the settlers at this period, 1730, and onward for ten years or 
more, came from the northward, as already indicated, for between the 
valley and the “low country,” or east Virginia settlements, lay what 
was considered at that time a range of almost insurmountable mount- 
ains without any roads crossing them, save “ trails ” only known to the 
Indians; and between these mountains and the eastern settlements 
roamed thousands of the relentless savages, which constituted the suc- 
cessful expedition of Spotswood one of the most wonderful exploits 
known to history, for how his little band escaped annihilation is almost a 
miracle. In addition to these reasons explaining the curious fact that 
Virginians were the last persons to settle the western section of their 
own colony, comes another cause, and a very potent one:* the “low 
country ” people were generally large land owners and did not need 
any extension of their domains; besides, they had inherited a certain 
conservatism, being descended from the Cavaliers, mostly, which trait 
exhibited itself in their evidently sullen acceptance of Cromwell and 
the Commonwealth and their joyful hailing of Charles II. at the Res- 
toration. [To digress a moment, and jump from 1730 to 1889, the 
author is impelled to here note the fact that that ancient conservatism 
has not been even to this date eliminated: we still move slowly; but 
then it is a moot question whether all this rush and scramble after 



wealth produces more happiness than the old way. The Chinese say 
no: — their result — an empire 3,000 years old and 400,000,000 popula- 
tion, but Tennyson says, “Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of 

In addition to the Germans who first came and the Quakers, also 
came many Irish and Scotch-Irisli, with a few Welsh and Hollanders, 
or Hutch, from New York, among the latter being the Yanswearingens 
and the Vanmeters; among the Welsh the Morgans and others, and 
among the Scotch-Irisli those who settled along Back Creek and on 
the Opequon. These nationalities professing religions in opposition 
to the established churches of their native countries sought relief from 
persecution in the New World. The Catholics also found congeniality 
in Maryland, remained there after arriving in America, and scarcely a 
single one emigrated to this valley in the early times. A number of 
Scotch-Irish families also settled along the Tuscarora and Mill Creek, 
as well as a few English and Welsh who held to the English estab- 
lished church, among these being Morgan Morgan, the Briscoes and 
others. The grandfather of Mr. J. H. Smith, of Smithfield, now in 
Jefferson County, upon whose place occurred the famous operations of 
the “spooks” who were charged with clipping off the coat tails of sun- 
dry gentlemen, and whence arose the title to the locality of “ Wizzard 
Clip,” obtained a grant from Gov. Gooch as early as 1729 of 4,000 
acres of land, and in connection with which an extraordinary exhibi- 
tion of vitality is claimed. It would strike one at first thought that 
it would be impossible for the grandfather of a gentleman now living 
to have been a man grown in 1729, but Mr. Smith informed Col. II. B. 
Davenport, who related it to the author, that his grandfather was 
eighty years old when his son, the father of Mr. J. II. Smith, was born, 
and that he (J. H. ) was born when his father was eighty years of age. 

The route taken by these early settlers to reach the valley was one 
and only one. Starting from York, Penn., not only those living in that 
locality but those who came from New York, passed down through 
Maryland and struck the Potomac at the old Packhorse Ford just 
east of Shepherdstown, which at that date was simply a portion of an 
Indian trail, but it was the great northern and southern highway of 
the aborigines for, possibly, centuries, and along which hostile tribes 
had marched and camped, the Delawares going southward to meet 
their enemies, the Catawbas, going northward. The great Shawnee 
tribe, also, with that majestic savage emperor, the famous Cornstalk, 




who had no peer in power and sway in Indian annals and tradition but 
Powhattan himself, has doubtless crossed this old ford many a time, 
with little thought that a century later his great enemy, the white man, 
should be engaged near that very spot, one against the other, in a 
struggle that for loss of life and suffering would put to shame the 
bloodiest battle in which he had ever engaged. 

Several years prior to the . settlement of any portion of the valley 
by the -white man, vrlien the Shawnees held undisputed possession of 
the country along the Shenandoah from the Potomac southward, fre- 
quent warlike excursions were made by the Delawares to the country 
of the Catawbas, who were the natural enemies of the northern tribes, 
and on one of these expeditions they were accompanied by a white 
man named John Vanmeter, a Dutchman, or of Dutch descent, from 
New York. This Vanmeter was evidently one of those early advent- 
urous spirits who loved battle and danger for itself, or possibly was 
a trader, his Hollandish origin prompting him to ways of traffic. At 
any rate he knew a good thing when he saw it, for upon his return to 
Pennsylvania after the Catawbas had not only refused to be extermin- 
ated, but had driven their invaders back, he set about turning an 
honest penny in land speculation. In passing along the South Branch 
he noticed the richness and beauty of the country and, after reaching 
home, he pi'oceeded to make application to the governor of Virginia 
for a grant of 10,000 acres of that same land, which was given him, it 
is altogether probable, without a quibble, for what was a few thousand 
acres worth in that far away savage land? He also told his sons to 
settle there by all means, whenever they turned their eyes southward, 
which one of them did, and some of his descendants are living there 
to this day and are among the most respected families of Virginia. 
This refers to the Vanmeters on the South Branch. Now the original 
John and his son Isaac, or his two sons John and Isaac, having 
obtained the grant spoken of, which was on this side of the mount- 
ain, along and south of the Opequon, in 1730, sometime afterward 
sold the grant to a man in Pennsylvania, whom two of the histor- 
ians of the valley have called Joist' Hite, Kercheval having so spelled 
it, and the rest following that pleasant old chronicler. The author 
hereof has investigated the matter somewhat, and is extremely doubt- 
ful whether any mother ever gave so singular a cognomen to her 
offspring as Joist. He is of opinion that if Hite was Scotch- 
Irish, as some suppose, that his Christian name was Joyce, a pecu- 



liarly Irish appellation. If lie was German, his name was doubt- 
less Jost, that is Yost , the German j being pronounced yoi. The 
writer is therefore of the impression that this first settler on the upper 
Opequon was named Yost Heii *, the word he it being a frequent ter- 
mination of German words. He is also borne out in this idea by 
the fact that one at least of Hite's descendants was known as Yost 
Ilite. Be this as it may, the man known as Joist Hite came from 
York, Pennsylvania, in the year 1732, bringing with him his three 
sons-in-law, and following in his wake a number of others, mak- 
ing in all about sixteen families. The old gentleman having first 
choice, settled on the Opequon, five miles south of where Winchester 
now stands, and upon the great Indian highway to the upper valley, 
which was afterward enlarged, macadamized, and is now known as the 
Valley Turnpike. Jacob C-hrisman, one of his sons-in-law, proceeded 
two miles farther south, on the same road, and settled at a spring, the 
place being still known as Chrisman’s Spring; another son-in-law. 
George Bowman, moved still farther south on Cedar Creek; whilst the 
other, Paul Froman, located several miles west of Bowman on the 
same stream. Peter Stephens and several others settled at wliat is 
now Stephens City, but which was at first known as Stephensburg, then 
Newtown, and Newtown-Stephensburg. Stephens founded the town in 
conjunction with several others, and named it after himself. Bob- 
ert McKay, William Duff and Bobert Green were three other heads 
of families who came with Hite. McKay settled on Crooked Bun, 
about nine miles southeast of Stephensburg, and Duff and Green, 
who subsequently obtained a grant in connection with Hite, for one 
hundred thousand acres additional land, located their portion of the 
tract east of the Blue Bidge, and settled over there. Their respec- 
tive families becoming among the leading citizens of that section, and 
one of their mutual descendants, Gen. Dull Green, attaining con- 
siderable eminence. Some of the descendants of Jost Hite became 
prominent citizens throughout the valley, one of them, Col. Hite, 
being a gallant Be volution ary officer, and another, who settled in the 
lower part of the valley, became wealthy, whilst still another is named 
as one of the three gentlemen who built the first Episcopal Church 

* Since writing this portion of this chapter the author lias found the name Yost Hit>: in hundreds 
of instances in the justices’ order books and in the first deed books, thus confirming the conclusions 
he had arrived at previously. Why the writer of a history should neglect the old records, in his searcif 
for facts and names is a mystery, but such has been the case with all who have heretofore written any- 
thing, in relation to the valley. 



south of the Potomac in the valley, the other two being Morgan Mor- 
gan and Dr. Briscoe. 

As stated previously Richard Ap Morgan having obtained a large 
grant of land on the Potomac in the vicinity of the old Paekhorse 
Ford, and at what is now Sheph erdstown, he was soon followed, after his 
settlement there by a number of persons, to whom he sold various 
tracts, some of whose descendants retain possession of those first pur- 
chases to the present time. In 1734 Robert Harper settled at the 
junction of the two rivers, Potomac and Shenandoah, and established 
a ferry, which he ran for many years, and to which picturesque 
locality he has left his name. Thomas Shepherd also came about this 
time, and, obtaining possession of the German settlement, Mecklen- 
burg, re-christened it after himself, Shepherdstown, but the village 
was not organized by law till 1782. Also came about this time to the 
same vicinity William Strope, Israel Friend, Thomas and William For- 
rester, Thomas and Van Swearingen. Edward Lucas, James Foreman. 
John Lemon, Jacob Hite (a son of Jost Hite), Richard Mercer, 
Thomas Rutherford, Edward Mercer, Jacob Vanmeter and a brother, 
Robert Stockton, Robert Buckles, John and Samuel Taylor, John 
Wright, and several others whose names cannot now be recalled. 

Col. Robert Carter, afterward known as “ King Carter,” of Staf- 
ford, in 1780 obtained from Gov. Gooch a grant of sixty- three 
thousand acres of land running from just below the forks of the Shen- 
andoah along that river for about twenty miles, but for many years 
this immense tract of valuable land contained upon it not one actual 
settler, it being farmed, or at least attended to, by overseers and 
slaves of the Colonel, who was an exceedingly rich man, being pos- 
sessed of much other property. 

The fine plantation known as Long Meadows was opened about 
1740 by one of Jost Hite’s sons, Isaac, and about the same time 
John Lindsay and James Lindsay settled at Long Marsh between 
Berry ville and the Bullskin. In 1743 two or three persons came in 
from New Jersey, among whom was Isaac Larue, who also settled on 
the Marsh, and at the same time came Christopher Beeler, who 
located not far from Larue. The following year Joseph Hampton 
and two sons came from the eastern shore of Maryland and began a 
settlement on Buck Marsh, near where now stands Berry ville. There 
is a tradition among the older residents of Clarke County that Hamp- 
ton and his sons lived the first season of their residence in the hoi- 



low of a large sycamore tree, which tree was pointed out for many 
years afterward, but has now entirely disappeared. Joseph Carter 
came from Bucks County, Penn., in 1743, and made a settlement 
about five miles east of Winchester, on the Opequon. A fine spring 
was near where Carter settled and it was a favorite camping ground 
of the Indians. William and John Vestall made a settlement at a 
very early date about six miles east of Charlestown. While they 
were building a stone house they were attacked by Indians and driven 
across the Shenandoah to the mountain. When they returned one 
of them brought a yellowish stone from across the river, which marks 
the point where they had left off building in consequence of the at- 
tack. This house still stands, but the inscription on one end has been 
partially obliterated, which has given rise to a dispute as to the name 
being Vest, Yesta or Vestal. The author, however, has found in the 
“List of Surveys made by George Washington for Lord Fairfax’’ 
the name three times occurring, Vesiall. 

Most of the settlements along the Builskin Creek, and at, and 
above the head of that stream, were made not earlier than about 1780, 
among the first being the Allemongs and Rileys. Later still, Ralph 
W ormlv purchased a grant of thirteen thousand acres of land imme- 
diately adjoining “ King ” Carter’s domain, for which lie paid only 
five hundred guineas. This tract was sold at auction in Williamsburg, 
and Col. Washington, who had surveyed the land and knew its value, 
advised Wormly to purchase it. This splendid tract of land, which 
included some of the finest acres of Jefferson, passed from the posses- 
sion of the Wormlys many years ago. A great deal of the best land 
of the entire Lower Shenandoah Valley remained untouched, the set- 
tlers preferring the larger streams and locating near the mountains. 
Among the earliest settlers of this region at the time of the organi- 
zation of Frederick County, appear the following names, in addition 
to those already given: The Bussells, Whites, Blackburns, Newells, 
Frys, Wilsons, Hoges, Allens, Glasses, Calmes, Kerfoots, Holmes, 
Vances, Porteus, Steermans, Newports, Johnstons, Burdens, McMa- 
hons, Harts, Penningtons, McCrachans, etc. These names comprise 
several nationalities: Germans, Irish, Scotch, Welsh and English. In 
addition to these a colony of Baptists, consisting of fifteen families, 
came from New Jersey in 1742 and located iu the vicinity of where 
now is Gerrardstown, in Berkeley County, the settlement taking its 
name from a Baptist minister, Rev. John Gerrard, who formed the 



first Baptist organization in tlie valley, the society shortly afterward 
building their first church. 

As heretofore stated a number of persons had obtained grants of 
land from the governor and the colonial legislature before Fairfax dis- 
covered that he might claim all the territory beyond the Blue Ridge 
west and north of the head of the Rappahannock to the head of the 
Potomac, or some stream that helped to form that river, and the man- 
ner in which he first came to the knowledge that the Potomac did not 
head in the Blue Ridge, is said to be as follows: A hunter named 
Howard on one of his expeditions crossed the Alleghany Mountains 
from the valley, and being of an adventurous spirit constructed a 
canoe and went down the Ohio River, where he was made prisoner by 
the French and sent to France, whereupon, being released, he made 
his way to England and came to the knowledge of Lord Fairfax, to 
whom the hunter described the splendid country between the two 
great chains of mountains. His lordship then made application to 
the crown for an extension, or rather, a re-limitation of his grant, 
which was conceded, and he forthwith began selling, or granting 
away bodies of land already settled upon or held by right of grant 
from Gov. Gooch. Some of the settlers submitted to the exac- 
tions of Fairfax and paid him nominal sums, but sturdy old Jost 
Hite rebelled against any such high-handed proceeding and refused 
to pay a ha’penny to the Scotch laird, so the proprietor of the North- 
ern Neck entered a caveat against Hite, which resulted in a suit at 
law instituted in 1736 by Hite, McKay, Green, and Duff against Lord 
Fairfax, which cause was only finally settled in 1786, just fifty years 
after its entrance upon the docket, in favor of the heirs of the plain- 
tiffs, Hite et cds. the original contestants being all dead. A large 
sum of money from rents, quit-rents and profits, and considerable 
land was recovered. 

The litigation brought about bv Fairfax retarded to a very large 
degree the early settlement of the lower valley, for immigrants from 
other colonies who wished to settle here, upon finding the state of 
affairs, moved farther up the valley on to the grant of Lord Beverly, 
which •comprised Augusta County. This is the reason why the upper 
valley was more thickly populated at an early day than the Lower 
Shenandoah Valley. 

As a matter of interest and for the better preservation of the names 
of some of the earliest settlers of this portion of the vailey, the follow- 




ing field notes of George Washington, who surveyed much of the land 
belonging to Lord Fairfax in the Northern Neck, are herein printed. 
These field notes of his surveys of a large number of tracts of land 
are copied from one of Washington’s “field books,” entitled, “A Jour- 
nal of my Journey over the Mountains, began Friday , the 11th of 
March, 1747-8.” The list contains only those surveys within the 
bounds laid out by this work, with a few exceptions, and many of the 
names will be very familiar to the residents of this region. It will be 
seen the list is arranged alphabetically, and the names of those who 
acted as markers, chain-carriers, and assistants are given. Of course 
the annexed surveys are not all that Washington made in this section, 
but they are, possibly, all that are now known to exist. The G. W. 
Fairfax mentioned in the surveys was George William Fairfax, son of 
William Fairfax, of Belvoir on the Potomac nearly opposite Mount 
Vernon. G. W. Fairfax and G. Washington were about the same 
age, and both were employed by Lord Fairfax to survey a portion of 
his immense estate. Following is the list: 

John Anderson, a tract of land surveyed for on Long Marsh, ad- 
joining John Vance’s land, October 19, 1750. Pie assisted as chain 
man in survey of two several tracts of land for Isaac Foster. October 
22, 1750. Anderson’s land adjoined Bobert Fox’s. 

Jonathan Arnold, a tract of land surveyed for on N. Liver of 
Cacapon, April 20, 1750. His land adjoined that of David Wood’s. 
He acted as marker in the survey. April 21, in survey of land for 
Bobert Lindsay he was the marker. 

Capt. Thomas Ashby kept a house of entertainment and a ferry on 
the Shenandoah Biver, above Burwell’s Island, 1748. It is presumed 
that from him came the name of Ashby’s Gap in the Blue Bidge. 

Henry Ashby served as chain man, in survey of land, for G. W. 
Fairfax on Long Marsh March 15, 1748. March 29 he assisted as 
chain man in survey of land on the south fork of south branch for 
Michael Stump. 

Bobert Ashby assisted as marker in survey for G. W 7 . Fairfax on 
Long Marsh March 15, 1748. Had survey made of a tract of land 
for himself adjoining Carter’s line, and the Fairfax road of 346 acres 
October 27, 1750. He served as marker. His land adjoined lands of 
Bobert Fox. 

William Baker, a tract of land on Lost Biver of Cacapon, surveyed 
for November 10, 1749. His land adjoined lands of Barnaby McIIandry. 



Col. Blackburn owned land and lived on Long Marsh, Fred- 

erick County, adjoining lands of William Johnston before March 15, 
1748. His lines cited in surveys of this date. 

Henry bad lands on Bullskin adjoining lands of Law- 

rence Washington, August 21, 1750. Lines referred to in said survey. 

O 7 O 7 J 

Capt. Marquis Calmes, a tract of land on south side of Bullskin, 
surveyed for November 3, 1750. he himself serving as marker in this 
survey of 1,170 acres. 

Maj. Andrew Campbell, one of the justices of Frederick County, 
owned land and resided about twenty -five miles northwest of Winches- 
ter, on the road to Old Town, in Maryland. George Washington and 
G. W. Fairfax stopped with him over night, March 17, 1718. 

Jacob Camperlin, mentioned in connection with the survey of a tract 
of land for Hannah Southerd October 29, 1750, which adjoined lands 
of G. W. Fairfax, Bobert Ashby and Widow Jump. 

Peter Camperlin, referred to as the late, whose widow. Hannah 
Southerd, for whom a survey of land was made October 29, 1750, had 
resided there. 

Samuel Camperlin, mentioned in the notes of the survey of land 
for Hannah Southerd October 29, 1750, was resident and owner of land. 

Francis Carney served as a marker in a survey of land for Capt. 
George Neavil, adjoining Morrison’s patent, October 30, 1750, on 
Long Marsh. 

Thomas Carney served as chain carrier in survey for Maj. Law- 
rence Washington on Bullskin, August 24 and 25, 1750. 

Bichard Carter owned large tracts on Long Marsh, adjoining 
Samuel Isaacs and John Anderson’s, October 19, 1750. 

John Collins had settled on land in the vicinity of Moorefield be- 
fore 1718. Washington and G. TV. Fairfax staid over night with him 
April 9, 1718, en route homeward from South Branch surveys. Col- 
linsville, in Frederick County, possibly perpetuates the name of this 
pioneer family. 

Thomas Colston owned land on Long Marsh near Fairfax County 
road October 19, 1750. His lands adjoined Isabelle Jump’s and John. 

John Cozin, or Cuzin, owned land and resided on Long Marsh in 
March, 1718. His house referred to in survey of land for Thomas 
Lofton October 17, 1750, and in which survey he was a chain carrier. 
And October 18, 1750, chain man in survey for G. Smith. And same 




day marker in a survey of tract for himself which adjoined Smith’s 
and Lofton’s land. 

William Crawford, chain man in survey of land for Bichard Steph- 
enson, and William Davis on Rullskin, August 20, 1750. August 
21, 1750, chain man in survey for Lawrence Washington. August 24 
and 25 chain carrier for same parties. October 19 served as chain 
carrier in survey for John Vance. Was this person the same as Col. 
William Crawford of the Revolution? [It undoubtedly was, as he 
was born and raised in what was then Frederick County.] — Ed. 

Col. Thomas Cresap of Old Town, Md., visited by Washington en 
route to Patterson Creek, while surveying for Lord Fairfax, March 
21, 1748. Owing to a storm he was delayed several da} T s at Cresap’s, 
where he met a party of thirty Indians returning from war in the 
South with one scalp. 

Ralph Croft was chain carrier in survey of a tract of land for John 
Anderson, October 19, 1759. He was also chain carrier in survey of 
land for Isaac Foster, October 22, 1750. 

Nathaniel Daughily owned land on Long Marsh. Ilis corner is 
mentioned in survey for Patrick Rice, October 23, 1750. 

William Davis, lands surveyed for, and Richard Stephenson, on a 
branch of the Bullskin, August 20, 1750, adjoined the lands of Law- 
rence Washington. 

G. W. Fairfax owned lands on Long Marsh. Adjoined lands of 
Pennington, Johnston and John Cozens, 1748. March 15, 1748, had 
surveyed for 3,023 acres on Long Marsh. 

Thomas Lord Fairfax, baron of Cameron, the proprietary owner of 
the Northern ,Neck, estimated to contain 5,700,000 acres, reserved 
10,000 acres in his manor of “ Green way Court,” about twelve miles 
southeast of Winchester. Sold his lands, giving fixed time, on a 
small annual ground rent. 

Isaac Foster served as chain carrier October 19, 1750, in survey 
for John Anderson. His land adjoined that of John Vance’s. Octo- 
ber 22, 1750, had surveyed a tract of land for himself adjoining John 
Anderson and John Vance. 

Robert Fox, a tract of land surveyed for of 1,216 acres, October 
29, 1750, which adjoined Robert Ashby’s, in Carter’s line. He served 
as marker himself. 

James Genu, one of the licensed surveyors in 1748, of Frederick 




George Hampton was chain carrier in survey of a tract of land for 
Isabella Jump October 19, 1750, on Long Marsh. 

Joseph Hampton, marker in survey of a tract of land on Long 
Marsh for Isabella Jump, October 19, 1750. 

Richard Hampton served as chain carrier in survey of land for 
Capt. George Neavil, October 30, 1750, which land adjoined Mor- 
rison’s patent. 

Thomas Hampton, chain carrier in survey of a tract of land for 
John Vance, on Long Marsh, October 19, 1750; chain man in survey 
of land for John Madden, October 24, 1750, and October 30, chain 
carrier in survey of a tract of land for Capt. George Neavil. 

Henry Harris owned a tract of land, where he resided, near the 
Manor Line, 1748, adjoining the lands of Widow Wolf, Frederick 

Joshua Haynes owned lands on Bullskin and adjoined lands of 
Capt. George Johnston August 28, 1750, and was marker in survey 
of lands for Capt. George Johnston. 

Solomon Hedges had settled on Patterson Creek, some forty miles 
from its mouth. He was one of the justices of the peace for Fred- 
erick County. Washington and Fairfax camped there March 20, 1748. 
He had neither knives nor forks on his table at supper. 

Henry Hendricks, chain man in survey of Isaac Pennington’s 
patent, October 23, 1750, and waste land adjoining. 

Captain Hite had settled on land near Winchester. Washing- 

ton left his baggage there while he went to different places to prose- 
cute his surveys. March 14, 1748. 

George Horner laid warrant for 200 acres of land in Frederick 
County in 1748. 

Joseph Howt (from New England, possibly it is the same person 
given as James How) had warrant (1748) for 400 acres of land in 
Frederick County. 

Samuel Isaac, a tract of land surveyed for on Long Marsh October 
22, 1750. His land adjoined those of Isaac Pennington. October 
2 4, 1750, was marker in survey for Jeremiah M ood, whose land 
adjoined his own. 

“Joe’s Hole,” a name given to a place of some local note, is men- 
tioned in survey of a tract of land for John Madden October 24, 1750, 
on Long Marsh. 

John Johnson, chain carrier in survey of land for Capt. George 
Johnstone on Bullskin August 28, 1750. 



Abram Johnstone owned land and resided on Patterson Creek, 
fifteen miles from its mouth, March 25, 1748. George Johnston, a tract of land surveyed for on south 
side of Bullskiu August 28, 1750. Adjoined lands of G. W. Fairfax 
and Robert Ashby. 

Thomas Johnston owned lands on Long Marsh adjoining G, IV. 
Fairfax’s lands March, 174S. Line referred todn survey of Thomas 

William Johnston owned lands on Long Marsh. Joined lands of 
Col. Blackstone, 1758. 

Thomas Jones, chain carrier in survey of land for Capt. George 
Johnstone on Bullskiu August 28, 1750. 

Isabella Jump, widow, a tract of land surveyed for on Long Marsh 
October 19, 1750. near the Fairfax County road. Adjoins lands of 
Hannah Southerd. 

John Keith, chain carrier in survey of land for Henry Enoch April 

23, 1750, and on the same day was chain man in survey of land for 
John Newton. 

T. Keys, had settled and owned lands adjoining lands of Lawrejice 
Washington in 1750. His line mentioned in survey of L. Washing- 
ton's survey August 24 and 25, 1750. 

Samuel Kinsman laid warrant in Frederick Count} for 400 acres, 

James Kinson laid warrant on Lost River for 400 acres of land, 

John Lindsey, marker in survey of land for John Madden, October 

24, 1750, on Long Marsh. 

Thomas Lofton, a tract of land surveyed for on Bullskiu, October 
17. 1750. He served as marker October 18, 1750; acted as chain 
carrier in survey for G. Smith, on Long Marsh. 

Thomas Lofton, Jr., carried chain in survey of land for John 
Cosine on the Long Marsh, October 18, 1750. 

Timothy McCarty, chain carrier in survey for Lawrence A\ ashing- 
ton on Bullskiu August 2(3, 1750. 

Thomas McClahan, chainman in survey of land for Jeremiah \\ ood 
on the Long Marsh, October 24. 1750. 

Dr. James McCormick patented land on Bullskiu, adjoined Capt.^ 
George Johnstone’s August 28, 1750. His line mentioned in the sur- 
vey of Capt. Marquis Calmes, November 3, 1750, in whose survey he 
acted as chain carrier. 




Darby McKeaver, Sr., laid warrant for 400 acres of land in Fred- 
erick County, 1748. April 10, 1750, had survey of tract on Cacapon 
in Frederick County surveyed 4121 acres. Same day surveyed waste 
land between Darby McKeaver and son divided between them. 

Daniel McKleduff, marker in survey of land on branch of Bull- 
skin August 20, 1750, for Richard Stephenson and William Davis. 
Marker in survey for Maj. Lawrence Washington August 21 to 23, 

John Madden, a tract of land surveyed for at Joe’s Hole’ 5 on 
Long Marsh, near the Fairfax road, October 24, 1750. 

Patrick Matthews had taken up land on south side of Bullskin 
adjoining survey of Capt. George Johnstone before August 28, 1750, 
when his line was referred to. . 

John Miller, marker in survey for John Anderson on Long Marsh 
October 19, 1750, and marker in survey October 22, for Isaac Foster, 
and same day marker in survey for Samuel Isaac. 

Morris’s patent adjoined lands of Maj. Lawrence Washing- 
ton, as determined by survey to both August 22 to 23, 1750. Also 
mention is made of Morris’s patent in survey of Capt. George Neavil, 
October 30, 1750. 

Edward Musgrove, a tract of land surveyed for on Shenandoah, 
August 16, 1750. Adjoins lands of William Yestall. 

John Musgrove, marker in survey of land for Edward Musgrove 
on Shenandoah River, August 16, 1750, and which adjoined his own 
patented lands. 

Ned Musgrove, marker in survey of lands for Edward Musgrove, 
August 16, 1750. 

Capt. George Neavil, a tract of land surveyed for on Long Marsh 
adjoining Morris’s patent, north side of Fairfax road, October 30, 1750. 

Capt. Isaac Pennington* had procured land about sixteen miles 
below Winchester on Bullskin before 1748. George Washington 
lodged with him the first night lie was out as a surveyor in the valley. 
His lines mentioned in survey of lands for Thomas Lofton, October 
17, 1750. A tract of land surveyed for adjoining his own patent on 
Long Marsh, October 23, 1750. He served as his own marker of the 
li ne. 

Andrew Pitts, patent for laud on Bullskin, August 20, 1750, ad- 
joins the survey of Richard Stephenson and William Davis, August 

* The first deed on record in the valley of Virginia is from Pennington to a man named Heeler.— 
Em ron. 









20, 1750, and is also referred to in surveys of Maj. Lawrence Wash- 
ington, August 21 and 23, 1750. 

Charles Polk, supposed to have resided in the vicinity of Williams-,, 
port in Maryland, had land under cultivation in 1748. George Wash- 
ington and G. W. Fairfax stopped with him March 20, 1748. 

Hugh Rankon, chain man in survey of land on Bullskin for Maj. 
Lawrence Washington, August 26, 1750. 

Patrick Rice, a tract of land surveyed for on north side of Long 
Marsh, October 23, 1750. He served as marker on the line. 

Capt. Thomas Rutherford had settled upon lands on the Bullskin, 
adjoining surveys of Maj. Lawrence Washington, xlugust 24 and 25, 

Buben Rutherford served as chain carrier in survey of lands on 
Shenandoah for Edward Musgrove, August .16, 1750. 

James Butlidge, horse jockey, had taken up land on South Branch, 
about seventy miles above its mouth. George Washington and G. W, 
Fairfax stopped with him over night, March 28, 1748. 

Stephen Sebastian, chain man in survey of land for Isabella Jump 
on Long Marsh, October 19, 1750. 

John Slieelv, chain carrier in survey of land for Hannah Sou t herd,., 
October 29, 1750, and chain man in survey of land for Robert Fox 
on the same day. 

Walter Sherley had lands on the Bullskin adjoining lands of Maj. 
Lawrence Washington, August 24 and 25, 1750. Llis line mention in 
this survey. 

George Smith, chain carrier in survey of land for Thomas Lofton, 
on Long Marsh, October 17, 1750. He also owned land, as his line is 
referred to in survey of John Cozins, October 18, 1750, and in whose 
survey he was marker. A tract surveyed for himself October 18, 
1750, on Long Marsh. 

Llannah Soutlierd a tract of land surveyed for on Long Marsh, 
October 29, 1750. Her lands adjoined those of Robert Ashby and 
Widow Jump. 

Stephen Soutlierd, chain carrier in survey of land for Robert Ash- 
by on Long Marsh, October 27, 1750, and marker in survey for Hau- 
nah Soutlierd, October 29, 1750. 

Richard Stephenson, a tract of land surveyed for him and William 
Davis on the north branch of Bullskin, August 20, 1750. His land 
adjoined that of Maj. Lawrence Washington. 




Ricliard Taylor, chain man in survey on Long Marsh for Maj. L, 
Washington, March 14 and 15, 1748. March 29, 1748, chain carrier 
in survey of land for Michael Stump, on south branch. 

Robert Taylor, chain carrier in survey of land for George AY. 
Fairfax, on Long Marsh, March 15 and 16, 1748, of 3,023 acres. 

Lewis Thomas, chain man in survey of land on Bullskin for 
Richard Stephenson and William Davis, August 20; 1750. And again 
chain carrier in survey for Maj. Lewis Washington, August 21 and 22, 

Nathaniel Thomas had taken up lands on the Bullskin, adjoining 
lands of Maj. Lewis Washington on Bullskin, August 24 and 25, 
1750. His lines referred to in survey. 

Owen Thomas, marker in survey of land for G. Smith on Long 
Marsh, October 18, 1750. 

John Urton, chain carrier in survey of land for Isaac Pennington 
on Long Marsh, October 23, 1750, and same day in survey for Patrick 
Rice. October 27, 1750, chain bearer in survey for Robert Ashby, and 
29th chain carrier in survey of land for Hannah Southerd, and same 
day in survey for Robert Fox. 

Alexander Yknce, marker in survey for John Yanee, for land on 
Long Marsh, October 19, 1750. 

John Yance, a tract of land on Long Marsh, surveyed October 19, 
1750. His land adjoins that of John Anderson and also that of Isaac 

Henry Vanmeter had taken up land on the south branch before 
1748, and resided there when George Washington was making these 
surveys, April 6, 1758. 

John Yestall had settled upon lands on the Shenandoah before 1750 
— his line is cited in survey for Mr. Edward Musgrove, August 16, 
1750, for whom he served as chain carrier. 

William Yestall* had settled upon lands on the Shenandoah prior 
to 1750. His line is referred to in survey of land for Edward Mus- 
grove, August 16, 1750. 

Samuel Waker [Walker] resided upon patented land on the Bull- 
skin; his line is referred to in survey for Maj. Lawrence Washington, 
August 21 and 24, 1750. Was this the person whose name has been 
given to a creek in Augusta County? 

Maj. Lawrence Washington, a tract of land surveyed for on the 

* On VeSiatTs land on the river, six Or eight miles from Cluulestovvn. was erected the first iron 
works west or the Rlue Ridge, in 17+2. The ruins of the “Old Rloomery v ave still to he seen. — Fj>it ok. 



Bull skin, August 21 to 23. These lands adjoining lands of Mr. 
Worthington, Mr. Davis and Gershom Keys, August 2d and 25; a 
farther survey for on the Bullskiu, which adjoined -Robert Worthing- 
ton’s patent — and the lands of Henry Bradshaw, August 2(3, 1750, 
surveyed for the vacancy between Worthington’s lines near Smith’s 

William Wiggons, marker in survey of land for Thomas Wiggons, 
April 24, 1750, and same day served as chain bearer in survey of 
land for Isaac Dawson. 

Jeremiah Wood, chain carrier in survey of land for John Madden 
on Long Marsh, October 24, 1750. The same day had a survey of a 
tract for himself adjoining Carter’s line, and also Samuel Isaac’s. 

Robert Worthington resided on patented lands on the Bullskin. 
His land adjoined and is referred to in survey for Maj. Lawrence 
Washington, August 21 to 23, 1750. He was marker in this survey 
for L. Washington, August 26, 1750. Served as chain carrier in sur- 
vey of land for Capt. Marquis Calmes, November 3, 1750. 

Appointment of Officers— First Court in 1743 — Jail, Pillory, Stocks, 
and Whipping Post— Ordinaries Licensed — First Arrest — King's At- 
torney— A Primitive Minister— List of Prices for Tavern Keep- 
ers— Severe Sentences— First -Grand Jury and Presentments— Den- 
can Ogullion— Tiie First Deed— Some Early Land Transfers— Ves- 
tal’s Iron Works— First County Levy— Injustice and Inhumanity- 
Arrival of Lord Fairfax— First Court House— List of Early Roads. 

OR several years after the erection of Frederick County by act 

of the General Assembly in November, 1733, there was not suffi- 
cient population in all the vast section comprising at that time Shen- 
andoah, a portion of Page, Warren, Frederick, Clark, Berkeley, Jef- 
ferson and Morgan Counties, and all the territory due west of them, to 
justify the appointment of county officers and the setting in motion of 
the wheels of government for the valley district as a separate institu- 






tion, but in 1743 settlements had so rapidly increased that the peti- 
tions of the leading men were granted. October 2, 1743, “His Ex- 
cellency, William Gooch, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of the forces of the Colony and Province of Virginia, by the 
grace of His Most Gracious Majesty, Our Sovereign Lord, George II., 
King, Defender of the Faith, &c.,” issued commissions as justices of 
the peace to “our trusty and well-beloved” Morgan Morgan, Benja- 
min Borden, Thomas Chester, David. Vance, Andrew Campbell, Mar- 
quis Calmes, Thomas Rutherford, Lewis Neil, William McMachen, 
Meredith Helms, George Idoge, John White, and Thomas Little, 
gentlemen, accompanied by a dedimus for the administering of the 
oath of office to the appointees. On November 11, 1743, the gentlemen 
named having been notified of their appointment met for the purpose 
-of organizing a court, but just where they met is not now definitely 
known, but it is supposed that it was at the house of James Wood, 
just west of the western limits of the now central portion of Winches- 
ter, for -Wood's land at that time took in a portion of the spot whereon 
now stands the town named, running, in fact, to the west line of 
Cameron Street. Having met, Morgan Morgan and David Vance ad- 
ministered the oath to the others named in the commission, who hav- 
ing taken their seats as justices for Frederick County, appointed 
James W 7 ood clerk of the court and Thomas Rutherford high sheriff. 
George Home was appointed surveyor. At this first court appeared 
James Porteus, John Steerman, George Johnston and John Newport, 
who desired the privilege of being booked as attorneys, and vffio upon 
taking: the oath as such, were granted the use of the court house to 
attend to the legal wants of prospective clients. 

The next business of the court was to admit to probate the will of 
Bryant McNamee, deceased. Letters of administration were granted 
to Elizabeth Seamon, on the estate of her husband, Jonathan Sea- 
mon, deceased; Morgan Morgan, gent., John Smith, John Hampton 
and Robert Worthington were appointed to appraise the money value 
of Seamen’s estate. The clerk was ordered to provide record books 
and be paid at the laying of the next levy. Also, that the clerk agree 
with some person to fetch the law books from the house of Mr. Parks, 
for the use of the justices; and that the constables and overseers then 
serving as officers of Orange County within the limits of Frederick 
County, be retained until the next court. 

It was “ordered that the Sheriff build a twelve foot square log 




house,- logg’d above and below, to secure liis prisoners, be agreeing to 
be satisfied with what shall be allowed him for such building by two 
of the court, and. he not to be responsible for escapes.” 

At the next court held December 9, same year, present Morgan 
Morgan, David Vance, William McMachen, and George Hoge, a peti- 
tion for a road was made by John Wilcox and others, to run “from John 
Funk’s mill to Chester’s ferry and from thence to where the road takes 
out of Chester’s road to Manases’ Run.” Ordered that Thomas 
Chester, gent., John Wilcox and Jacob Funk, view, mark and lay off 
the said road, and make return of their proceedings at next court. 

James Porteus was empowered to act as King’s attorney until the 
pleasure of the governor could be known. Marquis Calmes and Will- 
iam McMachen were ordered to agree with workmen for erecting a 
pillory, stocks and whipping-post, and make a return of their proceed- 
ings at the next court. John Kersey was permitted to open a ferry 
at his place on the Sherrandoe River. Thomas Chester having been 
appointed coroner by Gov. Gooch, took the oath of office. A road was 
ordered to be laid out from John Frost’s mill to several plantations. 

The first mention of a tavern in this section occurs at this second 
court, when Patrick Ryley petitions for a license to keep an “ordinary,” 
which was granted to that evidently Hibernian gentleman, after pay- 
ment of the governor’s fees and obtaining John Smith as his bonds- 
man, presumably for the good conduct of the proprietor of the hostelry. 
Several others obtained licenses for “ordinaries” at the same time, 
among whom were Thomas Hart and Lewis Neill. And even Capt. 
Andrew Campbell and Morgan Morgan, gent., did not disdain to 
endeavor to turn an honest penny by affording accommodations to the 
traveling public, and in dispensing liquid aliment to their thirsty 
neighbors and the tired wayfarer, as those two primitive worthies also 
obtained licenses from themselves and associates to keep ordinaries. 
At that early day when there were in this valley, at least, literally no 
towns nor even villages, it was necessary for almost every householder 
to keep some sort of accommodations for the public, and as it would 
have been a burden upon many of the settlers to have kept a traveler 
without cost, he would have to charge, but he could not do that with- 
out making himself amenable to the law; so, many of them took out 
licenses which permitted them to sell liquors as well as to provide food 
and lodging. 

John Upton was sworn in as a constable, aud Robert Worthington 




and George Thurston were continued in office, they having been con- 
stables under the Orange County organization. Stephen Hotsenbeil 
was appointed constable for Capt. John Hite’s precinct ; Thomas Gray 
for Capt. Denton’s; Thomas Babb between Capt. Hite’s and Capt. 
Lewis’, and George Bounds for Capt. Chester’s. William Flintham was 
sworn in as a deputy sheriff. The first man arrested and held in durance 
vile, after the organization, was James Brumiadgeham, charged with 
stealing two bells from George Wright, but upon examination the 
prisoner was found not guilty and released. 

On Friday, January 13, the ensuing month, at a meeting of the 
court, five more lawyers placed themselves on the roll of attorneys for 
Frederick County, they being William Bussell, John Quin, Gabriel 
Jones, William Jolliffe and Michael Byan. Benjamin and Bobert 
Butherford were sworn in as deputy sheriffs. William Hoge obtained 
license to keep an ordinary. John Dooues took out a peddler’s license, 
and it is supposed that he did a thriving trade, as there were as yet 
no store or other places where goods could be bought in the entire 
valley of Virginia. Most of the supplies of the settlers were obtained 
from Fredericksburg, Alexandria and Pennsylvania. The county sur- 
veyor, G. Home or Hume, was ordered to run the dividing line between 
Frederick and Augusta. A road was ordered to be laid out from 
Hampton’s mill to the Great Cape Capon, and another from Howell* s 
Ford to Ashby’s Bent Gap. John Julian, George Bounds, James 
Burne and Gershom Woodall, were made constables. Among the 
proceedings of this third court, in a suit for debt against James Finla. 
occurs a name for the first time mentioned in the records of this sec- 
tion. Thomas McGyer sues James Finla for a sum of money. The 
old scribe or clerk first writes it as just given; lie afterward spells it 
McGuier , and then McGuire, as at. present. 

The next court was held February 11, 1743-4.* Gabriel Jones, 
one of the attorneys admitted at a previous session of the court, was 
recommended by the justices to the governor as a suitable person for 
King’s attorney. First case of assault and battery on record: Dooues 
vs. Samuel Isaacs. 

March 9, 1743-4, Henry Mur day was admitted to the practice of 
law, he making the tenth of that profession to be allowed the privilege 
at the bar of Frederick. Two servants (white), one in the employ of 

* The Old sole, or Julian system; »f clvvoiw >lagy wits still ill use. although it w;; > grcwhudlj dying o a 
It was abolished by the Kim; and Parliament in 17.72. The. ( )ld Style counted the year np t<> March n . 
hence writers of the time were in the habit of putting it as above U7i:M> to prevent mi>ui,d i >iandu.^. 



Marquis Calmes, named Richard Mapper, and the other employed by 
Andrew Campbell, and named Thomas Drummond, absented them- 
selves from their usual work for twenty-one days. They were arrest- 
ed, brought before the court and sentenced to serve nine months longer 
than the time for which they were indentured. A road was laid off 
from John Shepard’s to the head of the Bullskin, and another was laid 
out from Robinson’s Gap to Vestal’s Gap. 

The first mention of a minister of religion in the records occurs at 
this court where two negroes, a boy named Jacob, and a girl named 
Micey, are adjudged to be fifteen years of age toward payiiig off the 
levy. The negroes are stated to be the property of Rev. William 
Williams. To what denomination this pioneer worker in the vineyard 
of the Lord belonged is not stated, and where his church, chapel or 
meeting house was located is also in the forgotten past. 

As a matter of interest and for preservation, and as showing the 
manners and customs of our forefathers, the following schedule of 
prices is copied entire from the proceedings of the March court: 

Prices for Ordinary-Keepers . — Pursuant to law the following rates, 
and prices are set and allowed by this court upon liquors, etc., that, 
ordinary-keepers in this county shall entertain and sell at, to-wit: 

& s. d. 

Barbadoes Rum, per gallon 6 

Rye Brandy 5 

Rum Punch or Fiz, the quart, with 3 gills and white 

sugar . . 1 

R}*e Brandy Punch or Fiz, the quart, with 3 gills and 

brown sugar. 9 

Rum Punch or Fiz, the pint, with li gills and white 

sugar 6 

Rye Brandy Punch or Fiz, the pint, with \\ gills and 

brown sugar 4A 

Beer, per quart 4 

Cider, per quart 4 

Madeira Wine, per quart 2 

Claret, per quart bottle 4 

French Brandy, per gallon 16 

French Brandy Punch, per quart 2 6 

Hot Diet 6 

Cold Diet 4 

Lodging, with clean sheets .. 3 

Stableage, with fodder or bay per night. 4 

Pasturage * . . • • 4 

Indian Corn, per gallon 4 

Oats • • 4 

Ordered, that the several ordinary-keepers in this county sell and 



retail liquors at the above rates, and that they presume not to sell at 
any other rates, and that it any person do not pay immediately for 
what he has that he pay for the same at the fall in tobacco at 10 shil- 
lings per cwt. 

At the session of the court next day, March 10, it was ordered 
that the clerk, Col. James Wood, write to Mr. Robert Jackson, mer- 
chant, Fredericksburg, to procure from England -sets of standard 
weights and measures for the use of the colony. 

April 1-1, 1714, a white servant named John Lightfoot, who ab- 
sented himself from his master’s service three months, was sentenced 
by the justices to serve four years and seven months additional after 
his indentured term should expire, and to pay all costs. 

Michael Ryan, one of the ten attorneys lately admitted to practice, 
was brought before the court and sentenced to two months silence at 
the bar of Frederick County for being drunk, which shows that in- 
temperance, even among the dignified legal fraternity, is not such an 
excessively modern invention as might be supposed. A “ press ” was 
ordered to be made to hold the records of the county. 

May 11, 1744, the first grand jury w r as impaneled, consisting of 
John Hardin, foreman, Robert Allan, George Hobson, James Vance, 
John Willcocks, Peter Woolf, Isaac Pennington, David Logan, Robert 
Worth, Joshua Hedges, Robert Willson, Samuel Morris, Hugh Par- 
rell, James Hoge, Jacob Niswanger, Charles McDowell, Morgan Bry- 
ant and Colvert AndersonT 

A number of presentments were made against various violators of 
the law, among which were bills against Robert Craft, James Findlay, 
Samuel Shinn and Cutbud Harrison, for selling liquor without a 
license, and one against John Graham, for perjury. And even old 
Noah Hampton, who had a mill over toward the Blue Ridge, some- 
where, was presented by one of his irate customers for taking a 
larger amount of toll from the grain intrusted to him for grinding, 
than the law allowed. A man named James Burne, a constable, was 
presented for swearing and being a disturber of the peace, instead of 
being a conservator thereof, as he should have been, but the officers 
of the law seem to have been as frequent violators of it, as the com- 
mon herd. 

Jonathan Curtis was presented on information laid by Andrew 
Campbell, gent., one of his Majesty’s justices of the peace, for 
breaking the Sabbath by plowing on Sunday, but Curtis got back on 



to the old informer by laying information against Campbell for get- 
ting drunk and swearing two oaths. At a succeeding term of the 
court they mutually withdrew their charges, at least the cases were 

And now, most fearful and scandalous of all those old cases is one 
in which an afterward noted man was principal: The dignified Col. 
James Wood, clerk of the court and founder of Winchester, was pre- 
sented for getting drunk and swearing two oaths! 

On May 12, same year as above, the following persons were ap- 
pointed to take a list of the tithables: Thomas Chester, David Vance, 
William McMachen, Andrew Campbell, Morgan Morgan, Lewis Neill. 
Marquis Calmes, Meredith Helms, John Lindsay and Jacob H ite. 

June 8, Duncan Ogullion was granted a license to keep an ordi- 
nary. Ogullion is thought to have lived either upon or near the spot 
whereon now r stands Winchester, and if so he has the honor of having 
kept the first taven in that ancient town. He also, v 7 as awmrded the 
contract for building -the gaol by Sheriff Rutherford, as will be seen. 
Ogullion also, had the misfortune a year or two after building his 
primitive Bastile, of being himself incarcerated therein for debt. A 
bridle road was ordered to be laid out “ from Scott’s mill on the Slian- 
ando River to the court house of this county.” 

The first mention of any religious edifice in Frederick County up 
to the. session of the court June 8, 1744, occurred in reference to lay- 
ing out a road, which stipulates that it be run “ from the chapel to 
Jay’s Ferry.” Where this chapel stood is not stated, but it was possi- 
bly on the spot where now stands the Mill Creek Episcopal Church, 
or it may have been the old Nor borne Church, the picturesque ruins 
of which may be seen on the lands of Col. H. B. Davenport, near 

The annexed case, copied from the minutes of the court held July 
16, 1744, is .given to show the extreme injustice of those ancient 
times. A servant named Edmond Welsh having absented himself 
from the service of his master six days was brought before the court 
and sentenced to serve the same master sevoi months and twenty-three 
days additional to his term of indenture and pay all costs of the suit. 
These indentured servants were white persons who, through debt, 
petty violations of the law, poverty and other misfortunes, placed them- 
selves, or were placed by the courts, at the mercy of any one who 
would purchase their time. Once indentured, however, it was ex- 


7 7 - 7 r 



tremely difficult for the unfortunates to gain release. Petty charges 
were brought against them, by means of which, as in the above case, 
the merciless master was enabled to keep them for years in a state of 
absolute slavery, and not infrequently were they retained for the en- 
tire term of their natural lives. Truly our old colonial ancestors 
were a set of unmitigated tyrants. But the day of redemption was 
fast approaching, for there was a boy at that time twelve years old 
living upon a farm in Eastern Virginia who was to rise up and lead 
the armies of his countrymen to victory over kings and the ways of 

The first deed placed upon the records of Frederick County was 
one from Abraham Penington to Christopher Beeler, of 500 acres of 
land “ on the west side of the Shenandoe River, a portion of a grant 
obtained by Penington in 1734V Beeler paid £90 current money of 
Virginia for his farm. 

Benjamin Borden, Sr., sold to his son Benjamin a tract of land, a 
portion of a grant obtained in 1734 by Borden, Andrew Hampton and 
David Griffith. The tract was called “Bullskin” and was located “on 
the west side of the Sheando River, commencing at a sycamore tree 
on the Bullskin Run.” Borden, Jr., paid for his land £50. 

On January 7, 1743-4 (O. S. ), Richard Beeson, Sr., transferred 
to Richard Beeson, Jr., for £20 “one certain piece, parcel or tract of 
land on the west side of Opeckan Creek, and on a branch of the said 
creek called Tuscarora,” being a portion of a tract obtained in 1735 
by George Robinson and John Petite and sold to Richard Beeson, Sr., 
in 1737. Beeson, Sr., also conveyed to his sons Benjamin and Ed- 
ward tracts of land for £20 each; also a tract to Mordecai Menden- 
hall, in the same locality, on the Tuscarora. Jost Hite about this time 
sold a tract of 100 acres to Richard Stinson, being a portion of the 
grant Hite bought from Vanmeter. 

January 11, 1743-4, Morgan Bryan transferred 1,020 acres of land 
on the head of Tully’s branch, near the mountains, to Joshua Hedges. 
This is the original Hedges of the present county of Berkeley, and 
after whom the town of Hedgesville was named. This deed was wit- 
nessed by Andrew Campbell, Job Curtis and Jonas Hedges. January 
31 John Littler, “of the Opeckon, sold body of land on York- 
shireman’s branch ” to Thomas Rees; Littler also sold body of land 
to Henry Bowen at the head of Yorkshireman’s branch. Morgan 
Bryan sold parcel of land to Roger Turner on Tally's branch. On 





the 1st of March Charles Baker sold to Samuel Earle “ 25 acres of. 
land, more or less, on the Cruked run, being part of a grant to Jost 
Hite, who sold to John Branson, who sold to Baker.” 

March 9, 17 48-4, Thomas Rutherford, high sheriff of Frederick 
County, who located in that portion of the territory now Jefferson 
County, W. Ya., sold to Marquis Calmes, one of the justices, a large 
tract of land, upon a portion of which still reside some of the 
descendants of Calmes. John Mills, of Prince Georges County. Md., 
sold several tracts of land on Mill branch of the Opequon. Thev 
were transferred to his sons, and to Jonathan Harrold, William Chen- 
oweth and John Beals. 

Jost Hite sold in February 200 acres of land to Charles Barnes, 
and in March Hite sold 860 acres to Joseph Colvin. John Frost sold 
800 acres to John MiJburn in September. 

About this time, the spring of 1744, a number of settlers -came in 
who purchased from Alexander Ross. Among those coming in at 

1. O O 

this time were George Williams, John Perkins, Jacob Funk, William 
Tidwell, Charles Barnes, the Millses from Maryland, John Hays, 
George Hobson, of Hobson’s Marsh, Thomas Colston. Andrew Hamp- 
ton, of Brunswick County, who had obtained a grant from Gov. 
Gooch, sold several tracts. Also came David Chancey, James Por- 
teus, Enoch Anderson, Patrick Gelaspie, G. Jones, G. Johnstone, 
Marmad Stanfield, John Richard, Benjamin Fry, Thomas and Robert 
Wilson, Samuel Fulton, James and Robert Davis, William Russell, 
Joseph Helms and others. 

Richard Morgan who, as has been elsewhere stated, had obtained 
a large grant of land lying along and adjacent to the Potomac River, 
sold 210 acres for 110 pounds sterling to Van Swearengen, near 
where now stands Sliepherdstown. It was located along the afterward 
famous Morgan Spring branch, and the price paid per acre (about 
§2.50) was considered very large, when splendid land in some locali- 
ties could be bought for twenty-five and fifty cents per acre. Josiah 
Ballenger, James Wright, Robert Worth, J. Denton, Giles Chapman. 
Ulrich Ruble, Lewis Stephens, Hugh Neill, Charles Bucks, W. 
Cocks, Hugh Parker and William Trent acquired land at this time. 
Dun ken Ogullion and Patrick Dougherty, two thrifty and adventurous 
sons of the Emerald Isle, acquired land, and settled near where Win- 
chester now stands, presumably upon a portion of the tract of James 
Wood, clerk of the court. 



At this time, 1744, is to be found recorded in the first Deed Book, 
a contract that doubtless furnishes the first information in regard to 
the manufacture of iron in the State of Virginia. The contract was 
entered into May 10, 1742, but was only recorded two years later. It 
reads: That Thomas Mayberry agreed to erect a “ bloomery for mak- 
ing bar iron on the plantation of William Vestal, lying upon Shun- 
nandore ” for William Vestal, John Fraden, Richard 'Stephenson 'and 
Daniel Burnett. This old furnace was undoubtedly one of the first 
erected in the entire southern country. 

In 1745 a number of new names appear in the old, but well-pre- 
served Deed Book, among which are George Hollingsworth, David 
Black, John Quin, Francis Lilburn, John Hardin, Andrew Cook, 
Christopher Nation, William Grant, John Cheadle, David Gilkey, 
Jacob Niswanger, Evan Thomas, John Thomson and William Stroop. 
These purchased from those who had grants: William Hoge. Israel 
Friend, Jost Hite, Morgan Morgan and others. Robert Worthington 
sold to William McKay 435 acres on the Bullskin, in November, 1746, 
and the same year Thomas and John Branson came into the possession 
of 600 acres of land by the death of their father, Thomas Branson, in 
West Jersey. John Vestal bought of Jost Hite 120 acres of land on 
the Shenandoah River and Cat Tail Run, in 1747. In this same year 
Nathaniel Cartmell bought of Nathaniel Thomas 200 acres of land at 
the head of the south branch of the Opequon. Descendants of this 
old pioneer, Nathaniel Cartmell, are still well known throughout the 
valley, and one of them, T. Iv. Cartmell, Esq., has in his keeping the 
old records from which these facts are gleaned, he being at present 
(1889) clerk of the court. 

November 8, 1747, Maj. Lawrence Washington bought of Samuel 
Walker “100 acres of land on the west side of Shunnundore River, be- 
ing a portion of the original grant obtained by Jost Hite.” The fol- 
lowing vear Washington bought 700 acres of Robert Worthington, 320 

O v ZD ZD £3 7 

from Andrew Pitts, and 311 from Jost Hite. These tracts were the 
foundation of the Washington estate in this valley, some of the orig- 
inal being still in the possession of the descendants of the early 
owners. The country by this time had begun to assume a thrifty 
appearance. Extensive farms were being tilled in every direction, 
mills were being erected, and improvements of all kinds could be 
noticed going on. For this early period, 1750, the foregoing names 
will have to suffice, as it would be almost impossible to give the names 



of ail the settlers who then came in. Those given embrace all the 
very early noted families, and many of their descendants are yet liv- 
ing on the old homesteads. 

The son of Erin, Duncan Ogullion, having finished the jail for the 
sheriff, Thomas Rutherford, he was paid by order of the justices the 
sum of £80 for the job, September 8, 1748. The committee to exam- 
ine the structure and decide upon the price to be paid were James 
Wood, George Johnston, Lewis Neill and William McMaclien. 

The first levy for Frederick County was 75,697 pounds of tobacco, 
payable in that commodity or the current market price thereof in 

November 18, 1751, George Ross transferred about ten acres of 
land to Isaac Hollingsworth, Evan Thomas, Jr., and Evan Rogers, for 
building a Quaker meeting-house. 

As heretofore stated Thomas Rutherford was the first sheriff of 
the county ; his bondsmen in the sum of £1,000 were Meredith Helms, 
John Hardin, Thomas Ashby, Sr., James Seeburn, Robert Ashby, 
Thomas Ashby, Jr., Peter Woolf and Robert Worthington. The 
second sheriff was Thomas Chester, 1745; third, Andrew Campbell, 
1747; fourth, Jacob Hite, 1749; fifth, Lewis Neill, 1751; sixth, 
Meredith Helms, 1753. Col. James Wood continued to be clerk for 
many years. 

Before leaving the subject of the old justices’ courts a return to the 
records of 1744 may not be uninteresting, as showing still further the 
manners, customs and ideas of justice entertained by those old pioneers 
of our civilization. It must be remembered that these occurrences 
were at a time w r lien man had not yet grasped the eternal truths, to 
any appreciable extent, afterward enunciated in the declaration of our 
revolutionary sires, that all men are created equal. These old ex- 
pounders of the primitive laws never dreamed of any injustice in their 
sentences: they simply carried out the enactments of the General As- 
sembly, a body of law-makers which could pass an act so late as 174S, 
making it “ felony without benefit of clergy ” for being convicted of 
hog-stealing the third time. It was not enough to hang the poor cul- 
prit, but they must send him straight to hades. 

To take the more noted incidents chronologically, the following 
county levy, laid October 12, 1714, is here given: 




£ s. d. lbs. 

To James Wood, clerk, for extra services. 1,248 

To James Wood, as per account 2,015 

To James Wood, for four record books 5 4 0 or 1,664 

To James Wood, for bringing up two record books 

and one law book from Williamsburg 0 8 0 or 128 

To James Wood, for six Webb's Justices for the 

use of the county 3 5 0 or 1,040 

To Mr. Secretary Nelson - 670 

To James Wood, for use of court-house 4 0 0 or 1,280 

To Thomas Rutherford, for extra services 1,248 

To Thomas Rutherford, as per account 65 7 84 or 20,923 

To Isaac Parkins, for 526 feet of plank for use of 

courthouse.. 0 19 84 or 315 

To Gabriel Jones, as king’s attorney 2,000 

To William McMachen, for sundry services 1 0 0 or 320 

To John Bruce, for building the stocks, pillory, 

etc 5 15 0 or 1,840 

To John Harrow, for iron work for the stocks, 

pillory, etc 1 0 0 or 320 

To James Porteus, for public services 1,000 

To Andrew Campbell, gent., for payment of three 
men for going to South Branch concerning 

Indians 3 0 0 or 960 

To Isaac Parkins, as per account 2 2 5 or 6784 

To James O’Neal 3 15 0 or 1,200 

To John Jones, constable 211 

To James Wood, for standard weights and meas- 
ures 25 0 0 or 5,440 

To G. Home, for running dividing line 66 18 6 or 24,416 

To deposition left in sheriff’s hands 9 4 14 or 2,496 


To sheriff, for collecting at 6 per cent 4,285 


By 1,283 tithables at 59 lbs. tobacco per poll 75,697 

On May 7, 1745, the grand jury made the following presentments: 
Against Jonathan Curtis for “ writing and publishing several things 
against the church of England.” The information was laid by An- 
drew Campbell, the same who had previously informed upon Curtis 
for Sabbath breaking, and who had evidently retaliated upon Camp- 
bell by having him (Campbell) presented for being drunk and swear- 
ing. Campbell is now returning the retaliation. 

Rev. William Williams was fined £4- and costs for “ joyuing in the 
boly bonds of matrimony several persons, he being no orthodox min- 
ister.” He was also fined twenty-six shillings for, as the record states, 



“behaving indeciently before the court.” To what denomination the 
reverend gentleman belonged is not stated, but he was, possibly, a 
Presbyterian and preached at the Opequon church, where many Scotch- 
Irish settlers had located. It is altogether probable that when the 
court informed him of their verdict, Mr. Williams became justly out- 
raged at the injustice of the decision and gave them a piece of his 
mind in primitive English, for which the justices mulcted him for an 
additional sum. 

June 7, 1745, James Porteus, the first attorney sworn in at the 
first court, and John Quin, another attorney, seem to have gotten into 
a wrangle over some knotty law point and lost their tempers; so the 
court fined them each five shillings for “ indeciently behaving and 
swearing before the court.” Jacob Christman, son-in-law of Jost 
Hite, from whom came the name of Christman’s spring, south of Ste- 
phens City, was fined 2,000 pounds of tobacco for keeping a tippling 
house and retailing liquors without a license. 

The first application for naturalization papers was made by Peter 
Mauk, a native of Germany, who came into court and took the oaths 
appointed by acts of Parliament to be taken instead of the oaths of al- 
legiance and supremacy and the abjuration oath and subscribed the 
test, and received his papers. This old patriot was the progenitor of 
the Mauks of Page County, many of whose descendants are still in 
the section where he settled. Not long after this first application a 
number of other German Protestants from across the Blue Ridge 
came in and made settlements, among whom were John Frederick 
Yanpage Helm, John George Dellenor, Philip Glass, Jacob Peck, 
Augustine and Valentine Windle, Christopher Windle, Nathaniel 
Hunter, John Harman, Henry Miller, George Lough Miller and 
Philip and Michael Boucher. 

The first charge of murder was brought against Sarah Medcalf, 
in September, 1745. Poison was alleged to have been used by the 
woman against her husband, but after an examination she was dis- 
charged, there not being sufficient evidence to indict her. December 
6, 1745, Martha Grayham was arrested, brought before the justices, 
and charged with setting fire to the house of Andrew Campbell, but 
upon examination she was found not guilty, yet the learned judges, 
on general principles, it is presumable, ordered that the sheriff take 
her and at the common whipping-post administer to her “twenty-five 
lashes on her bare back well laid on.” Ann Cunningham has the 




honor of making the first application for divorce, or rather, “ separate 
maintenance and alimony ” from her husband, James Cunningham, 
for cruel treatment, and she gained her suit, too. 

In May, 1717, John Hite’s servant man, Henry Highland, absent- 
ed himself about one month, for which offense he was sentenced by 
the court to serve his master three years, one month, and fourteen days. 
He was also sentenced to serve two months more for abusing a horse. 
And here is a queer piece of colonial justice: April, 8, 1748, a serv- 

ant of Thomas Rutherford, who had been the first sheriff in 1743. was 
brought before the justices for striking his overseer, whereupon the 
man was sentenced to serve his master one year longer than the time 
for which he was indentured. Another servant, Aaron Price, for as- 
saulting Andrew Vance, was fined 200 pounds (§1,000), and remain 
in custody, that is, be hired out, till the fine was paid. Bathany 
Haines was fined the same sum for being a person of ill-fame. These 
two persons probably remained in servitude the balance of their lives, 
for §1,000 at that day was an enormous sum to a poor man. 

No feeling of humanity seems to have had a place in the hearts of 
those old colonial justices, for a poor girl who would slip from the 
path of virtue, led off by some rascally libertine, and bring forth the 
fruit of her sin, would be sentenced to receive “ twenty-five lashes on 
the bare back w'ell laid on at the common wliipping-post,” condemned, 
to serve some master two years, and her child bound for life to who- 
soever would take it. It seems almost impossible that such things 
could be, only about a century ago. 

Our old Hibernian friend, Duncan Ogullion, the first jail builder, 
seems to have been a famous roysterer, for he and Neill Ogullion, 
Samuel Merryfield and Edward Nowlandhad a high time on the night 
of May 6, 1747, in Frederick Town, as it was called, and as will be 
shown further along. Andrew Campbell, who appears to have been the 
primitive Hawkshaw, for his name figures in a number of cases where- 
in he laid the information, had the above quartet arrested for “raising 
a riot,” and the conservators of the peace bound them over for a year 
and a day. The first case of vagrancy is recorded about this time. 
Richard Ellwood was brought before the court on August 4, charged 
with being a “ vagrant, dissolute, idle fellow,” and was sentenced to 
receive twenty-five lashes on his bare back, after which he was hand- 
ed over to a constable, who passed him to another, and so on till they 
run him out of the county. 



An important arrival is recorded in the minutes of a court held in 
1749, one that had a marked influence on public affairs, and is as 

‘‘November 17, 1749. — The Eight Honorable Thomas Lord Fair- 
fax, Baron of Cameron in that part of Great Britain called Scotland, 
and proprietor of the Northern Neck, produced a special commission 
to be one of his Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the county from 
under the hand of the Honorable Thomas Lee, Esquire, President and 
Commander in Chief of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, and 
the seal of this colony, took the oaths appointed by act of Parliament 
to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy and the 
oath of abjuration, and having subscribed the test, was sworn a Justice 
of the Peace and of the county court in chancery. 

“ Lord Fairfax, producing a commission, was sworn County Lieu- 

“ George William Fairfax, Esquire, at the same time was sworn 
to Lis commission of colonel of the militia of the county.” 

Considerable interest having for many years been manifested as 
to the exact location of the first court house and prison of Frederick 
County, the writer has made thorough researches of the ancient rec- 
ords, and is gratified to state that he has traced the matter to a con- 
clusion that admits of no doubt. The minutes of the first justices’ 
meeting record the fact that “they met,” — but where? Now, Col. 
James Wood, a prominent gentleman, a man of large landed interests, 
was appointed clerk of the court. He, presumably, had one of the 
most commodious residences in all these parts, although there were a 
number of other wealthy persons located throughout the county. Is 
it not natural and altogether in accordance with the course of matters 
that the justices should meet in his house, there being no court house 
then built in the county ? Col. Wood’s house was just beyond the west- 
ern limits of the present Winchester, which fact is well known. And 
to confirm the idea that the courts were held at his house an item 
;s ppears in the first county levy, where he is awarded the sum of “four 
pounds for the use of the court house.” The justices continued to 
meet at the same place for some time, and it is supposed from certain 
proceedings that about 1745 they rented a building temporarily till a 
court house could be built, at or near where the present court house 
stands. Some time during the year 1745 a contract was entered into 
with John Hardin for building a court house, for at the levy laid 
on December 3, of that year, appears this item : 





To John Hardin, for building the court house and to lay in the 

sheriff’s hands till the work is completed 11,920 

Then follow these: 

£ s. tl. 

November 4, 1746. — To Thomas Fossett, for furnishing one 

dozen chairs 1 7 0 

To Marquis Calmes, for iron nails 1 3 3 

December 2 , 1746. — To be lodged in the collector’s hands for ' 
procuring irons, plates and dogs for the chimney in the 

court house 3 0 0 

November 4, 1747. — To Andrew Campbell, for table... 3 0 0 

To be appropriated for flooring the court house and making a 

sheriff’s box 8 0 0 

John Hardin, the contractor, March 3, 1748, acknowledged the re- 
ceipt of £100 in satisfaction for the joiners and carpenters work on 
the court house. The work must have progressed slowly, for in the 
spring of 1749 there appears an order of the justices for laying a floor 
in the court house; and one ordering the contractor to finish his work 
without delay. In August, 1750, however, the building was so far 
completed that the justices ordered that Jacob Hite and John Hardin 
agree with James Dunbar or any other workman, to fix benches round 
the court house and in the jury rooms; also to make two tables for 
the jury rooms, and to fix steps at the court house door, and to make 
report of the proceedings to next court. Yet there must have been a 
still further delay, for the next year, August 21, 1751, appears an 
order in the proceedings of the justices as follows: “John Hardin is 

ordered to finish the court house by next court.” This last shot at 
the contractor no doubt had the desired effect, for nothing more ap- 
pears in regard to the matter. That old temple of justice, built of 
stone, with one large chimney, stood for many years, fronting south, 
upon the spot where now stands the present edifice. Fronting as that 
building did upon the thoroughfare now known as Water Street, so 
called from the fact that it w r as nearest the town run, shows that Water 
Street was the principal street at that time. 

The first prison erected, the one ordered to be built by Thomas 
Rutherford, who sublet his contract to Duncan Ogullion, must have 
been a very temporary affair, for December 5, 1745, the justices or- 
dered “William McMachen and Lewis Neill to agree with workmen to 
build a square log house for a prison for this county.” And in the 
same month 25,600 pounds of tobacco w as appropriated for the purpose. 
An order was given for the prison to be plastered and white-washed. 



The work on the prison must have been in the hands of more prompt 
mechanics than those on the court house, for the next year, August 7, 
1746, Morgan Morgan and others were ordered to view r the work on the 
prison, yet tiiat may have been for the purpose of ascertaining the pro- 
gress made by the contractor, for as late as 1750 an order was passed to 
procure locks for the building. The first old log prison, however, was 
offered for sale October 4, 1748. 

As showing that there was a change in the location of the first 
seat of justice and the implements for executing the lav r , Daniel Craig 
was ordered to clear lots for the new buildings in 1745, and October 
7, 1746, James Dunbar was paid £2:17:6 for removing the pillory 
and stocks. December 2, 1746, Marquis Calmes, gent., was paid £5:5 
for erecting a “ducking stool according to the model of that of Fred- 
ericksburg.” At the same time William McMachen, gent., was paid 
£2:10 for “digging a pit seven feet deep and six feet square in the 
clear, and walling the same with stone, for a ducking stool.” This 
instrument was used more particularly for women whom the justices 
would condemn as “ common scolds,” and was supposed to have a par- 
ticularly soothing, cooling effect upon the hot temper and strained 
nerves of the irate housewife. 

The “Ducking Stool” w r as founded upon, and made obligatory by. 
the following act: 

“At a Grand Assembly held at James City the 23d of December. 
1662, and in the 14th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II. 

“ An Ad for the Punishment of Scandalous Persons. 

“Whereas, Many Babbling Women Slander and Scandalize their 
Neighbors, for which their poor Husbands are often involved in 
chargeable and vexatious Suits, and cast in great Damages: Be it, 

therefore Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That in Actions of 
slander, occasioned by the Wife, after judgment passed for the damages,, 
the Woman shall be punished by Ducking; and if the Slander be 
so enormous as to be adjudged at greater Damages than Five Hundred 
pounds of Tobacco, then the Woman to suffer a Ducking for each 
Five Hundred pounds of Tobacco adjudged against the Husband, if 
he refuse to pay the Tobacco.” 

Up to the date of the establishment by law r of the town of Win- 
chester, which will be shown in the next chapter, settlements had in- 
creased and the population had spread so rapidly over the large sec- 
tion of country comprised in Frederick County that many roads were 




laid out, the most important of which will be found in the following 
list, gleaned from the records in the clerk’s office: 

From court house to Morgan Morgan's. 

From meeting house at the gap of the mountain above Hugh Paul’s to W arm Springs. 
From court house to Littler's old place. 

From Smith’s to John Littler’s. 

From Parkins’ mill to Jones’ plantation. 

From Sturman’s Run to Johnson’s mill. 

From John Milton’s to John Sturman’s. 

From Cunningham’s chapel to the river. 

From Hite’s mill to Chrisman’s Spring. 

From county road to the chapel to McCoy’s Spring. 

From Opequon to the court house. 

From Cedar Creek to McCoy’s Run. 

From Spout Run to John Sturman’s. 

From Opequon to Sherrando. 

From Gaddis’ plantation to Littler’s mill. 

From Hite’s mill to Nation’s Run. 

From Mill Creek to Littler’s old place. 

From Ferry to the county road. 

From Stephen’s mill to McCoy’s chapel. 

From William Hugh’s plantation to Jeremiah Smith’s. 

From Simon Linders’ to old Lloyd’s. 

From Branson's mill to Gregory’s Ford. 

From Cunningham’s to Borden’s Spring. 

From Capt. Rutherford’s to Potomac. 

From Capt. Rutherford’s to John McCormack’s. 

From Howell’s Ford to the top of the Ridge. 

From David Lloyd’s to top of Blue Ridge at Vestal’s Gap. 

From lower part of Patterson’s Creek to the wagon road. 

From mouth of Patterson’s Creek to Job Pearsall’s. 

From VYatkin’s Ferry to Falling Waters. 

From Hite’s Spring to middle of swamp in Smith’s Marsh. 

From Gap on Little Mountain to Kersey’s Ferry. 

From Littler’s old place to Opequon. 

From Stony Bridge to Parker’s on North River of Cape Capon. 

From Richard Sturman’s to Cunningham’s chapel. 

From court house to Ballinger’s plantation. 

From Funk’s mill to Cedar Creek, 

From FuDk’s mill to Augusta line. 

From the town to Dr. Briscoe’s. 

From bridge near Lindsey’s to Cunningham’s chapel. 

From Stover’s mill to Gabriel Jones’ plantation. 

From Frederick Town to mouth of the South Branch. 

From Long Marsh to Vestal’s Iron Works. 

From William Frost’s to John Frost’s mill. 

From Hoop Petticoat Gap to Hite’s mill. 

From Branson’s mill to Hite’s mill. 

From Ross’ fence by the gr^atroad to Opequou. 

From Johnson’s house to road to Fairfax County. 

From Caton’s house to Jacob Hite’s. 



From Watkins’ Ferry to Vestal’s Gap. 

From John Ratchlies' to John Fostelt’s. 

From Stephens' mill to Mary Lit tier’s. 

From Chester’s to Branson’s mill. 

From North River to Great Cape Capon. 

From Cunningham’s chapel to Neill’s Ford. 

From Cedar Creek to cross-roads at John Duckworth’s. 
From John McCormack’s to main road to town. 

On the river side from Long Marsh to Vestal’s. 

From Sleepy Creek to Widow Paul’s. 

From Morgan’s chapel to Opequon. 

From Lloyd’s crossing river to top of ridge. 

From Burnell's mill to Fox Trap Point. 

From Kersey’s to ferry road of Shenando. 

From river at Edge’s Ford to Francis Carney’s. 

From head of the Pond in Shenando to Wormley’s quarter. 
From bridge to head of Great Pond on Shenando. 

From Sturman’s bridge to Bur well's mil!. 

From Nation’s Run to Capt. Hite’s. 

From town to the Opequon. 

From the run by Nation’s to Kersey’s Ferry. 

From head of spring at Strihliug’s to Cunningham’s chapel. 
From Mark Harman’s mill to Isaac Hollingsworth’s. 



Laying off Frederick Town— First Street— Prison Bounds— Est ablish- 
ment of Winchester— Origin of the Name— Washington’s Mission— 
His Ancestry— French Encroachments— Battle of Great Meadows 
—Fort Necessity — Washington’s Return to Winchester — Popula- 
tion of the Lower Valley— Indian Atrocities— John Harrow vs. G. 
Washington— Braddock’s Defeat— Washington’s Splendid Letter- 
Winchester in 1756 — Building of Fort Loudon— History Repeated— 
Capt. Bullitt’s Exploit— Capture of Fort Duquesne— Washington 
as Representative from the Lower Valley — A Couple of Relics 
—The Small-Pox— Death of Clerk Wood. 

F ROM the fact that Winchester was established by law in 1752, 
it is generally supposed that the now prosperous town of that 
name took its rise at that date ; that there were no buildings here to 
speak of and, consequently, no population; that the town was only 
laid off — surveyed — at the time indicated; and that the court met 
elsewhere, even after the act of the General Assembly creating the 






village by name was passed; but the reverse of this state of affairs 
can be shown conclusively by the proceedings of the early justices 
and documents extant. Tradition places the nucleus of a town where 
Winchester now stands as early as 1732, for it is related that two of 
the best known families now residing in the city named had their 
origin in two cabins located on what is now known as the town run. 
The name of one of these families occurs among the records of land 
transfers as early as 1743, the other not until many years after. The 
following documents copied from the first Deed Book, and bearing 
date March 9, 1743, gives the first glimpse, of what is now Winchester r 
but what was called, as will be shown, for several years, Frederick 

KNOW all men by these presents that I, James Wood, of Frederick 
county, am held and firmly bound unto Morgan Morgan, Thomas 
Chester, David Yance, Andrew Campbell, Marquis Calmes, Thomas 
•Rutherford, Lewis Neill, William McMaclien, Meredith Helms, George 
Hoge, John White and Thomas Little, gents., Justices of the said 
county and their successors, in the sum of one thousand pounds cur- 
rent money of Virginia, to be paid to the said Morgan Morgan. Thomas 
Chester, David Yance, Andrew Campbell, Marquis' Calmes, Thomas 
Rutherford, Lewis Neill, William McMaclien, Meredith Helms, George 
Hoge, John White and Thomas Little, and their successors. To the- 
which payment well and truly to be made, I bind myself, my heirs, 
executors and administrators firmly by these presents, sealed with my 
seal, and dated this 9th day of March, 1743. 

THE CONDITION of the above obligation is such that whereas 
the above bound James Wood having laid off from the tract of land 
on which he now dwells at Opeckon, in the county aforesaid, twenty- 
six lots of land containing half an acre each, together with two streets 
running through the said lots, each of the breadth of thirty- three feet, 
as will more plainly appear by a plan thereof in the possession of the 
said Morgan Morgan, Marquis Calmes, and William McMaclien. And 
whereas the said James Wood, for divers good causes and considera- 
tions him thereunto moving, but more especially for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of five shillings current money to him in hand paid, 
the receipt whereof he doth here acknowledge, Hath bargained and 
sold, on the conditions hereafter mentioned, all his right, title, interest, 
property and claim, to twenty-two of the said lots to the aforesaid 
Morgan Morgan, Ac., his Majesties’ Justices of the said county for the 
time being and their successors, to be disposed of by them for the use 
of the said county as they shall judge most proper, the said lots being 
numbered in the beforementioned plan as follows, viz: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 10, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26, on the 
following conditions, viz: that they, the said Justices or their assigns,. 




shall, within two years from the day of the sale of; tire said lots, build 
or cause to be built on each lot one house, either framed work or 
squared logs, dovetailed, at least of the dimensions of 20 feet by 16, 
and in case any person in possession of a lot or lots fail to build within 
the time limited, the property of the said lot or lots to return to the 
said James Wood, his heirs or assigns. And whereas the said James 
Wood not having yet obtained a patent for the said land can only give 
bond to warrant and defend the property of the Said lots to the said 
Justices, their successors or assigns. Now if the said James Wood, his 
heirs, executors and administrators, shall from time to time at all times 
hereafter maintain, protect and defend the said Justices, their succes- 
sors and assigns, in the peaceable and quiet possession of the before- 
mentioned lots of land from all persons whatsoever, Thomas Lord 
Fairfax, his heirs, or any other person claiming under him or them 
only r excepted. And further, if the said James Wood, his heirs, Ac., 
shall hereafter obtain either from His Majesty by r patent or from the 
said Thomas Lord Fairfax or his heirs, a better title to the land of the 
said lots, than what he is possessed of at present, that then the said 
James Wood, his heirs, Ac,, shall within one year, if required, make 
such other title for the said lots to the said Justices or their successors, 
as their council learned in the law shall advise so far forth as his own 
title shall extend. Now if the said James Wood, his heirs, executors 
and administrators, shall well and truly perform all and singular the 
above conditions, then this obligation to be void, otherwise to be and 
remain in full force and virtue. 

J. Wood. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
Wm. Jolliffe, 

Jno. Newport, 

Thos. Postgate. 

At a court continued and held for Frederick county, on Saturday, 
the 10th day of March, 1713, James Wood, gent., in open court, ac- 
knowledged this his bond to His Majesties’ Justices, which is ordered 
to be recorded. 

Test: J. Wood, Cl. Ct. 

The entire district for a circuit of ten miles was called “ Opeckan 
District,” which included Frederick Town. Wood, it appears from 
the above documents, did not at that time own the land, but he 
acquired title to it, possibly, upon the arrival of Lord Fairfax. That 
the town was called Frederick Town appears in an order laying off a 
road, which reads, in part, as follows: ‘‘A road from Frederick Town 
to the mouth of the South Branch,” and another from “ The town to 
Dr. Briscoe’s.” 

Among the proceedings of the court, August 7, 1717, is to be 



found the following: “On motion of John Hopes it is ordered that 
no person or persons presume to strain, either by pacing or racing 
thro’ the street by the court house in the time of holding court, or at 
any other public time whatever, under the penalty of a severe fine, 
and it is further ordered that the sheriff give public notice of the 
said order.” 

The above confirms the idea that the court house stood upon Water 
Street and that that street was the first one laid off. The street now 
known as Loudon, at least from its junction with Water southward 
was known as the “ great road.” A road was laid off, as stated, “from 
Opeekan to the court house,” which shows that the court house was 
not near the Opequon Creek as some have supposed. 

March 8, 1748, the following occurs as a portion of the business 
transacted by the justices: “ On the motion of James Wood setting 
forth that the prison bounds for the county as now laid off including 
the town, is detrimental to the creditor, It is ordered that tire sur- 
veyor of this county lay off ten acre$ adjoining the prison and includ- 
ing the court house, beginning on the south side the run, running 
with the front of the houses on the west side the street, till a square 
course will take in Mrs. Humphrey’s house and back of the court 
house for the complement, and that Isaac Perkins, gent., agree with 
workmen to set up posts at each corner of the said bounds, or more, 
if needful.” This arrangement was repealed the following year at the 
request of Robert Lemon and others, for reasons not stated, and the 
original bounds restored. 

“ Prison bounds ” was an institution that obtained in those early 
days and even extended far into the lives of persons wdio are now liv- 
ing. When a person became involved in debt and refused to pay he 
could be arrested and imprisoned, but his “ imprisonment ” did not 
necessarily mean being locked up, if he could give bail that he -would 
not escape. If he happened to reside -within the laid off “ prison 
bounds” he could go about his business as usual, live at home, and 
no change would take place in his condition, but if he stepped one 
foot from the allotted bounds his bail would be forfeited. On those 
conditions, it is said, a citizen of Winchester of some prominence 
lived at his home and transacted his business for a number of years, 
but he was so located that lie could not go to his stable, an alley lying 
between his residence-lot and that building, said alley being the 
dividing line between “ incarceration and liberty.” 



The above order of the Court shows that there was considerable of 
a settlement here at the date stated; so that when James Wood pe- 
titioned the General Assembly, three years later, for the lawful es- 
tablishment of his town, he had a population to justify his request. 
Following is the act passed in February, 1752: 

An Act for Establishing the Town of Winchester and Appointing 

Fairs therein. 

I. WHEREAS, it hath been represented to this General Assembly, 
that James Wood, gentleman, did survey and lay out a parcel of land, 
at the court house in Frederick county, in twenty-six lots of half an 
acre each, with streets for a town, by the name of Winchester, and 
made sale of the said lots to divers persons, who have since settled 
and built, and continue building and settling thereon; but because the 
same was not laid off and erected into a town, by act of Assembly, 
the freeholders and inhabitants thereof will not be entitled to the like 
privileges, enjoyed by the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns 
in this colony ; 

II. BE it enacted by the Lieutenant Governor, Council and Bur- 
gesses, of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted , by 
the authority of the same, that the said parcel of land, lately -claimed 
by the said James Wood, lying- and being in the county of Frederick 
aforesaid, together with fifty-four other lots of half an acre each, 
twenty-four thereof to be laid off in one or two streets, on the east 
side of the former lots, the street or streets to run parallel with the 
street already laid off, and the remaining thirty lots to be laid off 
at the north end of the aforesaid twenty-six lots with a commodious 
street or streets, in such manner as the proprietor thereof, the right 
honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax, shall think fit, be, and is hereby con- 
stituted, appointed, erected and established, a town, in the manner al- 
ready laid out, and described to be laid out, to be called by and retain 
the name of Winchester, and that the freeholders of the said town, 
shall forever hereafter, enjoy the same privileges with the freeholders 
of other towns, erected by act of Assembly, enjoy. 

III. And whereas allowing fairs to be kept in the said toVn of 
Winchester, will be of great benefit to the inhabitants of the said 
parts, and greatly increase the trade of that town, Be it therefore 
enacted by the authority aforesaid, that for the future, two fairs shall 
and may be annually kept, and held, in the said town of Winchester, 
on the third Wednesday in June, and the third Wednesday in October, 
in every year, and continue for the space of two days, for the sale and 
vending all maimer of cattle, victuals, provisions, goods, wares, and 
merchandizes, whatsoever; on which fair days, and two days next be- 
fore, and two days next after, the said fairs, all persons coming to, 
being at, or going from the same, together with their cattle, goods, 



wares, and merchandizes, shall be exempted, and privileged, from all 
arrests, attachments, and executions, whatsoever, except for capital 
offenses, breaches of the peace, or for any controversies, suits, or 
quarrels, that may arise and happen during the said time, in which 
case process may immediately be issued, and proceedings thereupon 
had, in the same manner as if this act had never been made, anything 
herein before contained, or any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary 
thereof, in any wise, notwithstanding. 

IY. Provided always, That nothing herein contained, shall be con- 
strued, deemed, or taken, to derogate from, alter, or infringe, the 
royal power and prerogative of his majesty, his heirs and successors, 
of granting to any person or persons, body politic and corporate, the 
privileges of holding fairs, or markets, in any such manner as he or 
they, by his or their royal letters patent, or by his or their instruc- 
tions, to the governor, or commander in chief of this dominion, for 
the time being, shall think fit. 

Having established our town of Winchester, it may be interesting 
to know the origin of the name. James Wood, of course, named his 
town, and many persons suppose that he selected the title in honor of 
Lord Winchester, but it is altogether probable that such was not the 
case. Wood w r as an Englishman and it is very likely a city-bred man, 
for he was a good penman and had eminent business and clerkly 
acquirements, which facts pointed him out to the early justices as the 
proper person for clerk of their court. People removing from their 
homes to distant sections are in the habit of naming the new localities 
where they settle after those which they have left. What more nat- 
ural, therefore, than that Clerk Wood should name his town after the 
city where he had spent his youthful days? So the ancient city of 
Winchester in England was. doubtless, the original home of the 
founder of the county seat of Frederick; therefore, as to the history 
of that city and its name a few facts may be interesting. “ Reese’s 
English Cyclopedia” says under the head Winchester : 

“ An ancient and eminent city, in Hampshire, or the county of 
Southampton, in England, eleven miles north northeast from South- 
ampton, and sixty-two and one-half west southwest from London. 
The buildings are disposed on the eastern declivity of a low hill which 
gently slopes to the valley of the river Itchen, the chalky cliffs of 
which, and the chalky soil of the surrounding heights, in the opinion 
of Camden, occasioned the ancient name of the city, Caer-G went , sig- 
nifying the “White-city.” The latter portion of the name, under the 
Romans, became Venta, with the addition of Bel gar urn , from its sit- 




nation in the country occupied by the Belgce, by which it was distin- 
guished from Venta Silurum, now Caerwent in Monmouthshire, and 
Venta Icenorum , now Castor, near Norwich, in Norfolk. From Gwent 
or Venta we have the first part of the name, and Chester , the last part, 
is a corruption of Ccistra , the Roman term for encampments of differ- 
ent kinds: a frequent name, or appendage of a name, of various places 
in England, and perhaps invariably an indication that such places owe 
both their origin and their primitive form to the military statious of 
the earliest conquerors of Britain.” 

The origin of the English Winchester, remote as it unquestionably 
is, has been carried back to an epoch far beyond belief, even a cen- 
tury and a half anterior to the foundation of Rome. Without referrino- 
to such remote and uncertain time, it may safely be inferred that that 
spot was occupied by the Belga. 1 , a Germanic tribe who, passing from 
Gaul, took possession of the country bordering the southern coast of 
England. ( Vicl Gesar’s Bel. Gal. ii. 1. ) Previous to their occu- 
pancy, it is. conjectured that Winchester was the Caer-Gwent. or 
white city, of the aboriginal Britons. After the Romans had subdued 
the Belga* and the Britons they took possession of this town, and for- 
tified it with ramparts and walls. These were disposed on the slop- 
ing side of a hill, and in the usual form of a parallelogram. After 
the Romans left the Island in 146, Gortheryn, or Yortigern, was 
elected chief of the western district, and he fixed his seat of govern- 
ment at Winchester. This ancient city as well as the whole island 
was destined soon to experience a total change of polity, customs and 
manners, by the introduction and domination of the Saxons in 519. 
On the advent of these, our hardy progenitors, the name of the city was 
changed from aboriginal Gwent-Caer and the Roman Venta-Castra, to 
another of equal import, Wintan-ceaster, from which the modern 
name, Winchester, has easily, gradually and imperceptibly been formed. 

The first event of importance in the history of Winchester after its 
establishment by law was the arrival in the primitive village of a young 
gentleman, scarce tw r enty-one years of age, who was destined twenty - 
five years later to lead the armies of his country to victory, give peace 
and prosperity to a land the fairest upon which ever shone the sun of 
a beneficent creator, whose name and whose fame has gone abroad to 
the utmost bounds of civilization, and whose patriotic deeds and mili- 
tary valor will go ringing down the ages till time shall be no more. 
Having been a resident of Winchester for nearly four years, and a 



member of the General Assembly of Virginia from the county of 
Frederick in 1758-61, a short sketch of the origin of this illustrious 
man is appropriate in this work. 

George Washington was born in the parish which bears his family 
name, in the county of Westmoreland, Va., on February 22, 1732. He 
was the third son of Augustine Washington, a planter of respectable 
talents, distinguished integrity, and large estate; descended from an 
ancient family of Cheshire, England, one of whom removed to Virginia 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, and became the proprie- 
tor of a large tract of land in King George’s County. Inhaling the pure 
mountain air, and accustomed to the healthful occupations of a rural 
life, his limbs expanded to a large and well proportioned size, corre- 
sponding with his majestic stature. His education was suited to the 
business of the country. His classical studies were not pursued be- 
yond the rudiments of the Latin tongue, but his knowledge of the 
most useful branches of mathematics, and particularly in relation to 
surveying, was extensive, for the many tracts of land surveyed for 
Lord Fairfax in Frederick County, show his attainments in this regard. 
He came to this section when he was but seventeen years of age, as 
the list of lands laid off by him and printed in a previous chapter of 
this work attest. At the age of ten years, his father dying, the charge 
of a numerous family devolved on young Washington's eldest brother, 
Lawrence, a gentleman of line attainments, who held a captain’s com- 
mission in the provincial troops, and who was with Admiral Vernon in 
the celebrated attack on Carthagena. Lawrence married the daugh- 
ter of William Fairfax and settled on the patrimonial estate, calling 
it through respect for his former commander, Mount Vernon. Lawrence 
was afterward made adjutant-general of the militia of the colony, but 
he did not long survive his appointment. He left a daughter who 
died young, and his second brother having died without issue, George 
succeeded to Mount Vernon. At the age of fifteen he was entered as 
a midshipman in the British navy, but his mother, then a widow, un- 
willing that he should be employed at so great a distance from her, 
induced him to forego that profession, and he began life as a surveyor. 

The French, with their Indian allies, had for many years gradu- 
ally been making encroachments from the direction of Louisiana and 
Canada. They were endeavoring by a series of fortifications and mili- 
tary posts to unite these two far distant sections of the continent. 
The English, on the other hand, claimed the country from the Atlantic 



to the Pacific between the two points named, and gave a grant of 000,- 
000 acres of land to the “Ohio Company,” who carried on large traffic 
in furs with the Indians. This company, pressing forward into what 
the French deemed their own domain, the fact was brought to the 
notice of the governor of Canada, who wrote to the governors of New 
York and Pennsylvania protesting against the inroads of the Ohio 
Company, and claiming the entire country east'of the Ohio River to 
the Alleglianies. Several of the traders of the company named were 
carried off and the Indians were encouraged by the French to active 
hostilities against the English along the frontiers. Many atrocities 
were committed by the savages until the matter became unbearable, 
and action was decided upon by the governor of Virginia, along the 
borders of which nearly all the barbarities were committed. Gov. 
Dinwiddle, who had arrived in Virginia in 1752, at the ensuing ses- 
sion of the General Assembly, laid the complaints and protests of the 
fur company and frontier people before that body, who authorized the 
governor to despatch a messenger to the commandant of the French 
fort, on a branch of French Creek about fifteen miles south of Lake 
Erie. George Washington, then but twenty-one years of age, and a 
major of militia, was intrusted with the delicate and hazardous enter- 
prise. Maj. Washington started from Williamsburg, the last day of 
October, 1758, came to Alexandria and thence to Winchester, where 
he supplied himself with horses, baggage, etc. At that period Win- 
chester was the outpost of the frontier villages or towns, for beyond 
the mountains not far distant lurked the savage foe ready, from be- 
hind every tree, to slay without mercy any unfortunate white person 
who should cross his path. And what an undertaking for a young 
man of his age! But the future father of his country had within him 
those qualities to make him surmount all obstacles, where good was 
to be the result. The party was composed of eight persons in all : 
an Indian interpreter, a French intrepreter, a guide, and four others 
besides himself. The journey required experience in the modes of 
traveling through the woods, and a knowledge of the Indian character. 
The distance was about 550 miles, over rugged mountains and mostly 
through a howling wilderness. After much toil in an inclement sea- 
son, in marching over snow-covered mountains and crossing rivers on 
frail rafts, they at length reached the junction of the Monongahela 
with the Allegheny. Washington made a careful examination of the 
location, for it struck him as an eligible site for a fort, and by his 





recommendation tlie fortification was erected there that afterward be- 
came so celebrated. Twenty miles below the forks of the Ohio, at a 
place called Logstown, he had a conference with some of the Indian 
chiefs, to whom he delivered a message from the governor, soliciting 
them to furnish a guard to the party to enable them to reach the 
French fort. The principal sachem was Tanacharison, the Half-King, 
as lie was called. Having met in council Washington addressed 
them, explaining the object of his mission. The chiefs made a pacific 
reply, and Tanacharison and three others accompanied the young am- 
bassador to the French fort. Tire commandant, M. de St. Pierre, 
received Washington cordially, who presented his commission and 
letter from Gov. Dinwiddie. The letter claimed that the lands on the 
Ohio belonged to the British crown, and requested a speedy and 
peaceful departure of the French. The reply of St. Pierre was respect- 
ful, but stated that the letter should have been addressed to the French 
governor in Canada, and that it was his duty to remain where he was 
until ordered elsewhere by his superiors. Washington and his party 
were politely entertained, yet the French commandant used artifice to 
detain the Indians. The whole company, however, left and proceeded 
down the river as far as Venango, which they reached after six days. 
The trip was full of perils from rocks and drifting trees. They found 
their horses, which they had left, in an emaciated condition, and to 
relieve the animals Washington and Messrs. Gist and Vanbraam, the 
guide and French interpreter, proceeded on foot with gun and knap- 
sack each. After many trials they reached the Allegheny River, but 
found no means of crossing. Washington said in regard to this por- 
tion of the journey: “ There was no way of getting over except on a 

raft, which we sat about making with but one poor hatchet, and fin- 
ished just after sun-setting. This was one whole day’s work. We 
next got it launched, and went on board of it; then set off. But 
before we were half way over we were jammed in the ice in such a 
manner that we expected every moment our raft Avould sink and our- 
selves perish. I put out my setting pole to try to stop the raft that 
the ice might pass by, when the rapidity of the stream threw it with 
so much violence against the pole that it jerked me out into ten feet of 
water. But I fortunately saved myself by catching hold of one of the 
raft-logs. Notwithstanding all our efforts we could not get the raft 
to either shore, but were obliged, as we were near an island, to quit our 
raft and make to it.” The night was passed in great suffering from 



the intense cold, the island being desert. In the morning, the river 
being frozen over, they passed in safety, and after sixteen weeks ab- 
sence Washington arrived at Williamsburg. 

The failure of the mission of Maj. Washington to accomplish the 
result desired by the governor of Virginia revealed the intentions of 
the French, and active measures were instituted to oppose the encroach- 
ments of the enemy. A regiment was raised by Col. Joshua Fry, with 
Washington as lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Trent’s company was 
hastily sent forward to commence the building of a fort at the junction 
of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, but a company of French 
and Indians, under Capt. Contrecoeur, arrived and drove off the Vir- 
ginians, and built Fort Duquesne. Washington, who was posted at 
Will’s Creek (afterward Fort Cumberland), with three companies 
awaiting the arrival of Col. Fry with the remainder of the regiment 
and the artillery, wrote for reinforcements, and pushed rapidly forward 
to the Monongahela. His intention was to gain a point somewhere 
above the forks of the two rivers, await the arrival of Col. Fry, and 
then drop down to Fort Duquesne, but learning that the French were 
coming out to meet him, lie hurried forward to Great Meadows, and 
threw up an intrenchment. The French had come out with a consid- 
erable party, for the double purpose of giving battle where they would 
have the advantage, and, in case of necessity, of making it appear that 
they came as an embassy to request the English to depart. This bat- 
tle, a description of which is not necessary here, w r as recited by French 
writers at the time much to the prejudice of Washington. The French 
historians, in fact, afterward called the killing of one of their principal 
officers, M. Jumonville, an assassination. But that the skirmish and 
its disastrous results were due to the superior foresight and skill of 
Washington there is no doubt; he simply outgeneraled the French- 
man, and they in their chagrin at defeat at the hands of a few raw 
backwoodsmen, endeavored to cover the disgrace by misrepresenta- 
tions to their government. Washington, in his report to the governor, 
says, after relating the circumstances leading up to the engagement: 
“ When we came to the Half-King (a friendly chief ), I counseled with 
him, and got his consent to go hand-and-haud and strike the French. 
Accordingly he, Monocawacha and a few other Indians, set out with 
us, and when we came to the place where the tracks were, the Half- 
King sent two Indians to follow their tracks, and discover their 
lodgment, which they did at half a mile from the road, in a very 



obscure place surrounded with rocks. I thereupon formed a disposi- 
tion to attack thorn on all sides, and after an engagement of about 
fifteen minutes we killed ten, wounded one, and took twenty-one pris- 
oners. The principal officers taken are M. Drouillon andJVI. La Force, 
of whom your honor has often heard me speak, as a bold, enterprising 
man, and a person of great subtlety and cunning. With these were 
two cadets. We have only one man killed and two or three wounded 
(among whom was Lieut. Waggoner, slightly), a most miraculous 
escape, as our right wing was much exposed to their fire, and received 
it all.” 

In his journal Washington, writing of the above affair, says: 
“ They pretend that they called to us as soon as we were discovered, 
which is absolutely false, for I was at the head of the party in ap- 
proaching them, and I can affirm that as soon as they saw us they ran 
to their arms, without calling, which I should have heard if they had 
done so.” 

Washington sent his prisoners taken in this action to the governor, 
and proceeded to erect a stockade which he called “Fort Necessity,” 
from its temporary character, expecting that the defeat at Great 
Meadows would arouse the French at Fort Duquesne and his conject- 
ures were realized, for M. de Yilliers soon appeared with a strong 
detachment, and after an investment of a few hours Fort Necessity 
was surrendered. The entire garrison was to be permitted to leave 
with the honors of war and to surrender the prisoners taken at Great 
Meadows, all of which was performed, and Washington and his brave 
companions took their weary way back to Will’s Creek. From thence 
Col. Washington, who was now in command of the forces, Col. Fry 
having died some time previously, returned to Winchester, had a con- 
sultation with Lord Fairfax, county lieutenant of Frederick, and then 
proceeded on his way to Williamsburg. As soon as the House of 
Burgesses assembled they passed a vote of thanks to Col. Washington 
and his officers for their bravery and gallant conduct. The young 
commander, as yet a mere youth, inexperienced and unskilled in war- 
fare, save from his own natural resources, was present, and a word or 
two of acknowledgment was looked for from him, but he hesitated for 
lack of words, seeing which the speaker relieved him by saying: 
“ Young man, sit down; your modesty is equal to your valor, and that 
surpasses any language 1 can express,” Washington shortly" after 
this episode came to Winchester, being entertained, tradition has it, 
by Lord Fairfax and Col. James Wood. 




The population of Virginia at this time, 1754, was estimated by 
Franklin to have been 85,000 — the whole population of the English 
colonies being but 1,046,000. The entire colony of New York was 
only 100,000. The valley of Virginia, according to the best ascer- 
tained estimates, contained less than one-third the population of the 
colony, say 25,000, from which deduct about 5,000 for the settlements 
above the line of Shenandoah, and 20,000 is left as the population of 
the lower valley, including all settlements westward of what is now 
Frederick and Berkeley Counties. It will be seen from this sparse 
population that the early settlers were necessarily located at long dis- 
tances apart, and, therefore, liable at any time to the incursions of the 
hostile savages who had become, under the incitement of the French, 
doubly bold in their relentless attacks upon the defenseless homes of 
those of the pioneers whose humble habitations were situated amid 
the wilds of the mountain districts, or isolated in the verdant vales far 
from any friendly fort or sympathizing neighbors who couhl rally to 
their assistance. 

Such a state of affairs existing, when man, woman nor child dared 
venture scarce one hundred yards from their homes; when neither age, 
sex or helplessness, afforded the least shield from the rifle, the toma- 
hawk and the scalping knife; when the terrible yell of the brutal red 
skins and the destructive firebrands of the heartless foe might be 
expected at any moment', is it any wonder that a general rejoicing per- 
vaded the settlements when it was rumored during the winter of 
1753-4 that the Indians contemplated removing west of the mountains 
in the spring? And can their joy be imagined when it was found 
that by the latter part of March they had left the valley almost to a 
man? What caused the sudden exodus of the savages was not cer- 
tainly known, nor did the settlers care what produced it; enough for 
them to know was that they had gone. The vigorous operations of 
Washington in the preliminary contests had shown the French that 
they had no trifling foemen to deal with, and they, therefore, con- 
cluded to concentrate all their resources for the conflict that was 
shortly to decide the supremacy of the two nations along the Ohio. 
The Indians were important allies to the Frenchmen, so they called 
them in from the valley, and although the riddance was not total and 
permanent, yet the result of the struggle at Fort Puquesne a few years 
later decided that the white man should be the ruler of this beautiful 
Shenandoah Valley. But even after this blow to France and the 



curbing of the Indians, many valuable lives were lost at the hands of 
predatory bands of the marauding red devils. 

One of the stipulations at the surrender of Fort Necessity was that 
Washington should return the French prisoners taken at the battle of 
Great Meadows, which was done as soon as the commander arrived at 
Winchester, where they were held and guarded by a small detachment 
of soldiers and citizens. That the prisoners were 'in Winchester ap- 
pears from the proceedings of one of the justices’ courts held in Sep- 
tember, 1754, where several parties are arraigned before the authori- 
ties for “refusing to guard the French prisoners,” and fined for 
neglecting to fulfill that duty. Washington’s name appears on the 
records of Frederick County for the first time on October 1, 1754, in 
a case instituted by John Harrow against the afterward father of his 
country, but what the charge was doth not appear, as the suit was 
dropped by the court, and nothing further was done in regard to it. 
Washington resided in Winchester, or had his permanent headquar- 
ters there, during the larger portion of two years, as is amply 
shown by his name appearing in connection with various local matters 
in the proceedings of the justices for a period covering the time 
stated, and particularly where, in a year or two later, he requests to be 
placed upon the list of titliables of the county. 

In August, 1754, Gov. Dinwiddie having resolved to prosecute the 
war against the French on the western frontier, wrote to Washington 
•at Winchester to fill up the companies of his regiment by enlistment 
and lead them without delay to Will’s Creek, where Col. Innes, with 
some troops from the Carolines and New York, were building Fort 
Cumberland. The governor was totally ignorant of military affairs ; 
•knew nothing of the country to the west of the mountains, and his 
preliminary measures were supremely injudicious, not to say ridicu- 
lous. From Fort Cumberland it was Dinwiddie’ s project that the 
united forces should immediately cross the Alleghanies and drive the 
French from Fort Duquesne, or build another fort beyond the mount- 
ains. Col. Washington, astonished at the absurdity of the scheme, 
contemplated at a season when the mountains would be covered with 
snow, and the army enfeebled and destitute of supplies, made such 
strong protests that the project was abandoned. The General Assem- 
bly, who would not yield to all the demands made by the governor, 
opposed the plan, and His Excellency never ceased to charge that body 
with being “republican in their way of thinking.” He had lately pro- 



rogued them, to punish tlieir obstinacy, and wrote to his royal mas- 
ter across the water that he was satisfied that the French would never 
be effectually opposed unless the colonies were compelled, independ- 
ently of assemblies, to contribute to the common cause. Fifty thousand 
pounds, partly raised by the colony of Virginia and partly sent 
from England, enabled the governor to enlarge the army to ten com- 
panies of 100 men each. They were established as independent com- 
panies, by which arrangement the highest officers in the Virginia 
regiment would be reduced to captains. The high spirit of Washing- 
ton revolted against this degradation; so he resigned his cqmmission 
and retired from the service, leaving the doughty governor to fight 
his own battles with the Frenchman. Little dreamed Dinwiddie when 
he attempted to reduce that young colonel to a captain how soon his 
flashing sword would sweep from the colonies not only the French, but 
King George and all royalty, “pride, pomp and circumstance ” of 
thrones and principalities. 

The mother country, realizing the importance of speedy and effect- 
ual measures for the removal of the enemy on the frontiers of her val- 
uable colonies, dispatched to their assistance in the spring of 1755, 
Maj.-Gen. Edward Braddoek, who was in command at Cork, Ireland, 
with two regiments, the Forty-fourth, Col. Sir Peter Halkett, and the 
Forty-eighth, Col. Dunbar. The general with his two well-equipped 
and disciplined regiments of English regulars arrived in Alexandria 
in March, and x\pril 14 he held a consultation with Com. Kippel. 
There were present Govs. Dinwiddie, Sherley, Morris, Sharp and 
Dulany from Williamsburg. At this conference Braddoek promised 
to be beyond the Alleghanies by April, and it is charged that he even 
prepared expresses to be sent back to announce his victories. He pro- 
ceeded from Alexandria across the mountains to Winchester, where, 
it is thought, Washington offered his services as aid-de-camp to the 
general, which was accepted, and where, also, according to tradition, 
Franklin, then postmaster-general of the colonies, met the English 
officer. It is, also, almost a certainty that Daniel Morgan joined the 
command at Winchester as a wagoner, for he was then just twenty 
years of age, and followed wagoning for a livelihood." Braddoek was 
a brave and experienced officer in European warfare, but entirely un- 
fit for the services upon which he was engaged; he simply knew noth- 
ing of the habits of the Indians and their mode of fighting, and the 
savages were the most important branch of the French service in 




America. He looked upon the colonial troops as the rudest and crud- 
est militiamen, and considered his lowest subalterns the superiors of 
the highest officers of the Virginia regiments placed at his disposal 
at Winchester and Will’s Creek (Fort Cumberland). He formed ex- 
travagant plans for his campaign. He would march forward and reduce 
Fort Duquesne, thence proceed against Fort Niagara, which, having 
conquered, he would close a season of victories by the capture of Fort 
Frontignac, but Vliomme propose, et Dieu dispose. After much delay in 
consequence of being encumbered with baggage, the day of starting 
arrived, which was the 8tli of June, but they soon came to a halt and 
decided to divide the force. Washington asked permission to take the 
advance and scour the woods with his provincial troops, but was re- 
fused. The general with 1,200 chosen men, under Sir Peter Halkett, 
Lieut. -Col. Gage, Lieut. -Col. Burton and Maj. Sparks, started on 
their unfortunate trip, and proceeded through that wild savage- 
haunted region without the precautions so well known to Washington 
and his Virginian borderers. The French, who were kept advised of 
every movement, made ample preparations to receive them. Wash- 
ington fell sick in the meantime and was left with Col. Dunbar, who 
remained in command of the reserve left in the rear, but he managed 
to regain the side of Gen. Braddock the day before the disastrous 

The army crossed to the left bank of the Monongahela, a little 
below the mouth of the Youghiogheny, being prevented by the rugged 
hills from continuing along the right bank to the fort. Washington 
was heard to say many times afterward that the most beautiful spec- 
tacle he ever beheld was the display of the British troops on this 
eventful occasion. Officers and men were equally inspirited with 
cheering hopes and confident anticipations, but they knew not the 
wiles of the enemy who were leading them into the jaws of death. 

“ In this manner they marched forward until about noon, when 
they arrived at the second crossing, ten miles from Fort Duquesne. 
By the order of march a body of 300 men under Col. Gage made 
the advanced party, which was immediately followed by another 200. 
Next came the general with the columns of artillery, the main body 
of the army and the baggage. At one o’clock the whole had crossed 
the river, and almost at this moment a sharp firing was heard upon 
the advanced parties, who were now ascending the hill, and had pro- 
ceeded about a hundred yards from the termination of the plain. A 




heavy discharge of musketry was poured in upon their front, which 
was the first intelligence they had of the proximity of the enemy, 
•and this was suddenly followed by another on the right flank. They 
were filled with the greater consternation, as no enemy was in sight, 
and the firing seemed to proceed from an invisible foe. They fired 
in turn, but quite at random, and obviously without effect.” 

All was in the utmost confusion: Braddock hastened forward to 
the relief of the advanced parties, but it was all in vain. A panic 
seized the regulars, who were unused to such warfare, and they fled, 
as Washington afterward wrote, “ like sheep before dogs.” The Vir- 
ginians were the only ones who seemed to retain their senses; they 
behaved with bravery and resolution and deserved a better fate. An 
officer who witnessed the engagement said that Col. Washington be- 
haved with the utmost coolness and bravery, that lie was everywhere 
on the field, and seemed to bear a charmed life. Washington him- 
self, said in a letter to his brother: “ By the all-powerful dispensa- 
tions of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human proba- 
bility or expectation, for I had four bullets through my coat, and two 
horses shot under me, yet I escaped unhurt, although death was level- 
ing my companions on every side of me.” 

So bloody a contest has rarely been witnessed. The number of 
officers in the engagement was eighty -four, of whom twenty-six were 
killed and thirty-seven wounded. The general himself was shot in 
the early part of the action, and died a day or two after. In this con- 
nection, it is said that one of the provincials, partly in revenge for 
Braddock’s striking his brother, and partly to save the rest of the 
army from death by the obstinacy of that general, shot him from be- 
hind a tree. The remnant of the army being put to flight, Washing- 
ton returned to Col. Dunbar, who ordered up horses and wagons for 
the wounded. The enemy did not pursue, as the Indians refused to 
leave the rich field of carnage and plunder, and the French were too 
few to act without their aid. 

Col. Dunbar, succeeding to the command of the troops, after the 
defeat of Braddock, marched them to Philadelphia, and Col. Washing- 
ton repaired to Williamsburg to await events. He was given the com- 
mand of all the forces raised and to be raised in Virginia, with the 
privilege of selecting his own field officers. He chose as his next in 
command Lieut. -Col. Adam Stephen and Maj. Andrew Lewis, and 
made Winchester his headquarters. The General Assembly voted him 

.. . ■ ? 


109 * 

£300; each of the captains, Adam Stephen, Thomas Waggoner and 
Robert Stewart, £75; each of the lieutenants, AVilliam JBronaugh, 
Walter Stewart. Hector MacNeal and Henry Woodward, and James 
Craig, surgeon, £30; and to the privates who survived, £5, in addition 
to their wages, which was quite a liberal proceeding on the part of those 
old law- makers. 

The victory of the French and Indians greatly emboldened them, 
and they made constant raids upon the settlements, and to such a pass 
had matters come that Washington hastened from Winchester in the 
ensuing spring to Williamsburg, to prevail upon the governor to aug- 
ment the forces by additional men, and to build a fort at Winchester. 
Tie Avas deeply concerned at the situation of the defenseless people on 
the border, and with that kindness of heart which at all times seemed 
to be twin attribute to his valor, he wrote the woes of the hardy and 
long-suffering pioneer in the following letter, which deserves to be 
printed on silver and framed in gold : 

“ I see their situation, I know their danger, and participate their 
sufferings, without having it in my power to give them further relief 
than uncertain promises. In short, I see inevitable destruction in so 
clear a light, that unless vigorous measures are taken by the Assembly, 
and speedy assistance sent from below, the poor inhabitants now in 
forts must unavoidably fall, while the remainder are flying before the 
barbarous foe. In fine, the melancholy situation of the people, the 
little prospect of assistance, the gross and scandalous abuses cast upon 
the officers in general, which is reflecting on me in particular, for suf- 
fering misconduct of such extraordinary kind, and the distant prospect, 
if any, of gaining reputation in the service, cause me to lament 
the hour that gave me a commission, and would induce me, at any 
other time than this of imminent danger, to resign, without one hesi- 
tating moment, a command from which I never expect to reap either 
honor or benefit; but, on the contrary, have almost an absolute certainty 
of incurring displeasure below, while the murder of helpless families 
may be laid to my account here. The supplicating tears of the women 
and moving petitions of the men melt me with such deadly sorrow, 
that I solemnly declare, if I know my own mind, I could offer myself 
a willing sacrifice to the butchering enemy, provided that would con- 
tribute to the people’s ease.” 

It seems almost impossible that this magnificent letter, breathing 
the mature ideas of the patriot, the martyr and the father, should be 
the production of one who was scarce out of boyhood, being but 
twenty-four years of age! This production was written in the town of 
Winchester, and forwarded to Gov. Dinwiddie, whose indifference to. 





the sufferings of the frontier colonists was so flagrant as to be cow- 
ardly and brutal. 

War having been formally declared by France, 1756, the spring of 
that year witnessed increased barbarities on the part of the Indians. 
Massacres were occurring on all sides, scouting parties were ambushed, 
forts were attacked, and serious apprehensions were felt for the safety 
of Winchester. The number of troops were, wholly insufficient for 
the protection of that village, which had become quite respectable in 
size. What the number of houses were is impossible to ascertain at 
this late date, but there were five or six taverns, or ordinaries, as they 
were termed, in operation, for licenses were granted to Robert Lemon, 
Jacob Sower, John Lindsey, John Stuart, Peter Wilt and Henry 
Heath, a couple of years prior to 1756. There were two stores, for 
the sale of all kinds of goods, one being kept by the same Robert 
Lemon mentioned above, and another by Robert Rutherford. There 
are indications of still others than those mentioned, as well as a num- 
ber of other businesses, and it is very likely that Winchester at this 
time presented quite a busy appearance, with its court house and 
prison and whipping-post and stocks, to say nothing of that ingenious 
piece of mechanism, evolved from the brains of our forefathers, for 
the purpose of soothing our glib-tongued foremothers — the gentle 
“ducking-stool.” [See Webster’s Dictionary.] This apparatus, the 
“pit” being dug by William McMachen, and the “stool” furnished 
by Marquis Calmes, was located, it is thought, on that portion of the 
block north of the town run, bounded by Loudon, Water and Cameron 
Streets. There were soldiers here nearly all the time, and one can 
imagine the stately and handsome young colonel, Washington, stand- 
ing by the tavern door of Henry Heath, or riding along Loudon 
Street, just named, on his way to give directions to the workmen at 
the fort on the hill, just being built. And let one picture to himself 
the joy of the inhabitants during the building of that fort; how they 
would congregate on the old hill out north yonder and watch the 
soldiers and workmen throwing up the bulwarks that would protect 
their wives and little ones from the ferocity of the savage. And is it 
any wonder that these people, as well as all others who ever came in 
contact with him, loved this man Washington for erecting this defense? 
Did he not appear to them, as he did twenty years later to the op- 
pressed colonists, a very shield and sword? Happiness it was, indeed 
to have looked upon the face of that illustrious man, and for whom 



our best words of praise fall but tamely. Old Parson Weems, in his 
little “Life of Washington,” has outstripped all the grandiloquent 
biographers of that wonderful man, for his simplicity and childlike 
enthusiasm not only -voiced his own sentiments, but gave expression 
to a feeling that pervaded all American patriots at the time it was 
written. Even the delightful “little hatchet” incident (appearing no 
where else than in Weems) had a meaning far deeper than is now 

There must have been a little stir in the village on January 6, for 
at the recommendation of Washington a number of officers were ap- 
pointed by the justices, at a session of the court held on that date. 
George Mercer, Robert Stewart, Thomas Cock, William Bronough, 
Joshua Lewis, John Mercer, William Peachy and David Bell, were 
appointed captains in the Virginia regiment. Walter Stewart, John 
Williams and Augustine Brocken brough were made lieutenants, and 
Charles Smith, Lehaynsius DeKeyser and William Crawford, ensigns. 
Dennis McCarty, William Beckley, James Bay and Robert John- 
son, four gallant frontiersmen, came up and volunteered their services 
in the same regiment. They all took the oath to his majesty. At this 
same session of the court the justices passed an order “for reasons 
thought proper” to adjourn to the house of Enoch Pearson. The 
“reasons” for this action was that the French and Indians were ex- 
pected to pay the village a visit at any moment, and the cautious old 
magistrates did not feel it their duty to run the risk of having their 
official scalps dangling to the belt of some painted and indiseriminat- 
ing savage. Just where Enoch Pearson dwelt doth not appear, but 
it was, presumably, in some comparatively safe spot. Shortly after 
this the following may be seen among the proceedings of the justices: 
“A grand jury being summoned, were called and did not appear, be- 
ing occasioned by the commotions in the county on account of the 
Indians.” Shortly after the above dates, on June 1, 1756, Washing- 
ton’s name in connection with three others, appears as a witness against 
James Knap for forging or counterfeiting a treasury note of the 
colony, which shows that rascality is not a peculiarity of the present 
time, by any means. 

There having been some controversy in regard to the date of the 
building of the old fort at the north end of Winchester, the author 
has made search of the enactments of the General Assemblies of Vir- 
ginia, and has been rewarded by the discovery of the following clause 



of Chapter II, Hening’s Statutes at Large, Yol. 7, p. 33; passed 
March, 1750: 

XYL And whereas it is now judged necessary that a fort should 
be immediately erected in the town of Winchester, in the county of 
Frederick, for the protection of the adjacent inhabitants from the bar- 
barities daily committed by the French and their Indian allies, Be it 
enacted by the authority aforesaid , That the governor, or commander 
in chief of this colony for the time being, is hereby impowered, and 
desired to order a fort to be built with all possible dispatch in the 
aforesaid town of Winchester, and that his honor do give such orders 
and instructions for the immediate erecting and garrisoning the same, 
as he shall think necessary for the purposes aforesaid. And the gov- 
ernor, or commander in chief of this colony, is hereby impowered, and 
desired to issue his warrant to the treasurer for the payment of so 
much money, as he shall think necessary for the purposes aforesaid, 
not exceeding the sum of one thousand pounds, who is hereby required 
to pay the same in treasury notes, to be emitted by virtue of the said 
act of Assembly, For raising the sum of twenty-five thousand pounds, 
for the better protection of the inhabitants on the frontiers of this 
colony, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 

The erection of the fort was begun as soon after the above appro- 
priation was made as possible. It w*as named by Washington Fort 
Loudon, in honor of the Earl of Loudon, who had succeeded Gen. 
Sherley in the command of the colonial forces. The location was ad- 
mirably selected, commanding, as it does, a large extent of coun- 
try. There was not an approach to it whereby any foe could gain its 
sides from any point, without being exposed to the rifles of those 
within the fort, which accounts for the fact that it never was attacked, 
there being no evidence, traditional or otherwise, that it ever w T as, al- 
though it is related that a French officer once reconnoitered it, but 
went away satisfied that it was impregnable, at least so far as any 
force that he could bring to bear against it. It was erected by the 
soldiers of the First Virginia Regiment, and Washington is said to- 
have brought some workmen from Mount Vernon to construct the iron 
w r ork necessary in some portions of it. It w’as about 125 feet in length 
on each of its four sides, square, and with a bastion at each corner. 
It was w'hat is known as a field-work, or redoubt, with curtains nine- 
ty-six feet in length, the bastions projecting twenty-five feet and with 
faces twenty-five feet, set at angles against each other. It had a very 
deep well inside the w r alls, said originally to have been over 100 feet 
in depth, which still supplies as much water as is desired. It is cut 



through the solid limestone, and the water is almost as cold as ice. 
The fort when finished was well garrisoned, and mounted six eighteen- 
pounders, six twelve-pounders, six six-pounders, four swivels and two 
howitzers, a pretty formidable armament in that primitive time. This 
fine array of war-dogs convinced the Frenchman that whoever should 
attempt to take that fort would meet with a tolerably warm reception. 
In fact, the capture of that old fort, if it existed' to-day, garrisoned 
with that old regiment of Virginia riflemen, commanded by a Wash- 
ington, assisted by his able captains, would be a tough job even for 
any of our high-flying “ Century-article-generals,” with any but an 
overpowering force. Loudon Street, more than a century ago, was 
cut through the fort, and all that remains of it now is the southwest- 
ern bastion, fortunately preserved by the present proprietor of the 
property, although a cistern has been sunk into it. This old bastion 
looks grimly across to the earthworks on the hills to the westward, 
erected during the late war, and seems to say, after his sleep of one 
hundred and thirty -five years, “ Who are you? ” 

History is continually repeating itself. A few years ago people 
were arrested and fined, or their licenses revoked for selling liquor to 
soldiers. Now here is an “instance” that is not so “modern.” In 
the recorded proceedings of the justices on August 4, 1756, during 
the building of the fort, may be found this: “ On the complaint of 

George Washington, Esq., against John Stuart, ordinary-keeper in 
Winchester, for entertaining soldiers contrary to order, the arguments 
of the parties being heard, it is ordered that the complaint be dis- 
missed.” Another entry reads: “ On motion of John Lindsey for 

leave to renew his license to keep an ordinary, the motion being ob- 
jected to by Col. George Washington, the arguments of the parties 
being heard, ordered that certficate be granted him and that his 
license be dated from May court, he having performed what the law 
directs and entered into bond, with Jacob Stickley his security.” 

The only difference between the freedom of twenty-five years ago . 
and the tyrannical times of one hundred and thirty-five, is that the 
old justices did not propose to let the military overrun, or run the 
civil power, whilst our modern Washingtons had a way of handling 
refractory magistrates and judges that was at least effective, if not 

November 4, 1756, claims were laid before the court for public 
services by Capts. Thomas Swearengen, William Cocks, John Funk, 




Cornelius Ruddell and William Vane©, on behalf of themselves and 
the detachments sent under their commands. Richard Thresher, 
asked pay for taking a deserter, and Jacob Sower, who kept a tavern, 
desired to be reimbursed for furnishing food, etc., to some soldiers. 
These bills were sent to the General Assembly. Complaint was 
lodged by Capt. Mercer, against a man and a woman for buying coats, 
etc., from soldiers of . the Virginia regiment, 'contrary to law. 

April 7, 1757, the court “ordered that the jailor suffer the prisoners 
to be in the jailor’s house in the day time during the time the gaol is 
repairing, Col. Washington having agreed to place a guard for the 
better security of the prisoners.” And here is an item that knocks 
the wind out of that little story, that Powell’s Fort was so named 
from the fact of a man taking refuge in that curious valley and defy- 
ing capture during the Revolution. The item w r as recorded almost 
twenty years before the colonies revolted: “May 3, 1757, John Funk 
is ordered to make list of tithables from Stony Creek down the North 
River to the mouth of Passage Run, including Powell’s Fort, and 
all the waters of Cedar Creek.” July 5, 1757, James Keith, who 
was afterward clerk of Frederick County, was admitted to practice at 
the bar, and on August 5, Andrew Mealey was paid for work done on 
the county lots. And here is a piece of information that clinches 
the fact that the father of his country resided here: “October 

4, 1757, on motion of George Washington, Esq., ordered that his 
tithables be set on the list.” The following item shows the state of 
affairs, even in the town of Winchester, with a strong, well-garrisoned 
fort to guard it: “ October 5, 1757, James Wood, clerk, is granted 
the privilege of removing the county records to Fort Loudon, or any 
where else he may secure them from the imminent danger from the 
enemy.” That was not the last time those ancient documents were 
removed for safety, but the Red Indian cut no figure in the latter case. 

In December of 1756, the incursions of the Indians still increas- 
ing in frequency and boldness, Col. Washington drew up a paper on 
the military affairs of the province, which he transmitted to Lord 
Loudon, and in March, 1757, he attended a meeting in Philadelphia, 
where he was in consultation with several governors and principal 
officers. It was decided that the main efforts should be made on the 
Canada border, which Washington strenuously opposed, and recom- 
mended an expedition against Fort Duquesne. If those suggestions 
had been adopted the English would have saved the expense of an 



entire year’s military operations. From this conference, disgusted 
and disheartened at the policy of his superiors, and with a heart 
bowed down at the sufferings of the poor defenseless frontier settlers, 
who were butchered in cold blood almost within shadow of the forts, 
by the wily and relentless savages, whose mode of warfare, stealthy 
and silent, was difficult to cope with, so long as the French backed 
them with their aid and the safety of their -forts when pressed to 
close quarters, Washington returned to Winchester and resumed his 
routine duties as the commandant of Fort Loudon. 

The puerile policy, to say the least of it, of the military authori- 
ties of the colonies, due in large part to the influence of Gov. Din- 
widdie, whose incompetency w r as well known, happily terminated by 
the sailing for the mother country in January, 1758, of that function- 
ary, much to the satisfaction of Washington and the Virginians gen- 
erally. Mr. Pitt having succeeded ’to the reins of government in 
England, and Hon. Francis Fauquier to the governorship of Vir- 
ginia, it was resolved to prosecute the war against the French with 
energy. Gen. Forbes was appointed to the command of an expedi- 
tion against Fort Duquesne. The force was divided into two regi- 
ments, the first division of 2,000 under Col. Washington, and the 
other under Col. Byrd. In July, Washington marched from Win- 
chester to Fort Cumberland with the main portion of the Virginia 
troops. The whole force comprised about 6,000 troops, of all arms. 
Much time was consumed in preliminary arrangements by Gen. 
Forbes, particularly in the construction of a new road to Fort Du- 
quesne. Washington advised a movement at once, and if his recom- 
mendations had been heeded- an easy victory would have ensued, for 
it was afterward ascertained that only 800 soldiers were garrisoning 
the French fort at that time. The construction of a fort at Loyal 
Hanna also detained the expedition uselessly, for the English, had 
they pushed on, might have then been in charge of Fort Duquesne. 
Col. Boquet rashly detached Maj. Grant with 800 men to reconnoitre 
in the vicinity of the enemy. The French permitted Grant’s party 
to approach them as near as they desired, when they rushed from the 
fort, soldiers and Indians, and attacked them from all sides, putting 
the English to flight, and with great slaughter. No quarter was 
given by the Indians, and Majors Grant and Lewis only saved their 
lives by surrendering to French officers. Maj. Lewis had come to 
the assistance of Grant upon hearing the firing in his front. He 




left Capt. Bulletfc, with the baggage and fifty men in his rear, and it 
is owing to the extraordinary presence of mind and strategy of that 
officer that the entire force did not fall beneath the strokes of the 
tomahawk and scalping knives of the brutal savages. The situation 
of the retreating troops was desperate. In the enemy’s country, far 
from any English settlement, surrounded and pursued by a bloody 
and vindictive foe, there was nothing left for' them but to await cap- 
ture and the tortures of the howling red demons. But the heroism 
of Capt. Bullett and his few men saved most of the retreating force. 
This officer on discovering the rout of the troops, sent the most 
valuable portion of the baggage to his rear, and arranged the re- 
mainder in the road so as to present as formidable an appearance as 
possible. He then posted his men behind this breastwork and made 
as great parade as he could by giving loud orders for the main force 
to hasten up. These preparations somewhat checked the advance of 
the eager Indians, but fearing that the enemy would shortly discover 
his false position, Capt. Bullett resolved to try a piece of strategy 
that could result in nothing worse than what would be their fate if 
they remained where they were. He ordered his men to march for- 
ward with reversed arms, as though about to surrender, which they did, 
and the savages ceased firing, feeling sure of their prey. When Bul- 
lett and his men had advanced to a position indicated previously, they 
threw up their rifles as quick as a flash and poured such a deadly 
volley into the surprised Indians that 1 they fled in dismay, thinking 
that the whole English army was upon them. The Captain, taking 
advantage of this state of affairs, after gathering up the wounded, 
wisely fled in another direction with as much speed as the Indians. 
This gallant action of a provincial captain, one of the most remark- 
able pieces of strategy performed by any one in any age, emphasizes 
the fact that the Caucasian is the master race, and can beat the In- 
dian or any similar savage at his own game. 

After more consultation it was concluded to permit Washington to 
draw up a line of march to Fort Duquesne, which he did, and at his 
own request he was to be placed in the advance with 1,000 men. No- 
vember having set in, it was resolved not to make any movement till 
the ensuing spring, but two deserters having been brought to camp, 
who related that the French garrison was weak, immediate measures 
were taken for an advance, and November 25, 1758, Fort Duquesne 
was in possession of Washington. Very little, however, of the fort 

' • 



was left, but it was rebuilt and rechristened Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh. 
The other French strongholds were soon in the possession of the 
English, and peace was declared. Washington in the meantime (fall 
of 1758) proceeded to Williamsburg, to take his seat as a member of 
the General Assembly from Frederick County, the people of this lower 
valley of the Shenandoah, comprising at that time what is now Fred- 
erick, Berkeley, Jefferson, Clark, Shenandoah, Morgan, Warren and 
Page Counties, having done themselves the splendid honor of electing 
that grand patriot and illustrious citizen to represent them. This 
same year Washington led to the altar the beautiful, accomplished and 
wealthy Mrs. Custis, and shortly after settled down to the life of a 
farmer of ease and culture, until the bugle blasts of his aroused coun- 
trymen called him forth from the shades of Mount Vernon to lead 
them in their contest for liberty and independence. 

Washington ran three times in the county of Frederick for the 
House of Burgesses. The writer has in his possession the names of 
the candidates who ran with or opposed Washington, together with 
the names of every voter at those three elections, but space forbids 
the publication of the poll-lists in this connection; suffice it to say, 
that although these lists were obtained from an entirely different 
source from which the general matter herein contained emanates, yet 
there is scarcely a misspelling of a single name, when compared to 
the frequent appearance of the same names in the official records of 
Frederick County. G. Washington ran the first time in 1757 and was 
defeated, as will be seen by the following vote: 

Hugh West, 271; Thomas Swearengen, 270; G. Washington, 40. 
The young man w r as snowed under that trip, but he had “ staying 
qualities,” as the horsemen say. It w r ould not have been in accord- 
ance with the character of the man to let a first defeat clip his wings 
and send him ingloriously moping away at the ingratitude of poli- 
ticians. Oh, no! That would not have been George; so two years 
hence he steps to the front and receives the reward of his indomitable 
perseverance, wdien somebody else is snowed under. Two of the can- 
didates only could be elected, no matter how many ran. Here is the 
vote : 

July 24, 1758. — G. Washington, 310; Col. T. B. Martin, 240; 
Hugh West, 199; Thomas Swearengen, 45. 

Becoming still more popular, as the result shows, he ran again May 
IS, 1761, with the following result: G. Washington, 505; George 

Mercer, 399; Adam Stephen, 294. 



There is a receipt in the possession of a citizen of Winchester, 
signed by the seller of a barrel of whisky to George Washington, in 
payment for said barrel, which was used during one of these elections. 
The future “ father of liis country ” may have discovered between his 
defeat in 1757 and the election one year afterward, that it was nec- 
essary to “ set 'em up ” for the boys, and hence his increased popu- 

Peace having been restored, at least between the French and 
English, the colonists breathed freer, although for many years after- 
ward the Indians committed numerous outrages upon the advanced 
settlements, and even making raids into the very heart of the valley, 
yet Winchester took a fresh start. Clerk Wood sold a number of lots, 
and various businesses sprang up. Philip Helphenstine, who was 
afterward a major in Col. Muhlenburg’s regiment in the Revolution- 
ary army, purchased a lot in the town, and resided here till his death. 
His lot w r as “ No. 34, on the east side of Cameron Street, together 
with another containing five acres on the common.” He paid £25 
(§125) for the whole outfit. Philip Bush, another Revolutionary sol- 
dier, who kept a tavern here during the French revolution, and who 
snubbed the crown prince, afterward Louis Phillippe, at his hostelry, 
and of whom more hereafter, was made overseer of Cameron Street. 
At the July court, 1758, John Greenfield was appointed overseer of 
the following streets: Loudon, Cameron and Piccadilly. Matters 

must have been progressing with fine strides, for the old records state 
that John Allen opened a tailor shop, and that Stephen Rollins v r as 
arrested for permitting gambling at his tavern; also John Stewart, 
inn-keeper, for permitting card-playing at his inn. A number of new' 
licenses were issued to various parties to keep taverns; so that there 
could not have been at that early date, 1758, less than from twelve to 
fifteen establishments w r here liquor was sold, which places the modern 
Winchester, in quite a favorable light, morally, and shows that the 
present generation has not absorbed all the vice that ever existed. 

As a sample of wdiat w r as kept in stores at that date for the accom- 
modation of the ladies who w r ould go shopping on Braddock and Bos- 
eow'en Streets, as they now do on Loudon any fine day, the following 
inventory of a portion of the stock of Alexander Cook, merchant, May 
5, 1758, is given. These goods were attached and sold for debt: 
“One piece of flesh-colored broadcloth; a remnant of worsted damask; 
two remnants of slialoon; a remnant of buckram; a remnant of cheque; 



two beaver hats; a remnant of calico; one piece of cotton truck; one 
piece brown fustion; one remnant of brown broadcloth; one scarlet 
mantle; a bundle of laces; sundry pieces of tape and bobbin and hanks 
of silk; some small necklaces; sundry small trifling goods; one old 
breasted saddle.” 

The county also began assuming airs, for at the March, 1758, sit- 
ting of the justices, that body ordered a silver seal to be made by 
William Miller, “about the size of an English half-crown, with the 
words Frederick Couniy engraved thereon.”* This outlay of the peo- 
ple’s money, was no doubt thought to be justifiable, in consequence of 
the increase in population, for about this time the assessors, or tith- 
able list takers, brought in their reports, which showed that there were 
in the entire region comprising Frederick County, extensive as it was, 
the grand total of 2,121 tithables! 

James Wood, in September, 1758, obtained permission by an act 
of the General Assembly, to enlarge the town, a portion of which re- 
cites that “ Whereas, by an act of assembly, made in the twenty-fifth 
year of his present majesty’s reign, a town was established at Win- 
chester, in the said county of Frederick, which daily increases in in- 
habitants, and James Wood of said county, gentleman, having laid off 
one hundred and six acres of his land, contiguous to the said town of 
Winchester, into lots and streets, hath petitioned,” etc., for the same 
privileges granted the other portions of the town, “it is hereby 
granted,” etc. The trustees named in the act were Lord Fairfax, James 
Wood, Thomas Bryan Martin, Lewis Stephens, Gabriel Jones, John 
Hite, John Dooe, Isaac Perkins, Eobert Eutherford and Philip Bush. 
Several of these gentlemen were also interested in the town of Steph- 
ensburg, which was established at this date, and of which more here 
after. February, 1759, Lord Fairfax having made application to the 
General Assembly to put an addition to Winchester, that body author- 
ized him to lay off 173 lots, to “be added to and made part of said 
town, and to enjoy the same rights, privileges, and immunities that 
the freeholders and inhabitants of the said Winchester do now enjoy.” 

During the summer of 1759 the small-pox made its appearance in 
Winchester and many deaths occurred from that terrible disease, and 
to such an extent did it rage, that the justices were compelled to apply 
for the privilege of adjourning to some other locality. The following 

♦This old seal is .still in the possession of the county clerk of Frederick, is used now. and has 
been used ever since it was made, one hundred and thirty-two years ago. 




minute of the proceedings tells the tale: “July 3, 1759.— A writ of 
adjournment was obtained from Gov. Fauquier which orders that the 
sheriff give public notice by advertisement that the court will be held 
in the town of Siephensburg during the time the small pox ragetli in 
the town of Winchester.” But the disease also extended to Stephens- 
burg, whilst it must have abated, or disappeared, from Winchester 
by the fall months, for on October 3, “sundry of the inhabitants of 
the town of Winchester” made petition to the court for its return to 
that place, as the “small pox was raging at Stephensburgh,” but it 
seems the court had no power to remove its seat of justice, that privi- 
lege being vested in His Excellency at Williamsburg, for no atten- 
tion was paid to the petition, the court continuing to meet at the latter 
town till the following spring, or rather it adjourned from time to 
time, and. did not hold sessions at all, for there are no records from 
October till February following (1760). On April 1, however, the 
justices petitioned the governor to order the court back to the court 
house at Winchester. May 6 the writ of adjournment was received, 
and the court has continued to meet where it now does till the present 

Col. James Wood, the old clerk, vdio had seen the organization of 
the county in 1743, and who laid out Winchester that year, died dur- 
ing the winter of 1759-60, and at the court held February 5, 1760, 
Archibald Wager was appointed clerk by Deputy Secretary Nelson. 
Col. Wood left a son, James Wood, Jr., who, May 7, was appointed 
deputy clerk. He became one of the leading citizens of Frederick 
County, v r as a justice for a number of years, and served in the Devo- 
lution as colonel of a regiment which he was instrumental in raising. 
He also became a general in the Revolutionary Army, and in 1791 was 
elected governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. 

Archibald Wager only served as clerk about two years, for on 
May 4, 1762, James Keith produced a commission from the secretary 
of the colony, and Clerk Wager stepped down and out. Keith tilled 
the position for many years, going along in the even tenor of his way 
during the Revolution, and far beyond, as though nothing unusual 
were happening. He changed his “Our Sovereign Lord the King” 
into “His Excellencv the Governor of the Common wealth of Virginia” 
with an ease that was as creditable to his patriotism as to his pro- 

At November court, 1762, Daniel Bush, Robert Rutherford, George 



Michael Laubinger and Robert; Aldridge were appointed overseers of 
the streets in Winchester, in the room of Philip Bush, Godfrey Hum- 
bert, Bryan Bruin and Edward McGuire. The justices also “ordered 
that Charles Smith and Daniel Bush do agree with some one to finish 
the Ducking Stool.” A porch was ordered to be built to the court 
house and “ 7,200 pounds of tobacco” was appropriated for that pur- 
pose. In connection with one of the names given above the writer 
hereof found between the leaves of one of the old record books an 
order for goods at a store in Winchester. It is written upon a small 
piece of paper, such as was used at that primitive day, is time-worn 
and looks decidedly ancient. It reads: 

To Robert Rutherford, Esquire: 

Sir, Please let the Bearer have credit to the ain’t of 25s. and charge the same to 

Your Plumble Servant’s acct., 

Nov. 2, 1761. Henry Heth. 

Henry Heth kept a tavern, where Washington mostly stayed whilst 
in AYinchester, and Rutherford was one of, if not the first, merchants 
in the valley of Virginia. Thomas Edmonson, in 1764:, kept a tavern 
in Winchester, and was in the same business as late as 1789, as his 
advertisement appears in a newspaper of that date. He kept opposite 
the Old Fort on Loudon Street. William Greenway, the maternal 
grandfather of Mr. William Greenway Russell, of Winchester, who is 
now ninety years of age, died in 1767. He came to America at the 
same time Lord Fairfax did, and knew Daniel Morgan well, they liv- 
ing in the same section of the county. November 1, 1768, Philip 
Pendleton was appointed deputy clerk of the court. At this date the 
tithables had increased to 4,088, and in 1771, to 5,44)6. In this year 
the small-pox again broke out, and John McDonald and Humphrey 
Wells were permitted to practice “ innoculation,” that medical discov- 
ery having reached America not long before. William Gibbs, Isaac 
Hite and Andrew Waggoner were also permitted to practice the new 
process, but the justices doubtless thought there was a limit to the 
matter, and when Charles Mynu Thruston, Thomas Byran Martin, 
Feilding Lewis and Samuel Washington, all gentlemen of high station, 
applied for permission to inoculate their families, they were peremto- 
rily refused and given to understand that they (the justices) did not 
‘Consider the families of the petitioners in any danger, and to cap the 
climax, revoked the licenses of Drs. McDonald and Wells. Those old 
justices thought they knew a thing or two, and did not propose to let 



anybody but themselves run this section of the valley, either judicially* 
socially, militarily or medically. 

April 7, 1772, Angus McDonald and Edward McGuire were ordered 
to agree with some person to build a bridge over the run on Main 
Street, and December 10, 1773, Frederick Conrad was appointed over- 
seer of Cameron Street, and the cross streets and back streets to the 
eastward of Cameron Street in Winchester, in the room op Philip Bush. 
The small-pox must again have broken out in Winchester, for in the 
spring of 1776 Angus McDonald was ordered to place a guard around 
the house in that town “ where the small-pox is raging.” Shortly after- 
ward David Kennedy was paid £69 Ss. 5d. for his trouble and expense 
in preventing the spread of the disease named, and another sum (£7 
17s. 6d. ) for allowance. The foregoing chapter contains all the mat- 
ters of importance and items of interest that are now upon record in 
an authentic manner, in relation to Winchester up to the year 1776.. 

Soldiers of the Valley— -Causes of the Revolution— Oppressions of 
the Mother Country— Bursting of the Storm— Origin of General 
Daniel Morgan: His Boyhood; as a Wagoner; Whipped by Brad- 
dock’s Order; First Recorded Mention; Arrested for Assault; as 
a Farmer; as Overseer of Roads; His First Military Appointment; 
as a Custodian; His First Command— The Famous Valley Company 
— T nE Dutch Mess— Storming of Quebec— Muiilenburg and Hel- 
phenstine— First Court Under the Few Regime— The Quakers— 
Taking the Oath— Saratoga— Cowpens— Col. William Augustine 
Washington— The Whisky Insurrection— Morgan in Congress — II rs- 
Character— His Grave— The “ Stonewall ” of the Revolution. 

HE Shenandoah Valley from the very first settlement of that de- 

lightful “garden spot,” as it has frequently been called, has been 
knoivn for its hardy, adventurous and brave population. It has always 
turned out, when the occasion demanded, its full quota of troops, and 
many of its sons have become famous in the annals of all the wars in 
which the country has been engaged. It has furnished not only thous- 
ands of the rank and file of the best soldiers who ever shouldered 





musket or handled sabre, but has produced an array of leaders whose 
ability in warfare and whose name and fame may be found in the 
pages of history, and whose memories will live as long as courage and 
capacity shall have place as conspicuous virtues in the mind of man. 
In the very earliest contests with the wily and relentless savages, 
whose business was warfare and whose entire life was made up of 
bloody affrays, and the pursuit of wild animals, the pioneers of the 
valley were more than a match for them ; they could conquer them on 
their own ground, and were never known to yield to the proudest war- 
riors of the red race where they were not outnumbered, two or three 
to one. All praise is due to those hardy old heroes who came out 
from the midst of the comforts and even luxuries of civilization to 
build up and make blossom this beautiful valley, wherein their chil- 
dren and children’s children might dwell in peace and plenty, sur- 
rounded by smiling fields and lowing herds. Too much praise cannot 
be given — too much honor cannot be paid — to the old pioneer who, 
with his rifle on his shoulder and ax in hand, shot and hewed his wav 
through heart of savage as well as heart of oak, to the wilderness, 
which soon gave token of his presence by the curling column of 
smoke from his cabin chimney and the ringing strokes of his keen- 
edged ax. The true lover of the grand and great can never pass the 
grave of one of those sturdy old henchmen of civilization without lift- 
ing his hat to, or dropping a tear upon, the mouldering dust that 
covers his last resting place. 

In the French and Indian wars the valley furnished the most of 
the soldiers who fought upon the Ohio, and were principally influen- 
tial under the gallant young Virginian — Washington — in bringing to 
a victorious close that disastrous struggle, and even after a famous 
English general, backed by experienced English regulars, had been 
ignominiously defeated, put to flight and killed. It may be sup- 
posed, therefore, if she would send her young men to the front for 
kings and the upholding of royalty, that the valley would not be be- 
hind when the tocsin of war sounded for “liberty and independence,” 
and nobly did she respond to the call — gallantly did she uphold her 
ancient prestige. 

It is not within the compass of this work to go into the details of 
the Revolutionary war, but merely to touch upon such facts as are 
connected with the lower valley, inclusive, of course, of those who took 
an active part therein; whose names have been preserved from the 



ravages of time and forgetfulness, yet a few of the causes leading up 
to that important internecine struggle may not be uninstructive. 

From the earliest settlements in America to the period of the Rev- 
olution, the parent country, so far as her own unsettled state would 
permit, pursued toward those settlements a course of direct oppres- 
sion. She simply held possession of the country through what she 
claimed as the “ right of discovery,” and had precisely the same 
reason to so claim it as the Indians would have had to claim the Brit- 
ish Isles if they had sailed across the ocean in their birch canoes, and, 
landing on the coast of England, set up their wigwams at Liverpool 
and cut a “tomahawk right” on the buildings from that city to Lon- 
don, and so on down to Dover and up to Edinburgh and Cork. She 
paid not a penny to the aborigines for their land, but hundreds of 
thousands of pounds were expended from the private purses of the 
colonists in payment for their estates. True, the generous monarchs 
made large grants to favorites, but they gave away that which did not 
belong to them. Without the enterprise to establish colonies herself, 
she was ready, in the very dawn of their existence, to claim them as 
her legitimate possessions, and to prescribe in almost every minute 
particular the policy they should pursue. No sooner did the colonies, 
emerging from the feebleness and poverty of their incipient state, be- 
gin to direct their attention to commerce and manufactures than they 
were were subjected by the parent country to many vexatious regula- 
tions, which seemed to indicate that with regard to those subjects they 
were expected to follow that line of policy which she, in her wisdom, 
should mark out for them. At every indication of colonial prosperity 
the complaints of the commercial and the manufacturing interests in 
Great Britain were loud and clamorous, and demands were made upon 
the government to correct the evil, and to keep the colonies in due 
subjection. “ Keep them down,” said the English manufacturers, 
“ they will soon be our formidable rivals; they are already setting up 
manufactures, and they will soon set up for independence.” English 
writers vied with each other in insisting on the crown preventing the 
building of ships and engaging in the fisheries’ trade by the colonists. 
One writer, Dr. Davenant, said, “Colonies are a strength to the mother 
country while they are under good discipline, but otherwise they are 
worse than useless, being like offensive arms lopped from the nation, 
to be turned against it, as occasion may require.” Acts were passed 
restricting trade with the colonies to English -built vessels, belonging 






to subjects of England. They even limited the import trade. They 
were deprived of seeking the best markets for their products, and were- 
taxed heavily on nearly all goods sent from the colonies. The New 
England provinces were making serious inroads on the trade from 
England, and a law was passed prohibiting (to mention one article) 
hats being sent out of the colonies to foreign countries, or even from 
one colony to another. Ship loads of convicts were' vomited upon the 
shores of the helpless colonies, and their rights were trampled upon 
in a thousand ways. In 1750 parliament prohibited the erection or 
continuance of any “ mill, or other engine for slitting or rolling iron, 
or any plating forge to work with a tilt hammer, or any furnace for 
making steel, in the colonies under the penalty of two hundred pounds.” 
Moreover, such mills, etc., w r ere declared common nuisances and must 
be abated by the governors of the colonies. These were strokes at 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, as the above were strokes at the New 
England provinces. Is it any wonder, then, that when, in addition 
to those oppressive laws, the infamous “stamp act” was hurled into- 
the teeth of the long-suffering colonists, and troops w’ere garrisoning 
Boston harbor to -watch and spy out any infraction of his majesty’s 
mandates and to promptly suppress any outcroppings of freedom,, 
that the storm burst forth with a fury that was then beyond the 
control of powerful England to abate, and that shortly swept in its 
rage every vestige of royalty and its accompanying injustice from 
out the entire thirteen colonies ! 

The volcano having at last shot into flame, the colonists at once 
sprang to arms, and although 600 miles intervened between them 
and the initial scene of the conflict, yet the Lowmr Shenandoah Valley 
raised, equipped and sent forward to Washington at Boston two of the 
first companies to reach that illustrious leader. One of those com- 
panies was in command of a man wdiose history is so wonderful, and 
yet so little known, that he merits special mention in these pages. 
This man was Daniel Morgan, and although biographies almost with- 
out number have been written of that famous leader, yet not a singie 
writer of those w r orks, it is safe to say, has ever examined the records 
of the county in wdiich he lived and died, and wdiere only exist any- 
thing in regard to his ante-Bevolutionary life. The writer hereof has 
examined the pages of the old order books of the justices of Frederick 
County from 1743 onward, and is gratified to state that he has found 
the first extant recorded mention, with a number of others, all showing 

. - 







the character, habits, mode of life and gradual evolution from obscurity 
to honor and fame, of the noted general whose presence and whose 
stentorian voice filled his soldiers with patriotic valor and carried con- 
sternation into the ranks of his enemy. But before giving this 
recorded history of Morgan, some interesting facts in regard to his 
origin and early life will be mentioned. 

Mr. William G. Russell, who was born in Winchester in the year 
1800 , and who is, consequently, about ninety years of age, whose 
faculties are well preserved and who is and has been- a man of acute 
observation, has furnished the writer considerable information on 
many points, both from hearsay and personal knowdedge, and among 
other things says that his grandmother Green way knew Daniel Mor- 
gan when he was a boy, and that she had often talked about him. 
William Green way was the husband of this lady, and it is said came 
to this country from Scotland with Lord Fairfax. Mrs. Greenwav 
lived near what is now the little village of Nineveh, now in Warren 
County, and she said that Daniel Morgan’s father also^lived near that 
place. The family consisted of the father, mother, a sister older 
than Daniel, and Daniel himself. Mrs. Green way had often been 
to the house, and said that the elder Morgan was a quiet, silent- 
dispositioned man; that he had a small farm and also a distillery. 
No one knew definitely where the Morgans came from, but it 
seemed to be the impression that they had emigrated from New Jer- 
sey. “ He was a large, good-natured lad,” Mrs. Green way said 
of Daniel, and although not over fond of work, yet when he set 
about it, could do as much almost as two young fellows of his 
age, and although not particularly quarrelsome, seemed to be in his 
element when he did get into a fracas, and was never known to get 
the worst in a fight, except where they doubled or trebled him, as 
appears from a case on the old records where he has three men, evi- 
dently brothers, arrested for assault and battery upon himself. His 
assailants w T ere named Davis. As he grew up he worked at anything 
on the plantations where he could get employment, and by the time 
he was twenty years old was a wagoner, and it is thought, although 
there is no authentic information in regard to the matter, that he was 
with Braddock as a driver of pack-horses or of a wagon in the cele- 
brated defeat. But it is more than likely that he was one of the 
obscure privates in one of the companies that accompanied the unfor- 
tunate general and his regulars, and may have been one of those brave 






militiamen who saved the army from entire annihilation. This idea 
is more in consonance with the character of Daniel Morgan, for he 
was just twenty years old at the time, a hardy, brave adventurous 
spirit, an expert ritleman, and just the kind of a young fellow, as his 
course afterward exhibited, to be the first to enlist in any hazardous 
undertaking. In connection with his supposed service under Brad- 
dock tradition relates, and Howe repeats, a story of his being whipped, 
thus: “Morgan had charge of wagons transporting baggage. An 
officer came out and asked him why the wagons were not ready for the 
march. He replied that he had been delayed, but would have them 
ready as soon as possible. The officer replied if he did not hurry he 
would run him through with his sword. Morgan gave a tart reply, 
and the other fell into a passion and made a lunge at him with his 
sword. The latter parried the blow with a heavy wagon whip, broke 
the sword and gave the officer a severe drubbing. A court-martial 
sentenced him to receive five hundred lashes. After receiving four 
hundred and fifty of them Morgan fainted, and was allowed to go free. 
The officer, afterward becoming convinced of his error, asked Mor- 
gan’s pardon.” Morgan is also made the hero of several fights and 
skirmishes with Indians about this time, 1755 to 1757, which may 
be true, but there is no evidence extant at this date to confirm them. 

One of the first items among the proceedings of the court of jus- 
tices for Frederick County held May 3, 1758, is the following case: 
Thomas Conner ) 

vs. i In Tresp -Ass’ll & Batfy. 

Daniel Morgan. ) 

The Deft, being arrested and failing to appear, judgement is granted 
against him, and Elijah Isaacs, his bail, for what damages the 
Pltf. hath sustained, unless the said Deft, appear at next court and 
answer the said action. 

This is, undoubtedly, the first recorded mention of that redoubta- 
ble soldier — that “thunderbolt of war” — the famous Revolutionary 
patriot, General Daniel Morgan. He was then twenty-three years 
of age and was noted os an athlete, a boxer and a wrestler. It is alto- 
gether probable that he frequented Winchester a great deal, as it 
doubtless afforded him employment in teaming goods from Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland to that incipient city. He was over six feet in 
height, splendidly built, wonderfully agile and as strong as it was pos- 
sible for a man of his magnificent proportions to be, whilst he had no 
more conception of fear than a lion. Just what Mr. Thomas Conner, 




the plaintiff in the above case, did to raise the ire of that brawny, 
double-fisted giant, is difficult guess-work at this late day, but it is 
easy to imagine the result, if Daniel did his work as well then as he 
afterward did on the braggart Tarleton at the Cowpens. 

For several years succeeding the last date Morgan figures as de- 
fendant in numerous cases of assault and battery, but in nearly every 
instance the case is dismissed; in one or two, however, he is fined 
pretty heavily. He only appears once as plaintiff in any suit. This 
w T as against William, John and George Davis, for assaulting him. 
These parties were doubtless brothers, and as they, possibly, could 
not handle the stalwart fellow singly, all three of them went at him. 

But he seems to be emerging from his “wild oats” state, for after 
1764-65 no more suits are recorded against him, and in place of those 
disgraceful items is to be found the following, in the proceedings of 
the justices, November 4, 1766: “Ordained that Daniel Morgan be 

overseer of the road from Combs’ Ferry to the forks leading in to 
Winchester.” In the meantime he became possessed of a farm, possi- 
bly by the death of his father, for on July 7, 1767, he obtained the 
receipt of a constable for 728 pounds of hemp raised by himself, the 
county paying a premium on that commodity to encourage its pro- 
duction. November 7, 1770, he is still further recognized as a citizen 
worthy of filling a public trust, for it must be remembered that at the 
date named, and to the present time, for that matter, none but good 
and true men were selected as overseers of roads. This eutry tells 
the tale: “Ordered that Daniel Morgan be overseer of the road from 

Cunningham’s chapel to Lord Fairfax’s.” Now this was an important 
road, for it led from the residence of his lordship to the house of 
worship "wherein he would weekly make his peace "with his maker; so 
Daniel was selected, as Lord Thomas doubtless knew from his exper- 
ience as chief of the justices, that whatever Morgan attempted to do 
he always did well. 

But here are two entries in the old records that bore wonderful 
fruit : 

“May 7, 1771. Col. Samuel Washington having been commis- 
sioned colonel of the militia of Frederick County, appeared before 
the Justices and took the usual oaths of allegiance to his majesty’s per- 
son and government.” 

And three days after this entry appears the following: 

“ May 10, 1771. — Daniel Morgan having been summoned, appeared 










before the Justices and took the usual oaths to his majesty’s person 
and government and was sworn Captain in the militia of Frederick 

This is the starting point in the military career of Gen. Morgan, 
whose qualities must have been known to Col. Washington, that he 
should have selected him as one of his captains, over the many ambi- 
tious young men of his own grade in society, for id must be remem- 
bered that the station of the wealthy and influential Washingtons of 
the valley was quite different from that occupied by the obscure 
Daniel Morgan. And what a source of infinite pride it must have 
been to this afterward distinguished colonel to reflect that he had 
been the first to recognize the abilities of this great commander when 
but an humble farmer over yonder near the brawling Shenandoah. 

As an evidence of the acknowledged determination, physical 
power, and skill in dealing with dangerous characters, the following 
minute is given from the court proceedings of September 10, 1773, 
from which it appears that a noted criminal had escaped from Mary- 
land, had taken refuge in the valley, and had been recaptured: “ It 
is ordered that Daniel Morgan carry Timothy Ragan, a felon, who 
broke the gaol of Anne Arundel Co., Md., and deliver him to the 
sheriff of said county, and bring in his account of expenses at laying 
of the parish levy.” At the laying of the levy the following month 
he was paid the sum of £6 2s. 8d. Morgan in this same year is 
shown to be the possessor of not only a farm, but the owner of a 
number of slaves, as his name figures in a document on record where- 
in is recited among other property, “several of my negroes,” and his 
identity appears for the last time in the colonial county records in a 
suit for £60 instituted by “ Cochrane & Co., plaintiffs, against Mor- 
gan and others, defendants.” This was in March, 1774. The next 
year, fall of 1775, he raised his famous company of riflemen, and 
marched to the front, 

Washington, having been made commander-in-chief of the Ameri- 
can army, and receiving his commission June 15, 1775, immediately 
set about organizing order out of the chaos that existed throughout 
the colonies. He repaired to Boston and called for troops to come to 
that point, armed and equipped, if possible. Capt. Daniel Morgan, as 
soon as he learned the need of the commander, applied for a commis- 
sion to serve in the Continental army, and upon its receipt, in ten 
days thereafter, he attracted to himself a company of ninety-six young 


( ■ 



and enthusiastic men. No leader ever headed braver soldiers; his 
very presence commanded obedience and respect, for his men saw in 
their captain one upon whom they could rely. Their rendezvous was 
Winchester for most of them, but others joined him on the way to the 
Potomac and at the first halting place for the night. The company 
was officered as follows: Captain, Daniel Morgan; first lieutenant, 
John Humphrey; second lieutenant, William Heth; first sergeant, 
George Porterfield. Among those whose names are preserved as be- 
longing to the company as privates are: George Greenway, William 
Green way, Seth Stratton, John Schultz, Jacob Sperry, Peter Laud*:. 
Simon Lauck, Frederick Kurtz, Adam Kurtz, Charles Grim, George 
Heiskell, Kobert Anderson, William Ball and Mark Hays. Six of 
these formed what has been known as the Dutch Mess. They were all 
Germans and messed together during the entire war, and singular to 
say, not one of them met with any disaster during all their severe cam- 
paigns with Morgan, and several of them lived to a great age. The 
descendants of all of them are among the most respected citizens of 
the valley, several of whom were gallant soldiers in all the wars in 
which this country has been engaged since their honored ancestors 
trod the snows of Quebec and went south with Morgan. The names 
of the six were, according to Mr. W. G. Russell, who personally knew 
several of them: Peter Lauck, Simon Lauck, Frederick Kurtz, John 
Schultz, Charles Grim and Jacob Sperry. This company, on foot and 
accompanied by one wagon, left Winchester July 14, 1775, and camped 
the first night at the spring on the plantation of Col. 'William Morgan, 
grandfather of Col. William A. Morgan, near Shepherdstown. Pur- 
suing their way the next morning, they arrived at Cambridge, Mass., 
August 7, and were received by the soldiers already collected there 
with demonstrations of the wildest joy, for it gave them to understand 
that even away off, six hundred miles, in the valley of Virginia, the 
fires of freedom burned as fiercely as it did right in the midst of Eng- 
lish injustice and invasion. It is also said that when Washington saw 
Morgan’s company, travel-stained and almost worn out with fatigue, 
and recognized a number of them, he was overcome by his feelings 
and wept as he took them by the hand. After a short rest the com- 
pany was ordered to join the army of Arnold in its invasion of Can- 
ada. Arriving in the vicinity of Quebec, Capt. Morgan reported to 
Gen. Montgomery. It was in December, and the intense cold caused 
great suffering to the Americans. The English garrison consisted 




of about 1,500 well-fed, well-clothed and well -protected troops, whilst 
the force of Montgomery numbered only 800. Haying divided this 
small array into four detachments, the General ordered two feints 
to be made against the upper town. On the 31st of December, 1775, 
at 4 o’clock in the morning, in the midst of a heavy snow storm, 
the columns were put in motion. Montgomery, with his detach- 
ment of 200, passed the first barrier, but when attacking the 
second was killed, and his division fell back. Arnold, being severely 
wounded, was carried off the field, yet his party, placed under 
the command of Capt. Morgan, contended against the works for over 
three hours, until overpowered by superior numbers they were forced 
to surrender. One hundred of the Americans were killed and three 
hundred taken prisoners, including Morgan. This virtually ended the 
Canadian campaign, the death of Montgomery having a very depress- 
ing effect upon his army. 

Morgan, who in the meantime had been promoted to the position 
of major in his regiment, after nearly five months’ captivity, returned 
to the Northern army and was advanced to a colonelcy. Rev. Peter 
Muhlenburg, a clergyman, who had gone with Morgan’s company as 
chaplain, at the storming of Quebec threw" off his ministerial robes 
and fought by the side of his captain. This u fighting parson,” as he 
was frequently called by his friends, being captured with his com- 
mand, returned, upon his release, and raised a regiment, he having 
been commissioned colonel of the Eighth Virginia; his lieutenant- 
colonel was Abraham Bowman, and his major, Peter Helplienstine, of 
Winchester. This regiment w r as ordered to Charleston, S. C., where 
they arrived on June 24, 1776, having covered the entire distance on 
foot and without a tent. After the battle of Charleston, Muhlenburg 
returned to the valley, filled up his decimated ranks and went north 
and joined Washington. The southern climate made sad havoc in 
Muhlenburg’s regiment, and many of the men died. Maj. Helphen- 
stine was one of the victims, and died in Winchester in the fall of 
1776. Upon his arrival at the northern field of action, Muhlenburg 
was made a brigadier-general, and Bowunan, colonel. 

During all these commotions the wheels of government were mov- 
ing along as smoothly in the valley districts as though war urns an 
affair of small moment, and only for a short time were the proceedings 
of the justices interrupted during the transition from monarchy to 
republicanism. May 7, 1776, a short session wuis held, and that was the 






last under the patronage of “ Our Sovereign Lord George III, by the 
Grace of God, King, etc.,” for the next was held “by the grace of 
God” under the influence of another George, who had Washington to 
his name. There was no session of the court in June or July, but 
August 6, 1776, that body convened, under the new regime, the glori- 
ous “ Commonwealth of Virginia,” and the following are the pro- 
ceedings : 

“Present: John Hite, Isaac Hite, Charles Mynn Thruston, John 
McDonald, John Smith, Edmund Taylor. 

“ An ordinance of the Honorable, the Convention of the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, directing that the different members named in the 
former Commission of the Peace, should continue to act in the said 
office upon their taking the oath prescribed in the said ordinance, 
Whereupon Isaac Hite and Charles Mynn Thruston administered 
the oath to John Hite, who took and subscribed the same, and then 
the said John Hite administered the said oath to all the aforesaid 
members, who took the same as Justices of the said Commonwealth. 

“James Keith took the oath as Clerk of the Court. 

“ Henry Peyton, Jr., took the oath as Deputy Clerk of the Court. 

“ Angus McDonald took the oath as Sheriff. 

“ Nathaniel Cartmell, Jr., took the oath as Deputy Sheriff. 

“ Gabriel Jones, Alexander White, George Pioots, Dolphin Drew, 
John Magill and Hemry Peyton, Jr., took the oath as attorneys.” 

These are the old patriots who stepped up in those trying times 
and “ showed their colors.” His lordship of Fairfax failed to respond, 
although he was at the head of the justices; but let us not be too 
hard on the old gentleman, for it must be remembered that he was 
raised under the wing of royalty, had received his wealth and station 
from kings, was nearly ninety years of age and was nearing his last 
days upon earth, and it was hard for him to cut loose from his ancient 
moorings and join a cause that must have seemed to him extremely 
hopeless of success. Yet, with all his rooted and preconceived prin- 
ciples of the divine right of kings, and all his wealth, he never was 
known to throw a straw in the onward path of American liberty. And 
when he heard of the triumph of Washington at Yorktown and the 
downfall of English rule in the colonies, he simply remarked that it 
was time for him to die, went to bed, and never arose again therefrom. 

At the next court Isaac Zane came forward and subscribed to the 
oath as a justice. The following also appears as a portion of the pro- 
ceedings : 



“Ordered, That Marquis Calines, Robert Wood, William Gibbs, 
Philip Bush, Robert White, Joseph Holmes, Thomas Helm, Edward 
McGuire, and Edward Smith, be recommended to His Excellency the 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, as proper persons to be 
added to the Commission of the Peace, for this county, and that it be 
certified that Charles Smith, one of the members in the commission, 
is dead; William Booth refused to swear in, and 'desired to be left 
out: Warner Washington, Jr., after he did sivear in, did not chuse to 
act and desired to be left out; and that Thomas Bryan Martin never 
did sw r ear in to the said commission.” 

They seemed to be hunting the Tories in this section at a pretty 
lively gait; a number of arrests occurred and among such cases was 
that of Samuel Glenn. At November court this individual w r as 
brought before the justices, held in the sum of £100, and committed 
to the gaol until he could obtain security therefor, for “ using lan- 
guage inimical to the liberties of America,” 

February 4, 1777, Col. James Wood, son of James Wood, who died 
in 1760, handed in his resignation to the justices as lieutentant-colonel 
of the militia, to accept the commission of colonel in the Continental 
army, and John Smith, one of the justices, was appointed in his place. 
Col. Wood raised his regiment in the lower valley, and marched north- 
ward to join Washington. Dr. C. T. Magill and Henry Beattie were 
also officers in the Continental army from Winchester. Beattie was 
afterward a colonel in the war of 1812. At this time Virginia had, 
in addition to those in the regular Continental army, nine regiments, 
of which the lower valley furnished a large proportion. The official 
reports of Frederick County showed in 1777 only 923 effective militia. 

During the spring of 1777, the military authorities of Pennsyl- 
vania gained possession of some documents implicating a number of 
prominent Quakers of Philadelphia and elsewhere in designs inimical 
to the cause for which the colonies were giving so much of their best 
blood on the many fields of contest, and after investigation and full 
legal enactments and processes, the following persons ■were arrested: 
Joshua Fisher, Abel James, James Pemberton, Henry Drinker, Israel 
Pemberton, John Pemberton, John James, Samuel Pleasants, Thomas 
W barton and Thomas and Samuel Fisher. These persons, with a 
number of others were ordered, unless they -would consent to swear 
or affirm allegiance to the State of Pennsylvania, to be transported to 
Staunton, Va., and there held under surveillance. The order of des- 




tination was quite complimentary to the patriotism of the valley of 
Virginia, as the authorities must have felt that the hardy sons of the 
tramontane regions of the Old Commonwealth w r ere able to keep in 
restraint those Tory gentlemen. Accordingly about fourteen persons, 
including those named, were forwarded to the Valley, but their des- 
tination was changed to Winchester. Col. John Smith, county lieu- 
tenant, received them and offered to give them parole, if they would 
promise not to escape from his jurisdiction, but they refused. They 
said they had protested against being taken from their homes; that 
they had protested at the Maryland boundary ; that they had pro- 
tested at the Virginia boundary, and now protested at being treated 
as criminals. Col. Smith, listened to these repeated protests and re- 
plied: “It is true that I know of no law which will justify your de- 
tention, but as you are sent to my care by the supreme executive of 
your owm State, and represented as dangerous characters, and as hav- 
ing been engaged in treasonable practices, I consider it my duty to 
detain you, at least until I can send to the governor of Virginia for 
his advice and direction in the matter.” Tradition relates that the old 
colonel made an additional side remark to the effect that if he had 
his way that he would hang the whole lot without judge or jury. He 
once more repeated to them that if they would simply pledge them- 
selves not to abscond that he would not confine them, but they again 
refused, and were at once placed under guard. They were confined 
along with the Hessian prisoners, some 300 of whom were at 
the time being held in a building that is standing to this day in 
the southern portion of Winchester. About nine months after these 
parties had remained in confinement here, they were released through 
the instrumentality of Alexander White, a lawyer, but not until the 
British had left Philadelphia. Several of them died during their 
imprisonment. This action of the Quakers during the Revolution 
left a stigma on that faith which lasted many years succeeding that 
struggle, and, indeed, traces of it may still be found, but now very 
rarely. It was looked upon by the Americans as an extremely singu- 
lar' position for the Quakers to assume, as that sect had been an ob- 
ject of particular persecution by the English government, their very 
presence in the colonies at one time being punishable by death. 

The justices w r ere bound to ascertain the sentiments of those within 
their bailiwick, at least as far as the administration of an oath could 
solve that problem, for the proceedings of a court held September 3, 
1777, gives the following: 




“ Ordered, that Edward McGuire, gent., is appointed to adminis- 
ter the oath of Fidelity, prescribed by law, to the inhabitants of Win- 
chester, pursuant to the directions of an act of General Assembly in 
that case made and provided. 

“ Thomas Helm, for the same purpose, in the Districts of Captains 
Barrett, Ball and McKinney. 

“Joseph Holmes, in the Districts of Captains Gilkerson, Niswan- 
ofer and Barron. 

“ Robert Throckmorton, in the Districts of Captains Wilson and 

“ William Gibbs, in the Districts of Captains Reynolds and 
Baldwin. % 

“ Robert White, in the Districts of Captains Babb and Rinker. 

“Edmund Taylor, in the Districts of Captains Farron and Catlett. 

“John Hite, in the District of Captain Helm.” 

It is astonishing how history so often repeats itself. This little 
process of “taking the oath” is no doubt very vivid in the minds of 
many people hereabout; and especially along the border, where the 
contending forces alternately held possession, did this practice most 
obtain. And it was said, by some irreverent scribe at the beginning 
of the late war, that a prominent general at Washington “ took the 
oath ” every morning before breakfast as an appetizer. 

To return to Morgan: That skillful and dashing officer, after his 
release from Canadian prison life, was ordered to select a regiment of 
riflemen and join the force under the command of General Gates, who 
was gradually, but certainly, encompassing the downfall of Burgoyne, 
and it is claimed that the rifles of the Virginians under the careful 
manipulation of their fearless and determined leader helped very 
materially in bringing about a result that was felt throughout the 
whole colonies and shortened the strife by a year or tw r o, for it took 
from active service a large army of England's best soldiers. The 
capitulation to the victorious Gates and his able supporters at Sara- 
toga, included 5,790, of all ranks; which number, added to the killed, 
wounded and prisoners lost by the royal army during the preceding 
part of the expedition, made, altogether, upward of 10,000 men, an 
advantage rendered still more important to the captors, by the acqui- 
sition of thirty-five brass field pieces, and nearly 5,000 muskets. 
The regular troops in Gates’ army were 9,000, and the militia 4,000; 
2,000, how r ever, were sick or on furlough. Col. Morgan, for his 




superior military ability displayed in this very decisive battle and 
his conspicuous bravery, was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral and joined the standard of Washington, near Philadelphia, where 
he further greatly distinguished himself in his operations against the 
English, by means of his regiment of unerring sharpshooters. A 
large number of the prisoners taken in the engagement with Bur- 
goyne’s army, were sent to Winchester, so that in 1780 a barracks 
was erected for them about four miles west of the town. They num- 
bered about 1,600 in 1781. 

The reduction of the cities of Savannah and Charleston so encour- 
aged the English commander that he determined to make the sub- 
© © 

j ugation of the southern colonies, at least, complete, and an advance 
into the interior of North Carolina was decided upon. The American 
commander-in-chief, being advised of these movements, relieved 
Gen. Gates from the command of the southern army, and appointed 
in his stead Gen. Greene, an officer in whose ability, fortitude and 
integrity, from a long and intimate acquaintance, he had the utmost 
confidence. The day upon which Greene took charge of the army at 
Charlotte, he was informed of a gallant exploit performed by Col. 
Washington, of Morgan’s command. Being on a foraging expedition, 
this active officer came upon one of the strong-holds of the royalists 
(Tories) near Camden. These traitors to their countrymen, 100 
strong, Avere entrenched in a block-house, with an abattis, and 
could ha\ r e defied Washington’s little scouting party; but the 
ingenious Golonel advanced with great display toward the enemy, 
and planted ivith deliberation a blackened log, mounted on Avheels 
and resembling a cannon, so as to rake the block-house, and then 
coolly demanded a surrender. Dreading a cannonade in so confined 
quarters, the garrison marched out and laid down their arms. 

The patriot army in the south was in a very weak condition; there 
being scarcely 3,000, all told, fit for service; but this force Avas 
divided by the commander, and a detachment under Maj.-Gen. 
Daniel Morgan Avas sent into the district of Ninety-Six, in the Avestern 
district of South Carolina. ConiAvallis being at this time far advanced 
in his preparations for the invasion of North Carolina, could not, con- 
sistently with the rules of Avar, leave an enemy in his rear; so he 
dispatched Col. Tarleton, who had the reputation of being a dashing 
and able young officer, but withal, an incautious and inordinately A*ain 
one, and whose contempt for Morgan and his militia Avas complete, to 









pursue that officer and “push him to the utmost.” Tarleton had two 
field pieces, a superiority of infantry in the proportion of five to four, 
and of cavalry, of three to one, against Morgan’s five hundred; in all, 
the British commander had over 1,100 men. It is said that Tarleton 
was warned by a Tory colonel, who knew Gen. Morgan and his meth- 
ods of warfare, to beware of how he approached that officer, “that he 
had never been whipped, and that he would be hard to capture;” but 
the pompous colonel only snapped' his fingers, as though he would say, 
“the old wagoner and his raw militia would hardly be a breakfast 
bite for him.” So, with the advantage in numbers and equipment, 
llie gay Tarleton, at a place called the Cowpens, in South Carolina, on 
the 17th of January, 1781, attacked Gen. Morgan with the expectation 
of driving him out of the State, or annihilating his force. But the 
impetuosity of Tarleton, which had gained him high reputation when 
he had surprised an incautious enemy, or attacked panic-stricken 
militia, was at this time the occasion of his ruin. Impatient of 
delay, he wen! into the engagement with his men fatigued by march- 
ing, and without properly forming them, or the reserve had taken its 
ground, relying upon what he deemed his superiority in military 
tactics; but he had a general to deal with who could be a fox at one 
moment and a wolf the next, and so it proved. Awaiting the proper 
moment, with everything in readiness, when the time arrived the old 
valley wagoner and his five hundred rushed upon the enemy with such 
impetuosity and havoc that they sent them reeling and in dismay 
back upon their baggage, and what were not killed or captured fled 
in confusion to Charleston. It was one of the severest conflicts of 
the war. The English lost BOO men killed and wounded, besides 
500 prisoners, and all their artillery, ammunition and baggage. 
The Americans had only twelve killed and sixty wounded, a result 
almost unprecedented in the annals of warfare of all time. Gen. 
Morgan was ably supported, as has heretofore been stated, by Col. 
William Augustine Washington, and one can imagine the hearty 
hand-shake of the rough old war-dog and his gallant colonel after the 
•capture of Tarleton’s army and the flight of that doughty English 
officer. An anecdote is related that is said to have occurred at 
Charleston, after Col. Tarleton had reached that city. This officer, 
who, even after his disastrous defeat, a fleeted to look down upon the 
Virginia militia under Morgan, remarked to some ladies, who knew 
the handsome and dashing Col. Washington, “I would be very glad 




to got a sight of this Col. Washington, whom you think so brilliant, 
and of whom I have heard so much.” “Had you looked behind you, 
Colonel, at the battle of Cowpens,” replied one of the ladies, “you 
might easily have enjoyed that pleasure.” 

After his victory Morgan moved off to Virginia with his prisoners, 
but the chagrin of Cornwallis at the defeat of his favorite officer, 
Tarleton, urged that general to renewed exertions, and he endeavored 
to cut off the retreat of the victor and his spoils. General Greene 
also took a hand in the business and effectually checkmated the 
English commander by getting in between him and Morgan with the 
prisoners. Suffice it to say, the latter got off safely, and some time 
afterward, obtaining relief from duty for awhile, retired to his planta- 
tion, “ Saratoga,” so named in honor of the battle in which he had 
taken so active a part. His residence is said to have been built by 
Hessian prisoners. Not long after the escape of Morgan to Frederick 
County with the prisoners taken at Cowpens, it was rumored that 
Tarleton was approaching to attempt their capture, when Col. Smith 
ordered out the militia and removed the Hessians and others confined 
near Winchester to Fort Frederick in Washington County, Maryland. 
While Morgan was reposing on his well-earned laurals at his home, 
he was requested by the county lieutenant of Frederick to head a 
party for the suppression of a nest of Tories across in the adjoining 
County of Hardy, and, accompanied by two or three hundred of the 
militia of Berkeley, Shenandoah and Frederick, adopted such meas- 
ures in his treatment of those malcontents as to utterly squelch them 
and they were never afterward heard of as Tories. Morgan’s last 
military operations were in 1794, in connection with what is known 
as the “ Whisky Insurrection ” in Western Pennsylvania. A tax had 
been laid upon distilled spirits, and the producers of that article 
deeming it unjust to them, they being farmers and using all their grain 
for distilling purposes, whilst those who raised grain for other uses 
were not required to pay tax, resolved to resist the measure. They 
(the distillers) committed a number of outrages on the collectors of 
the revenue, and to such extent were the disturbances growing that the 
general government was compelled to take a hand in the matter. 
Accordingly, Gov. Mifflin of Pennsylvania, Gov. Howell of New 
Jersey, Gov. Lee of Maryland and Gen. Daniel Morgan, all under 
the command of “ Light Horse ” Harry Lee of Virginia, with their 
repective forces, marched for the scene of action, but before they 



arrived on any “ bloody field,” the rag-tag and bob-tailed insurgents 
thought discretion the better part of valor and submitted to the in- 
evitable. Washington is said to have remarked to Morgan, that it 
must have been a very arduous campaign to walk up hill and down 


Shortly after returning from his first trip to quell the Pennsylvania 
distillers Morgan ran for Congress and was defeated, his competitor 
being Robert Rutherford. He ran agaii., two years later, and this 
time was successful. Becoming infirm with age and an extremely 
active life, he moved to Winchester in 1800 and resided with his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. Heard. He had married about 1762, Miss 
Abigail Bailey, whose parents lived on the Blue Ridge, above what 




was known as Combs’ Ferry on the Shenandoah River, east of Win- 
chester. Morgan had two daughters, the elder, Nancy, who married 
Col. Presley Neville, and the other, Betsey, who married Maj. James 
Heard, both Revolutionary soldiers, and at the house of the latter the 
old general died, July 6, 1802. 

The historian, Sparks, has said of Morgan: “In person he was 

of imposing appearance, moving with strength and grace, of a 
hardy constitution, to defy fatigue, hunger and cold. His open coun- 
tenance was a mirror of his frank, ingenuous nature; he could glow 
with intensest anger, but he would never allow his passion to master 
his discernment, and his disposition was sweet and peaceful, so that 
he delighted in acts of kindness, never harboring malice or revenge, 
making his house a home of cheerfulness and hospitality. His courage 
was not an idle quality, it sprang from the intense energy of his will, 
which bore him on to his duty with an irresitable impetuosity; his 
faculties were only quickened by the nearness of danger, which he was 
sure to make the best preparation to meet ; an instinctive ' perception 
of character assisted him in choosing among his companions those 
whom it was wise to trust, and a reciprocal sympathy made the obedi- 
ence of his soldiers an act of affectionate confidence. Whenever he 
appeared on the battle field the fight w r as sure to be waged with fear- 
lessness, good judgment and massive energy. Next to Washington, 
in some qualities, Morgan had no superior among Virginia soldiers.” 

In another light Morgan is sketched by a writer in the Winches- 
ter Republican , in 1842: “This ‘thunderbolt of war,’ this ‘brave 

Morgan who never knew fear,’ was in camp often wdcked and pro- 
fane, but never a disbeliever in religion. In his latter years he united 
himself with the Presbyterian Church in this place, under the care 
of Rev. Dr. Hill. He related his experience to that minister. * Peo- 
ple thought,’ said he, ‘that Daniel Morgan never prayed;’ — 
4 People said old Morgan never w r as afraid;’ — ‘People did not 
know.’ He then proceeded to relate in his blunt manner, among 
many other things, that the night they stormed Quebec, while 
waiting in the darkness and the storm with his men paraded, for the 
word to advance, he felt unhappy; the enterprise appeared more than 
perilous; it seemed to him that nothing less than a miracle could bring 
them off safe from an encounter at such amazing disadvantage. He 
stepped aside and kneeled by the side of a munition of war — and then 
most fervently prayed that the Lord God Almighty would be his 




shield and defense, for nothing less than an almighty arm could pro- 
tect him. He continued on his knees till the word passed along the 
line. He fully believed that his safety during that night of peril was 
from the interposition of God. Again, he said about the battle of 
Cowpens, which covered him with so much glory as a leader and a 
soldier — he had felt afraid to light Tarleton with his numerous army 
flushed with success — and that he retreated as long as it seemed ad- 
visable, and yet retain the confidence of his men. Drawing up his 
army in three lines on the side of a hill, contemplating the scene — in 
the distance the glitter of the advancing enemy — he trembled for the 
fate of the day. Going to the woods in the rear, he kneeled in the 
top of a fallen tree, and poured out a prayer to God for his army, for 
himself and for his country. With revived spirits he returned to the 
lines, and in his rough manner cheered them for the fight; as lie 
passed along they answered him bravely. The terrible carnage that 
followed the deadly aim of his riflemen decided the victory. ‘ Ah,’ 
said he, ‘people said old Morgan never prayed and never was afraid ; 
people did not know; old Morgan was often miserably afraid! The 
last of those riflemen are gone; the brave and hearty gallants of the 
valley, that waded to Canada and stormed Quebec, are all gone; — 
gone, too, the sharpshooters of Saratoga.’ For a long time two, who 
shared his captivity in Canada were seen in this village, wasting away 
to shadows of their youth, celebrating with enthusiasm the night of 
their battle, as the years rolled round — Peter Lauck and John Schultz. 
They have answered the roll-call of death, and have joined their leader.” - 
Out in the cemetery, not far from Morgan’s grave, rests another 
of the patriot band of the revolution, the brave Gen. Daniel Bober- 
deau, a Huguenot, who cast his fortunes with America. But here, 
upon a plain marble slab, now level with the ground, cracked and 
broken, may be read the following: 




departed this life 
On July the 6th, 1802, 

In the 67th year of his age. 

Patriotism and Valor were the 
Prominent Features of his character, 

The honorable services he rendered 
to his country 

During the Revolutionary War 
Crowned him with Glory, and will 
remain in the hearts of his 
a Perpetual Monument 
to his 

• r. \ 

Beneath this humble slab out in the cemetery, under the shadow 
of stately monuments, repose the dust of one of those great soldiers 
who, it seems, flash before the world but once in a century — General 
Daniel Morgan — the Stonewall Jackson of the Revolution. 





Incorporation of Winchester— Post-Revolution ary Boom— Splendid 
Early" Schools— First Newspapers in the Valley— Grandiloquent 
Salutatory’— Portrait of Washington— The Church Lottery’— Some 
Local Items— Dancing Masters— Mr. McGuire’s Ball Room— Some 
Fancy’ Figures— First Fire Companies— Noted Taverns— Establish- 
ment of Manufactories— Theatricals— Prominent Merchants— 
Young Ladies seminary’— Fine Stores— First Adams Express Com- 
pany’— Post Office— Indentured Servants — Shaved Heads and “Iron 
Collar” — Just Received from Cork— Vote of the County— Grand 
Celebration and Barbeque of 1788 — Description of Parade— First 
Execution— B kief, But to the Point— List of Justices— Longevity' 
of Old Clerks. 

TN October, 1779, a dual act incorporating the towns of Alexandria and 
Winchester was passed by the General Assembly of the Common- 
wealth. The act provided for the election of officers of the two towns; 
the style of the corporations, qualification and eligibility of the mayor, 
and his judicial and ministerial powers; provided for a recorder, al- 
dermen, sergeant, etc.; market days; misconduct of officers, vacancies, 
and penalties for refusing to qualify; election of common councilmen. 
That portion of the act, specially in regard to Winchester, is as fol- 
lows : 

Be it further enacted , That the town of Winchester, in the county 
of Frederick, shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be made cor- 
porate in the same manner, to all intents and purposes, as the said 
town of Alexandria; and that the freeholders and housekeepers thereof 
shall be entitled to the same privileges and in like manner, and under 
the like conditions and limitations; shall have the power of electing 
twelve able and fit men, to seiwe as mayor, recorder, aldermen and 
common councilmen for the same. The mayor of the town of Winches- 
ter first elected shall, before some justice of the quorum in the com- 
mission of the peace for the county of Frederick, take the oath of 
office. The mayor, recorder and aldermen shall have the same juris- 
diction in civil and criminal cases; and shall, on the second Thursday 
in every month, hold pleas of action arising within the said town of 
Winchester, and the limits hereinafter mentioned, in like manner as 
the mayor, recorder and aldermen of the town of Alexandria. The 





mayor, recorder, aldermen and common councilmen of the town of 
Winchester, shall, in every instance have the same powers, rights and 
privileges, and be subject to the same penalties, limitations and man- 
ner of proceedings as the mayor, recorder, aldermen and common 
councilmen of the said town of Alexandria; and their jurisdiction shall 
extend to and over the out-lots belonging to the said town of Win- 

This act, it will be noted, was passed during the very heat of the 
Revolution, and shows that notwithstanding the great interest the 
citizens of the valley took in the progress of the war, as evidenced in 
the number and gallantry of its soldiers, they also kept in mind the 
welfare of their towns. Two years after the above act of incorpora- 
tion, when peace spread her white wings over the victorious colonies, 
an era of prosperity came to Winchester that amounted to what would 
now r be called a veritable “ boom.” Various important businesses 
sprang into life; it became the mart for the production of several use- 
ful products on such a scale as would now, even, be deemed extensive. 
The manufacture of saddle-trees was carried on to a large extent, and 
were shipped northward and eastward, even entering the markets 
almost controlled by Carlisle, Penn., which at that time was the great 
rival in trade of Winchester. The hats of Winchester were famous 
far and wide, whilst the gloves of buckskin, made by three or four 
manufacturers were sought by all eastern dealers, and doubtless was 
the starting point of the celebrity of valley-made gloves that retain 
their reputation to this day. One of the largest tanneries was located 
here even before the Revolution and its leather was shipped as far 
north as Boston. 

Educational matters received attention at a very early date, and in 
addition to two or three strictly private schools for the lower branches 
two fine classic and academic institutions were opened. In the Alexan- 
dria Advertiser of June 22, 1786, one year before the first newspaper 
was published in Winchester, the “ trustees of the Winchester Latin. 
Greek, and English schools,” advertise that having elected “Mr. 
Armstrong and Mr. Potter, two gentlemen of character and abilities, 
to take charge of the institution, do hereby give notice that the schools 
will be opened on Monday, the 10th of July.” They set forth that 
“the climate is healthful, the country plentiful and the town grow- 
ing.” The price of tuition was four guineas per annum. The 
trustees also state that “ there being clergymen of the Episcopal, 
Presbyterian, and Lutheran churches, who officiate regularly in this 




place, the pupils will have an opportunity c,»f attending divine service 
every Sunday.” The trustees were: John Smith, Robert Macky, 
Alexander Belmain, Rawleigh Colston, Joseph Holmes, J. H. Norton, 
Philip Bush. Another fine school was started a little later, also in 

There was, undoubtedly, a printing office for job work in Win- 
chester for several years previous to the American devolution, for in 
two of the county levies of years proceeding 1770 appear items appro- 
priating certain sums “ to the printer.” The first newspaper, how- 
ever, published in the Shenandoah Valley was the Virginia Gazette 
and Winchester Advertiser , the initial number of which appeared 
Wednesday, July 11, 1787, Henry Willcocks & Co., being the proprie- 
tors. The writer hereof, has before him a bound volume of this old 
journal, covering a period of one year and nine months from its com- 
mencement. Tt contains much interesting and curious matter and 
gives an idea of Winchester a few years after the great conflict with 
the mother country, better than can be obtained through any other 
medium. As exhibiting the manners, customs and progress of the 
Valley over one hundred years ago,, a number of extracts will be copied 
from the Gazette and Advertiser. As was the ancient custom, and 
which still prevails to a certain extent, the editions gave a voluminous 
and rather grandiloquent “ salutatory,” headed “ To the Public . — 
Vincit amor Patrice .” It reads in part- as follows: “Those sages of 
antiquity, who were blinded by the bigoted prejudices of their ances- 
tors, were strangers to the finer acts that have illuminated our minds, 
in the days of modern refinement. The luxuries of life were then pre- 
ferred to other joys more satisfactory, more satisfactory because more 
necessary, and the extension of knowledge was totally neglected. The 
rude rusticity of superstition was like to invade, and even to refute 
reason and common sense ; and the pleasurable sweets of Philanthropy 
and cordiality, were nearly abolished by tumultuous uproars which 
frequently prevailed in society.” After a eulogy on the inventors of 
printing, the editor continues. “ The Editor, from his experience in 
the Printing business, both in America, as well as in the principal 
cities of Europe, hopes to be enabled to carry it on with honor, 
respectability and reputation. * * * * We are determined to 

keep our press chaste, and as free from paper litigation as is consis- 
tent with the welfare of an infant republic, and freedom of the press. 
* * * * * As it was the editor’s ambition from infancy to hold 





the rights of liberty inviolate, and promote those patriotic virtues 
which are the parents of wisdom and distinguished eminence. We 
are with respect, the public’s most obedient and very humble servants, 
H. W. & Co.” The Gazette partially changed hands in the following 
month, as the firm name on August 29 appears as Bartgis & Willcocks. 
This Bartgis seems to have been a very enterprising printer, for at 
this time he was publishing newspapers in York Town, Penn., Frederick 
Town, Md., and was just establishing one at Staunton, Ya. In Janu- 
ary, 1788, he obtained entire control of the Gazette , for at that time 
the firm is Bartgis & Co. At the head of this paper is a wood cut 
with the legend around if “ George Washington was the Savior of his 
country.” The cut is intended to be a portrait of Washington, but 
if George had ever laid his eyes on that picture and seriously thought 
that anybody could think he looked like it, it is safe to conclude that 
we should never have had him for our first president: the waves of the 
Potomac would have wept over the silent grave of the unfortunate 
but justifiable suicide. 

One newspaper was not enough for the ambition of Winchester, 
so on April 2, 1788, Richard Bowen & Co. launched upon the news- 
paperial sea The Virginia Centinel , or the Winchester Mercury . The 
address of the editors of this new aspirant for public favor says: 
“ Called upon by the Public Voice to publish a Newspaper in the town 
of Winchester, we have this day the honor to present them with the 
first number of the Centinel, etc.” One can scent war in the breeze 
between the two journals in the following extract: “It has been cus- 
tomary with some, at the commencement of undertakings of this nature, 
to lavish many words in commendation of the good conduct they mean 
to pursue. * * * We beg leave to deviate from those who have 

gone before us, in this respect, least we should fall into the dilemma 
of asserting more than we are able to perform. Words , the mere 

effusions of ivind, should never, in our opinion, be made use of, either 
in writing or speaking, unless they are intended to convey truth. We 
hope our deeds will render us deserving the countenance and support 
of a judicious and disinterested public.” 

In addition to the classical school mentioned previously as being 
located in Winchester, an advertisement appears on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1787, under the heading of “Winchester Seminary,” in which it 
is set forth that the undersigned have enjoyed the privileges of send- 
ing their children to this seminary, and having them taught the Latin 



and Greek languages. Charles O’Neil, A. M., was tlie instructor, and 
the “ undersigned” endorsers were: Edward McGuire, Robert Wood, 
Samuel May, Lewis Wolf, Henry Baker, J. Garnul Dowdal, Frederick 
Conrad, Isaac Sit tier, Thomas Edmondson. 

Still another school is advertised, November 2, 1787. Felix Kirk, 
the dominie of this institution, says in his card in the paper: “In this 
school the English language will be taught grammatically ; Orthog- 
raphy, Reading and Writing, with grace and propriety, and a com- 
plete course of the Mathematics, or any of the practical branches that 
may be required.” Whether the old teacher was perpetrating a fling 
at the higher schools that taught, principally, Latin, Greek, etc., when 
he speaks of teaching the English language grammatically is difficult 
to tell. 

The good old fathers of the church of one hundred years ago seem 
not to have had the same scruples in regard to certain practices for ob- 
taining funds for the religious work in which they were engaged, as 
our modern church adherents, although when one comes to think of it, 
there is very little difference in the animus of the acts — a lottery or a 
raffle. We, of this enlightened age, put up at church fairs almost any 
article and raffle it off to the lucky winner, and at the same time would 
stand aghast at a scheme for a public lottery to build a church. These 
remarks are suggested by an advertisement in a newspaper of May 
4, 1786, wherein it is recited that an act of the General Assembly has 
authorized the holding of a public lottery for the purpose of raising 
funds to finish the German Lutheran Church in Winchester. Two 
thousand tickets at §3 apiece were put on sale, and the managers 
named were: Col. Charles M. Thruston, Mr. Edward Smith, Maj. 
Thomas Massei, Col. Joseph Holmes, Col. James G. Dowdal, Mr. John 
Peyton, Rev. Christian Streit, Mr. Lewis Hoff, Mr. Philip Bush, Mr. 
George Kiger, Mr. Henry Baker, Mr. Adam Heiskel, Mr. George 
Linn, Mr. Peter Lauck, Mr. Frederick Hass. These gentlemen state 
in the advertisement that, “It is hoped the pious purpose of this Lot- 
tery, will be a sufficient recommendation, and the friends of Religion, 
of all denominations, will cheerfully help to promote it by becoming 

In the Centinel of May 14, 1788, the editor has the following : 
“ Last week we had the pleasing satisfaction to behold the old roof of 
the English Lutheran Church, in this town, taken off for the purpose 
of replacing it with a new one. This was much wanted, as divine ser- 




vice could not, for some time past, be performed there without endan- 
gering the safety of the congregation. While we congratulate our fel- 
low citizens on the prospect they have of again worshipping their 
Creator in this commodious edifice, we are happy in pronouncing that 
the public spirit in this town, tlio’ situated in the woods, is equal to 
that of the most populous towns or cities on the continent.” 

In the Gazette of July 23, 1788, the following advertisement ap- 
pears : 

THE subscribers for the purpose of building the Presbyterian 
Meeting House, in the town and borough of Winchester, are requested 
to meet at the house of Mr. John Donaldson, on Saturday next, the 
26th instant, precisely at 3 o’clock p. M., in order to adopt and fix 
upon a plan for erecting the same, where all persons desirous of un- 
dertaking to build said church will please to attend with their plans 
and estimates. 

William Holliday, 

James Holliday, 

Robert Shebeard, 


The Methodists were quite early in the field in the valley, a min- 
ister having arrived in Winchester before the Revolution. The fol- 
lowing, copied from the Centinel of August 26, 1788, shows that they 
had established Quarterly Meetings at an early date : “ This is to 

give notice, that the quarterly "meeting of the Society of Methodists 
will be held at the house of John Millbourne on Saturday and Sunday 
next, being the 30th and 31st of August, at 11 o’clock each day.” 

They had their amusements in those primitive days as well as 
now, and they really seem to have had them better systematized than 
those of their descendants. In the Gazette of November 23, 1787. 
signed by such dignified old names as Cornelius Baldwin, John 
Peyton, John Conrad and Philip Dalby, appears the following l 
“ Notice is hereby given, that the Winchester Dancing Assemblies will 
commence on Wednesday, the 28th instant, at the house of Mr. 
Edward McGuire.” Another notice appears later on signed by Cor- 
nelius Baldwin, John Peyton, Charles Magill and James Ash, giving 
the members of the Winchester Assemblies notice that the first of: the 
series of winter socials will commence on December 5tli at Mr. Mc- 
Guire’s tavern. 

Two dancing schools were in operation in Winchester at this date. 
1787-88 : “Mr. J. Moriarity begs leave to inform the ladies and 




gentlemen of this town that he will teach Dancing in the modern 
method of Europe at Mr. McGuire's Ball-room , as he has been em- 
ployed in the first families in Richmond and its neighborhood. He 
will attend gentlemen every evening, and will teach the use of the 
globes, having a pair on a new construction, with Captain Cook’s dis- 
coveries.” But the following advertisement of another dancing mas- 
ter, which appeared in the Gazelle of October 8, 1788, is curious 
enough for preservation, and it is, therefore, given entire: 

To Ihe Ladies and Gentlemen of this Town and County: 

THEIR much obliged and very humble servant, informs them, 
that he will teach on Fridays and Saturdays , at Mr. McGuire’s, the 
following elegant, fashionable, tasty, and appproved parts in the 
science of Dancing: 

Minuets.— He la Cceur, Devonshire, Prince of Wales, Lady 
Beeties, etc. 

Allemandes. — Stringsley’s, Theodore’s, Aldridge’s, etc. 

Cotillions. — La Yaudreuil, La Bon Homme, L’Bagatelle, La 
Suisse, etc. 

Country Dances. — Allemande Hopsasa* the Augustine, the Lovely 
Spring, the German Spa, the Theodore, Kenny’s Dance, La Belle 
Katharine, the Innocent Maid, and True Felicity. 

And lie begs them to believe that he will use all kinds of industry, 
all manner of decorum, and every specie of attention, that the first- 
rate Dancing Masters are so much praised for. Pie has procured the 
best white Music that is to be had in these parts, and will teach both 
in private and in publick. Those who may doubt his abilities in the 
above science, may receive proof from the most incontestible evidences. 

Simon 0. McMahon. 

There was a fire company in Winchester before 1787, and, indeed, 
it may have antedated the Revolution, for it is altogether probable 
that the enterprising citizens of that colonial burg, who must have 
known of the companies in Williamsburg, Fredericksburg and Alex- 
andria, should have organized for protection against the devour- 
ing element, even though it was (which is quite probable) a bucket 
and ladder company. In proof of the existence of a genuine fire 
company there was printed in the Gazette of October 12, 1787, a card 
from a correspondent, which reads as follows: 

Messrs. Printers: — As the welfare of the borough of Winchester 
in a great measure depends on the exertions of its inhabitants, in 
guarding against the most dangerous of the elements, by forming a 
Second Fire Company in this place; it is earnestly requested, that 
those who wish to become members, will meet, at Mr. Edward 





McGuire’s Tavern, on Saturday the 13tli instant, at 5 o’clock in the 
evening, to propose rules and regulations for the government of the 
same. GIVIS. 

Winchester, Oct, 9, 1787. 

Following this suggestion a regular notice appeared November 16, 
as follows: “Notice is hereby given to those gentlemen who are 

subscribers to the Winchester Fire Company , that a meeting is 
appointed to be held at Mr. McGuire’s Tavern, tomorrow evening 
at 6 o’clock.” The organization seems to have been effected in the 
fall, and on May 14, 1788, further measures were adopted, as the 
following notice in the Centmel sets forth: “The members of the 

Winchester Fire Company are to observe, that a meeting will be held 
at the Market House, this evening at 7 o’clock, for the purpose of 
establishing the said Company, and to be incorporated as agreeable to 
an Act of General Assembly in such cases.” This company is thought 
to have purchased the first engine brought to the town, within the 
next year, 1789, as it is not probable that two engines would be 
required at that time. The first company, as has been surmised, 
used buckets and ladders only. That old engine was the apparatus 
known as the “goose-neck.” The foundation thus laid for organiza- 
tion against fire, has resulted in one of the most effective and best 
equipped departments, of its size, anywhere to be found. 

Hotels, or as they were called until recent years, ordinaries or 
taverns, were plentiful in Winchester before 1790, and as well kept, 
possibly, as their successors hereabouts of the present day. Edward 
McGuire kept the most noted, and evidently the high-toned hostelry. 
His tavern was the place of meeting for all public affairs, and is fre- 
quently mentioned in the old newspapers. Auctions were held in front 
of his house on Loudon Street; dancing assemblies met there; church 
committees and political caucuses convened in his parlors, and he had 
a spacious ball-room for the young bloods and fair belles of fashion- 
able Winchester. He kept his tavern many years before and after the 
Revolution, and seems to have been the successor of Henry Hetli, 
who kept the tavern in 1756, at which Col. George Washington “put 
up” whilst sojourning here during the building of Fort Loudon. 
Thomas Edmondson also kept a fine tavern up on the hill opposite the 
fort. In 1782 Edmondson had an act of assembly passed which gave 
him the right to lay off five acres of land in the northern part of the 
town into half-acre lots, and on one of these built his tavern. It was 




a palatial affair for that day; so magnificent, in fact, that he had a cut 
made of it which is printed at the head of his advertisement in the 
Centinel. It was two stories high and had a porch with steps running 
up each end. Across the front of the second story ran a veranda 
the full length of the building, something wonderful in architecture 
for the town of Winchester in 1788. Across the pavement swung 
high in air between posts the sign, which was a white full-rigged ship 
on a dark ground. He also had a billiard-table for the accommodation 
of his guests. Philip Dalby owned a tavern, but just where it was 
located has been lost. It was called “The House.” John Walters 
kept the “ Black Horse,” and patriotic old Philip Bush kept the 
“ Golden Buck,” on Cameron Street, south of Water. There were, 
doubtless, several minor places of resort for the traveler and the thirsty 
citizen, for the taverns all sold spirits at that day, as they have done 
ever since, and everybody, it seems, preachers and all, took a turn at 
the flowing bowl whenever they felt like it. 

Evidences of great material prosperity appear throughout the vol- 
umes of old papers, from which the foregoing and following facts 
are gleaned. What must have been the outlook for business in 1787, 
when two European architects establish themselves in Winchester? 
As appears from their advertisement, “ George Newsam and Edward 
Slater, from London and Berlin, architects and builders, respectfully 
inform the public that they have commenced business in Winchester, 
etc.,” and asking a share of the public patronage. And what must 
the ladies think of the retrogression of their “ dear old Winchester ” 
of to-day when they are informed that one hundred years ago James 
Ridley had a corset manufactory right in their town? They were 
called stays at that time, and he invites the ladies to patronize him, as 
he “makes stays in the French, Italian, and English fashions.” They 
even had an amateur dramatic association, for on the evening of Octo- 
ber 6, 1788, they performed a play called the “ Royal Convert,” a 
a tragedy. Tickets, at Is. 6d. were to be had at either of the printing 
offices, and the performance came off at the Market House. 

Alexandria and Fredericksburg merchants advertised extensively 
in the two papers, the Valley being to those cities their greatest 
market. W. Haycock, from Alexandria, opened a “soap-boiling and 
tallow-chandliug ” establishment, and informed country merchants 
that he could supply them at short notice. Thomas Owram <fe Co., 
settled here and erected on Piccadilly Street, the “ Winchester Hemp 




and Flax Manufactory.” They furnished all kinds of linen threads, 
ropes, bolting-cloths, etc. Jonah Hollingsworth and George Mat- 
thews, at “ Abraham’s Delight,” southeast of town, commenced the 
fulling and dveing business on a large scale. Two book-binderies 
were in operation, and several cabinet-makers and upholsterers had 
shops, whilst there were real estate dealers, combined with other busi- 
nesses, usually, and lawyers and doctors in abundance. Meshacli Sex- 
ton appears to have been engaged in the sale by public auction of a 
number of tracts of land. He held his sales as seen by his advertise- 
ments, in front of John Donaldson’s door. The latter conducted 
some prominent business, merchandising, presumably. 

In the matter of merchants, Winchester was well supplied. Ham- 
ilton Cooper & Co., kept a general assortment of wet and dry goods, 
and Richard Gray, in addition to wet and dry goods, kept scythes, 
sickles, bar-iron and castings. “.Archibald Magill, at his store oppo- 
site the church ” kept a fine assortment of “ moreens, sagathies, dur- 
ants, camblets, joans, spinnings,” etc., in addition to a full line of pat- 
ent medicines and hardware. Philip Bush, Jr., “at the sign of the 
‘ Golden Urn,’ opposite Mr. Wm. Holliday’s dwelling house,” was a 
jeweler and goldsmith, and Robert Wells, opposite Mr. Jesse Taylor’s 
store, was a watch and clock maker, Mr. Wells advertised to “ make 
repeating eight-day clocks and watches of the most modern construc- 
tion,” and you can rely upon it that he did make them, for in that day 
when a man advertised to do a thing, he did it. Janies Mercer 
advertises 4,067 acres of land, not many miles from Winchester. 
Joseph Gamble’s tailoring establishment was at “Mrs. Troutwines, 
in Cameron street near the Market-house,” and Hugh Jerdon 
had his boot and shoe manufactory “nearly opposite the Luth- 
eran Church on Loudon street.” Henry Bush has a parcel of 
choice leather for sale at his store, and Philip Dalby offers to sell “an 
elegant double chair,” a kind of gig, or as we would now call it, a 
buggy. Richard Gray wants all kinds of country produce, and will 
receive all grain delivered at fifteen mills in the county, which he 
names - as follows: Morgan’s, Brown’s, Lewis’, Bull’s, Snicker’s, 
Wormley’s, W. Helm’s, M. Helm’s, G. Bruce’s, Hite’s, Perkin’s, 
S troop’s, Gibb’s and Wilson’s mills. Flour on the Alexandria market 
was quoted at 31s. per barrel, $5.16§, the Virginia shilling being 16| 
cents. Daniel Norton & Co., in the fall of 17S7, advertised “Fall 
Goods just imported in the Dade , Captain James Grayson, master,” 






among which are “ duffil and rose blankets, negroe cottons, bath coat- 
ings, callimancoes, wildbores, ladies fashionable hats and ribbons of 
the newest taste.” Their store was on the corner of Loudon and Pic- 
cadilly Streets. Thomas Clark, painter, glazier, paper-hanger, gilder, 
etc., advertises that “having laid in a stock of oil and colours and as 
good a stone to grind them on as can be procured, he flatters himself, 
etc.” He also adds that he “ has an ingredient for destroying bugs 
and fleas” which shows that our little brown friend, who has the rep- 
utation of “getting there all the same,” although he be wingless, is 
not a modern innovation. In the spring of 1788 “ Miss Maria Smith 
proposes to open a school in Winchester for the instruction of young 
ladies in Heading, Spelling, Tambour, Dresden Embroidering, and all 
kinds of plain and colored needle work.” Miss Smith states that she 
“has had the honor of educating some ladies of the first rank.” John 
and James McAllister opened a general store “at the sign of the ‘To- 
bacco Hogshead* opposite the bridge in Winchester.” This firm was 
one of the largest in the town, and purchased “tobacco, hemp, gen- 
sang, deerskins, mustard and flax seed, military certificates, beef, 
pork, etc.” The name of this old firm is written on the margin of the 
papers from which these facts are copied, and the volume belonged 
originally to them. J. Gamul Dowdal was also a well-known mer- 
chant. He advertises “linens, woolens, fashionable silks, rum, wine, 
bar-iron and steel.” A professional “mineralist ” located in Lancas- 
ter, Penn., offers his services to the citizens of this section in the assay- 
ing of all ores and minerals. John Hite, Jr., has just erected his 
■“ new and elegant mill on Opeckon.” 

A nail factory was started by J. & J. McAllister, and Eobert 
Sherrard at his new store offers a beautiful assortment of early spring 
goods; Henry Beatty has for sale a quantity of linseed oil; Col. John 
Peyton orders a muster of the militia of Frederick County; Thomas 
Eagen offers for sale a valuable and convenient stone house opposite 
the church on Loudon street, and J. H. Jones tenders his thanks to 
the public for patronizing his school so liberally. William Holliday 
offers for rent his elegant two-story stone house; also has for sale a 
likely Negro woman, with two children, and a “sign for a tavern 
keeper, whereon the likeness of General Washington is beautifully 
represented on one side, and Benjamin Franklin, Esq., on the other, 
the painting executed by a masterly hand at Philadelphia.” Thomas 
Deaderick advertises as a watch and clock maker, gold and silver- 





There must have been bad boys in those early times as well as at 
present, for John Peyton, clerk of the corporation, publishes an ordi- 
nance of the common council in part as follows: “Whereas the 

practice of throwing stones at the public buildings in this place, has 
become so general, that considerable injury has been occasioned 
thereby; and it is necessary that such pernicious, and idle proceedings 
should in future be restrained, therefore be it hereby resolved, that it 
is indispensably the duty of parents to caution their children against 
the same.” A resolution was passed prohibiting shooting at a mark 
within the corporate limits. 

William Holliday informs the public that he has taken into part- 
nership with himself, Adam Douglas and will be pleased to see his 
customers at his new stone house; Adam Eager' has reduced the price 
for making suits of clothing to twelve shillings; J. & J. McAllister 
are selling pine apples, oranges, lemons, figs, etc. Archibald Magill 
had a fine grocery, liquor and hardware store on the corner of Loudon 
and Piccadilly streets, and Adam Heckman announces himself post- 
rider from Winchester to Staunton (there then being but few post- 
offices established in the valley), and that he would carry letters to 
Newtown, Stover’s Town, Miller’s Town, New Market, liocking- 
ham Town, Kersel Town, etc. ; also, that he would carry packages, 
which shows that this Adam, as an express company, anticipates Alvin 
Adams of Massachusetts, by more than half a century. In the post- 
office at Winchester there were fifty-nine letters unlifted; to several 
persons two and three apiece. At that day a letter cost twenty-five 
and thirty cents, and the receiver had to pay for it. “Literary 
fellers,” as Ben Butler called the newspaper men, were in demand, as 
an advertisement appears in the Gazette for “a person capable of con- 
ducting a newspaper.” Meshach Sexton in 1788 established an oil- 
mill and hemp-mill, and Daniel Miller and Hanc Cavert, tailors, offer 
to make a suit of clothes for twelve shillings. John Kean kept a store 
next door to McGuire’s tavern, and W. Anson was a painter and up- 
holsterer; Peter Kehoe was a first-class shoemaker, and Edward 
Powars was a “tailor and habit-maker” in addition to being the gaoler 
for the sheriff. 

As illustrative of not only what we should now consider a cruel 
and unjust custom and law, but one that we should find difficult of 
execution, a few extracts from advertisements in regard to the “in- 
dentured servants ” of one hundred years ago will be given. It is 





strange that our Revolutionary fathers should have overlooked this 
tyrannical custom, in regard to white servants, at least. In the Gazette 
of November, 1787, Mr. Hamilton Cooper, the merchant, offers §10 
reward for the return to him of his Irish servant man, Dennis Wlieelan, 
who, the advertiser says, after describing Wheel an’ s appearance, “ was 
bred to the engraving business, writes an excellent, hand, and seems 
to have had a good education ; can perform on the violin, and is very 
artful and cunning; who ever secures him so that he may be con- 
veniently come at, shall receive the above reward.” How a man of 
the attainments stated could have become a slave to another is hard to 
tell. A number of similar advertisements are printed, and the inventor 
of the steam boat, James Rumsey, offers rewards for several. But 
here is what might now be termed a “local item,” one of those little 
incidents happening every day; the editor says: “ We are authorized 

to inform the public that the runaway servants of the Potomac Com- 
pany were not sentenced to have their heads shaved (as mentioned in 
this paper of the 26th of January last), the season being thought to 
be too severe for such an operation. Their eyebrows only were shaved 
and their hair cut short.” In another paper of about this date John 
Selye offers $20 reward for the return to him of John Jacob Pegel, a 
Dutchman, 45 years of age, and James Collins offers §20 reward for 
the apprehension of Nancy Murray, an Irish servant woman, but 
Nancy stole some things from her master. Rumsey, how T ever, caps 
the climax when he states in his advertisement of Francis Murray 
having run away that he, in addition to having his eyebrows shaved 
off, “ had on when he left, an iron collar.' 1 '' That was not very remote 
from the habits of the days of Gurth and Wamba! One can scarcely 
realize how slowly progress progresses. As a curiosity and worthy of 
preservation the annexed advertisement, copied from one of the old 
papers, is here given entire: 

Just received from Cork, and to be disposed of for ready cash , or 
crop tobacco on a short credit. 

A FEW healthy men and women who have from three and one- 
half to four years to serve under indentures. Among the men 
there are laborers, waiters, writers, weavers, shoemakers, taylors, 
whitesmiths, coopers, plasterers, and tilers, hair-dressers, skinners and 
breeches makers. The women are washers, seamstresses, &c. 

Hooe A Harrison. 

Alexandria, October 23, 1788. 







An election was held in Winchester, on Tuesday, March 4, 1788, 
for two delegates to represent Frederick County in the convention 
to be held for the purpose of considering the ratification of the Federal 
constitution by Virginia. Four candidates were voted for, which re- 
sulted in the election of the two who were favorable to “ratification.” 
The poll was as follows: John S. Woodcock, 191; Alexander White, 
162; John Smith, 117 ; Charles M. T hr us ton, 71. This, 541 votes, was 
the entire vote of Frederick County, including what is now Frederick, 
Clark and Warren. 

In the Winchester Gazette of July 2, 1788, the following in regard 
to the convention is to be found: 

“ Last Sunday evening arrived in this town from the convention at 
Bichmond, Col. Pi. Humphreys and Col. E. Zane, by which gentlemen 
a letter was brought from Alexander White, Esq., to the mayor, with 
the pleasing intelligence that Virginia had adopted the new constitu- 

“ On receipt of the above important information the extreme joy 
of the inhabitants of this town was fully evinced by the sparkling eyes 
and elated spirits which shone conspicuous through all ranks of people. 
Being desirous publicly to demonstrate their approbation of the happy 
decision of a subject for which they had been several days waiting 
with the most anxious expectation, on Monday afternoon the infantry 
company, commanded by Capt. Heiskell, and under the immediate 
orders of Maj. McGuire, appeared on the parade, when after discharg- 
ing nine volleys in honor of the nine pillars which now support the 
glorious American fabric , they marched through the town, performing 
a number of evolutions, street firings, &c., as they passed. Toward 
evening a large quantity of combustibles were collected, and conveyed 
to Federal Hill , by the Federal Wagon, drawn by nine horses, decor- 
ated. As soon as night came one, fire was set to the materials collec- 
ted, which exhibited a large and beautiful bonfire, and which was seen 
for many miles in the vicinity. The court house and several other 
buildings were elegantly illuminated on this joyful occasion. At nine 
o’clock, a select number of pure Federals retired to Mr. McGuire’s 
and spent the remainder of the evening in the greatest conviviality, 
mirth and good humour. After supper, the following toasts were an- 
nounced, and drank with the most heartfelt satisfaction: 

“ 1. His Excellency, Gen. Washington. 2. His Most Christian 
Majesty. 3. The Marquis de la Fayette. 4. The Hon. Benjamin 







Franklin, Esq. 5. The memory of the American Worthies wild fell in 
the late revolution. 6. The United States. 7. The memorable 4th of 
July. 8. The Patrons of Freedom. 9. The friends of the Federal 
Constitution. 10. May the manufacturing spirit increase as the Fed- 
eral Union becomes permanent and respectable. 11. The Majority of 
the Virginia Convention. 12. May the Federal Pillars be raised to the 
highest pitch of greatness. 18. May the sword never be drawn but 
in the cause of justice. 

“ The company then departed, solacing themselves with the pleas- 
ing expectation, that the consequences which will result from the 
establishment of that government' they had been celebrating, would' 
render us a respectable, happy and wealthy people.” 

From the Centmel of the following week, July 9, 1788, an account 
of the double celebration of the “ Ratification and Fourth of July” is 
taken : 

“ Friday last being the glorious Anniversary of American Inde- 
pendency, the same was observed here with every token of heartfelt 
satisfaction and joy. The Federal constitution having been so re- 
cently adopted by this State, and although great rejoicings were held 
in town on Monday the 30th ult. in consequence thereof, it was de- 
termined by the inhabitants to celebrate these two important events 
(which will shine conspicuous in the annals of our country till time 
shall be no more) at one and the same time, with a grand pro- 
cession, etc. 

“At 12 o’clock the different crafts, consisting of upwards of two 
hundred, with Capt. Heiskell’s Company of Light Infantry, com- 
manded by Maj. McGuire, assembled at the court house, from whence 
they marched in procession through the principal streets to the Federal 
Spring, at Gen. Wood’s plantation, where an elegant Barbequi was 
prepared for their reception. Having arrived at this delightful spot, 
where zephyrs gently fan the air, and stately trees afford a pleasing 
shade, the light infantry fired ten volleys in honor of those States 
which have adopted the Constitution (New Hampshire having ratified 
it before Virginia, though the account had not come to hand previous 
to our last publication) after which the whole partook of the regalia. 
The jovial bowl and glass went briskly round after the repast, and the 
good humour and conviviality which prevailed among all ranks, would 
have done honor to an assemblage of the first characters in the world. 
A large concourse of the Federal Fair honored the sons of freedom 





with their presence, which added greatly to the brilliancy and har- 
mony of this auspicious scene. At 5 o’clock the whole returned to 
town, and the day concluded with military evolutions, etc. In the 
evening bonfires and illuminations were exhibited, and a splendid 
parade took place. The following is the order of the procession, each 
craft bearing implements suitable to their several occupations: 

“ The Light Infantry Company. 

Farmers with Sheets of Wheat. 

Bakers and Brewers. 



White and Blacksmiths. 







Watchmakers and Silversmiths. 


Carpenters and joiners. 



W eavers. 






Clergy and Bar.” 

In 1785 Philip Bush, Edward McGuire and Joseph Holmes, were 
appointed a committee to sell the old courthouse and agree with 
proper mechanics to build a new one, but nothing was done in the 
matter, as possibly they could not get a purchaser. And a few years 
later John Kercheval was paid the sum of £18 for ‘‘repairing the 
courthouse.” In 1795 several sums were also appropriated for the 
same purpose, and §20 was paid for “ iron- work for hanging the bell.” 
In 1798 §100 was appropriated to put repairs upon the same building, 
which shows that the justices concluded to make the building answer 




their purposes. In 1805 a new clerk’s office was built, at a cost of 

$ 1 , 100 . 

The first execution occurred in the winter of 1791. James Med- 
licot was arrested and arraigned before the justices on July 81, 1790, 
for the murder of William Hefferman, on the night of July 29, two 
nights before. He was tried, convicted and hung some time during 
the following year, as in the county levy for 1792, Edward Smith and 
Isaac Miller, are each paid £ 1 10s. for erecting a gallows. 

The old dispensers of law in those primitive times had a mode 
and brevity of procedure that was truly startling. Here is the en- 
tire record of a case as copied verbatim from the proceedings of the 
justices nearly one hundred years ago. It comprises the arraignment, 
trial and conviction of a culprit and tells its own tale: 

“ At a court of Oyer and Terminer held in Frederick County, the 
5th day of June, 179S, for the trial of Ralph, a negro man slave, the 
property of James Strother, on suspicion of feloniously plotting and 
conspiring the murder of the said James Strother and Elizabeth, his 
wife, on the 5th day of May, last, by exhibiting or administering to 
them the seed of a certain Noxious and Poisonous Herb, called James 
Town W eed. 

“Present, Charles Mynn Thruston, James G. Dowdal, Thomas 
Buck, Gerrard Briscoe, Matthew Wright and Charles Smith, Gentle- 
men, justices. 

“The prisoner was led to the bar and it being demanded of him 
(having fiad Archibald Magill assigned to him as counsel), whether 
he was guilty of the facts wherewith he stood charged, or not, said 
that he was in no wise thereof guilty, whereupon sundry witnesses 
were examined, on consideration of whose testimony, and the circum- 
stances attending the same, It is the opinion of the Court that he is 
guilty, and thereupon it is considered that he be hanged by the neck 
until he be dead, and that the sheriff of this county cause execution 
thereof to be committed and done upon him, the said negro Ralph, 
on Friday, the 20th day of July next at the usual place of execution 
between the hours of ten in the forenoon and three in the afternoon 
of the same day. 

“ Ordered, that it be certified as the opinion of this Court that 
negro Ralph, the prisoner at the bar, is of the value of three hun- 
dred and thirty-three dollars and one-third of a dollar. 

“ Charles Mynn Thruston.” 

February 4, 1799, John Rust was arrested and sent on for trial at 
the District court, for the murder of his slave man Jacob, and Janu- 
ary, 1801, Jack, a slave of Bushrod Taylor was tried for murder, but 





was found not guilty. The gentlemen justices in this case were G. 
Briscoe, C. Baldwin, James Singleton, J. Caldwell and Daniel Con- 
rad. Hugh Holmes was Jack’s attorney. Four cases in ten years— 
two white and two black — one of each color being hung, equalized 
the matter. 

Following is a complete list of the justices of the peace for Frederick 
County from 1779 to the present time, or rather,' to a recent period. 

1779 — John Smith. 

1783— Thomas Buck, Isaac Hite. 

1798 — Charles Smith, George Blakemore. 

1799— John B. Tilden, Joseph Blake, Joshua Gore. 

1801 — Benjamin Q’Rear, John Jolliffe. 

1802 — Moses Bussell, Edward McGuire. 

1804— Edward Smith, Joseph Tidball, William Cooke, James M. Marshall, Will- 
iam Castleman. 

1808 — Griffin Taylor, Robert Vance, Samuel Baker, Lewis McCoole, John S. Ball, 
William Yanmetre. 

1809 — James Ware. 

1811— Robert Berkeley, William Snickers, Mandly Taylor, Buslirod Taylor, Will- 
iam Lynn, Charles Brent, Jr., Jacob Ileironomus, Dolphin Drew. 

1813 — Beatty Carson, John Bell, Joseph Gamble. 

1815— William B. Page, Baalis Davis, John Newman. 

1816 — David Meade, Treadwell Smith. 

1817 — James Baker, James B. Wigginton, George II. Norris, George Lynn. 

1819 — William S. Jones, John White, Samuel Baker, Jr., William Stephenson, 
Frederick Smith, Simon Carson, George Reed. 

1824— John Heiskell, Daniel Gold, Robert T. Baldwin, David Castleman, Edward 
J. Smith, Joseph Berry, John W. Pugh, George N. Blakemore, Samuel Gardner, Cor- 
nelius E. Baldwin, Jonathan Kackley, Francis Stribling, John Gilkeson, Thomas 

1825 — John Hays, William Wood, Nathaniel Burwell, Dawson McCormick. 

1831— John S. Davison, John Rust, Robert M. Marshall, James Gibson, Talliaf- 

fero Stribling, Abraham Miller, Charles H. Clark, Francis B. Whiting, John Rich- 
ards, Nash L. Gardner, Philip Smith, James B. Hall, Richard W. Barton, Jonah 

1836 — Richard M. Snyder, James B. Brookings, Seth Mason, Joseph G. Gray, 
Archibald S. Baldwin, John W. Miller, Jacob Senseney, Robert L. Baker, Henry W. 
Richards, Elijah Phifer. 

1838— Ed. J. Davison. 

1840 — John S. Magill, Joseph Neill, Cornelius B. Hite. 

1843 — Daniel Collins, James P. Riely, Jacob Baker, Isaac F. Hite, Walker M. 
Hite,- Jonathan Lovett. 

1847— Samuel Cox, James H. Burgess, George Wright, James W. Mason, William 
J. Rowland, Joseph Long, William Smith, William llosenburg, Alfred Parkins, Mager 
Steel, John Bruce, John W. Pyfer. 

The new constitution of 1851 having gone into effect, made a 
change in the manner of selecting magistrates, and an act passed by 
the General Assembly April 22, 1852, entitled “An act providing for 




the election, qualification, powers, duties, and compensation of Justices 
of the Peace, Clerks of Circuit and County Courts, Attorneys for the 
Commonwealth, Sheriffs, Commissioners of the Revenue, Surveyors, 
Constables, and Overseers of the Poor,” made more explicit the said 
change. At a Court held August 2, 1852, in accordance with a stip- 
ulation of the bill, John S. Mag ill was elected presiding justice. The 
magistrates by districts were as follows: 

District No. 1 . — James P. Riely, James R. Brooking, William A. Bradford and 
Joseph. E. Payne. 

District No. 2. — James Senseney, Andrew Kidd, Joseph S. Davis and Henry W, 

District No. 3. — Isaac Russell, Abraham Kulton, Mordecai B. Cartmell and Robert 

District No. J. — Henry P. Ward, David L. Clayton, Robert L. Baker and William 
J. Rowland. 

District No. 5. — Henry H. Baker, Daniel Hinckle, James Robinson and Daniel 

District No. 6. — Felix Good, James Cather, Robert C. B} r waters and Edward R. 

District No. 7. — Joseph Richard, Ananias D. Russell, Joseph Bromback and Will 
iam Rosenburger. 

District No. 8. — John S. Magiil, John B. McLeod, Mager Steel and Isaac F. Hite. 

At that date F. W. M. Holliday was commonwealth’s attorney and Thomas A, 
Tidball, clerk. 

There has been a singular longevity attending the early clerks of 
the court of Frederick County. The first clerk, James- Wood, took the 
position in November, 1743, and died in the winter of 1759-60; Arch- 
ibald Wager was appointed and held the place till May 4, 1762; James 
Keith qualified at the last date mentioned, and held it until he died in 
October, 1824, having served as clerk sixty-two years and five months., 
Thomas A. Tidball qualified as clerk November 1, 1824, and died 
April 5, 1856, having served as deputy clerk and clerk for over fifty 
years. At his death his son, Allen S. Tidball, was appointed till a 
clerk could be elected, and Thomas A. T. Riely being chosen, he 
qualified June 2, 1856. Mr. Riely having died in 1858, R. E. Seevers 
was appointed till an election could be held, when James P. Riely, Sr., 
was chosen and entered upon his duties in July, 1858, and served till 
August, 1859, when he dying his son, J. Chap Riely, was appointed 
to fill the vacancy, being afterward at the regular election selected by 
ballot. He remained clerk from that time until the close of the war, 
although C. W. Gibbens filled the position by military appointment. 
Gibbons was succeeded by his son, C. M. Gibbens, but in 1870 J. H. 

1 1 




Sherrard was selected to fill the place. James P. Iliely, Jr., came in 
in 1873, who remained in possession till his death, when, in the spring 
of 1887, Thomas K. Cartinell was elected, where, the writer hopes, he 
may remain, if he desires it, for a Keith-term. 



Population of County and County Seat-Early Water supply— Disas- 
trous Floods— Old Stackhouse Mill— War of 1812 -H— Revolution- 
ary' Veterans — The Valley Again to the Front— Another Morgan 
Appears— Tiie First Company and Their Uniform— Lists of All 
Names Obtainable— Description of Old Court House and Jail— 
Black Betty Pillory and Stocks— Ye Ancient Market House- 
Dramatic Entertainments— Names of the Actors— Judge Holmes as 
a Singer— Early Newspapers, Printing etc.— Some Taverns of note— 
Philip Bush and the “ Golden Buck Louis Piiillippe in Search of 
a Dinner- List of Corporation Officers— Various Proceedings of 
the Council— Some Pointers in the Cause C'elebre— Fire Engines 
and Houses— Scared Counci lmen— Sharp Spasm of Improvement- 
Reminiscences and Anecdotes— William Greenway— Sarah Zane— - 
Stores, Stage Lines, Teaming, Dress, etc. 

HHHE population of Frederick County continued to increase with great 
regularity, and wealth to accumulate, for manv years succeeding 


the great contest for liberty and independence, notwithstanding the 

extravagance that seems to have been engendered by seven or eight 

years of privation on the part of the colonies. In 1798 the tithables 
of the county were 3,996; in 1801 they were 4,802; in 1805, 4,904; in 
1810, 4,964 and in 1812, 5,916. This was almost doubling the popu- 
lation, for if the tithables increased at that rate, it is supposable that 
the balance of the population kept pace with them. Winchester at 
this date, 1810, contained a population of about 2,000, including about 

350 negroes. There were in the neighborhood of 400 houses of all 

kinds, with many fine stores and fine church buildings, Episcopal, 
Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist and Catholic. But notwithstand- 
ing the fine apparel of the ladies, the silk stockings, and knee and 
shoe buckles of the gentlemen, the excellent schools and other evi- 
dences of material prosperity, the streets of the little city were hor- 




rible to behold, and some of them simply impassable at times. 
Teams would “'stall” on Loudon and Water streets at the slight- 
est provocation, and the boys had fine sport occasionally in swim- 
ming on Loudon near the Bun. As late as 1844 David Bussell, Jr., 
and Jacob Snyder, swam from about where the ■Presbyterian Church 
stands, to the Bun. In 1795 a fearful flood swept through Bos- 
cowen and a portion of Loudon Streets; in 1811 another occurred; 
and still others, May 31, 1818; August 12, 1838; July 24, 1839; 
October 7, 1846, and August 1, 1855. The water stood fifteen inches 
deep, on some of those occasions, right in the heart of the town. 
Up to 1810 no effort to improve the streets was made, not even by 
macadamizing; they were simply kept up as- the county roads were 
— a little grading and filling up the worst holes. April 10, 1810, 
the justices, who seem to have had charge of the streets of the town as 
well as the roads, passed the following: “ Ordered that 8300 be levied 
upon the tithables of this county and included in the next levy for the 
purpose of enclosing part of the Public Square with a rail fence, and 
turn piking or paving the main street opposite to the said square 
and otherwise improving the Public Square, and that Edward McGuire 
and William Davison do superintend the same.” 

The water supply in Winchester has always been a mattter of 
great concern to the inhabitants thereof, and as early as 1761 the 
passage of an act was obtained in the General Assembly prohibiting 
the running at large - of hogs in the town, “as,” the act reads, “they 
injure the springs and waters generally; Provided always , that the 
act be suspended till His Majesty’s approbation shall be obtained.” 
The fine spring located west of the town has always furnished an 
ample supply of the purest water, and its conveyance to the homes of 
the citizens for a long time perturbed the city authorities, but at last, 
about 1806 or 1808, a Dr. Brown was engaged by the corporation to 
overcome the difficulty. He brought into use machinery for boring 
the proper sized logs, using horse-power for the purpose. After the 
logs were bored they were joined by iron rings made sharp on their 
edges, the logs then being driven into them. The contract was to 
bring the water to Loudon Street only, and from there the citizens 
were required to open the ditch, if they wished the water, and the 
corporation would lay down the connections. The bore in the main 
logs was two-inch, and the connections one-inch. The w r aste water 
from this splendid spring was sufficient for many years to operate a 





mill — the old land-mark known as the Stackhouse Mill — now num- 
bered among the things that were, having given place to a railroad 
depot. That old mill was undoubtedly the oldest building in this 
portion of the valley, and doubtless dates as far back as 1740 to 1750, 
James Wood settled upon the land upon which it stood several years 
prior to 1748, and as a mill was one of the first necessities, what more 
natural than that he should have built one on his land? There was 
a Wood’s mill somewhere hereabouts before 1750, by the records; 
and besides, Mr. William G. Russell says that when he was a boy of 
seven or eight years old, in 1808, the mill was an old dilapidated 
affair at that time. James Stackhouse, from whom it took its last 
name, repaired it in 1813, and operated it for some years. Before 
the introduction of the pipes water had to be hauled or carried from 
the run at Washington Street. Wells were never very numerous in 
the town, owing to the immense labor required in penetrating through 
the solid limestone that underlies this whole region. 

The Talley, with the conspicuous promptitude that characterized 
it at the opening of hostilities in 1775, came to the front when war 
was declared between our land and Great Britain in 1812, and many 
an old veteran who had fought with Morgan and witnessed the sur- 
render of Cornwallis, again buckled on his harness and marched to do 
' battle against the invader whom he had helped to drive from our 
shores over thirty years before. And singular to relate the first com- 
pany was again raised by a Morgan. Willoughby Morgan, reputed to 
have been the son of Gen. Daniel Morgan, was a highly educated 
young man, and studied law in Winchester. He was one of the hand- 
somest men of his time, was over six feet in height, straight as an 
arrow, and symmetrically built; not fleshy, but strong, powerful and 
graceful in his movements. His company, the first in the Valley, are 
said to have all been selected with regard to their size, none of them 
being less than six feet tall. After some service Capt. Morgan 
received a commission in the regular army and served with Gen. 
Scott in his northwestern campaigns, in one of the battles of which he 
was killed. The uniform of Morgan’s company at first consisted of a 
blue nankeen hunting shirt, fringed with red around the bottom, with 
a small cape around the shoulders, also fringed with red, the sleeves 
being similarly fringed; red flannel leggings, and around top felt hat 
with a buck-tail stuck in the front.*' After Capt. Morgan left the 

* This description was given the author by Mr. W. G. Russell, who, when a boy of thirteen years of 
age, saw the company inarching along Loudon Street. 





company, it was disbanded for a time, but was reorganized by Capt. 
Thomas Roberts. The names of those forming that company as far as 
can be ascertained were: Thomas Roberts, William Roberts, Alex- 
ander Holliday. William Ball, William Campbell, Solomon Heister, 
William C. Holliday, Jacob Baker, Charles Conrad, Nicholas Bur- 
well, Augustus Streit, Peter Bowers, John Bowley^ James Bennett, 
Joshua Reed, John Denny, Andrew Bush, Presley Hausbury, James 
Vance, Sandy Hutchinson, John At. Magson, Richard Beckwith, 
James Barr, (fifer), Stewart Grant, Isaac Lauck, John Stoat-, James 
Meredith, Philip Sherrer, John- Foster, Philip Hoff, John Price, 
Isaac Kurtz, John -Miller, Richard Holliday, Philip Bowers, James 
White, John Carter, George Rice, John C. Clarke, Robert Jack, 
George Swallum, Solomon Spengler, Jonas Ashby, William Kain, 
Lewis Beatty, John Everly (drummer), John W. Miller. 

Capt. William Morris also organized a company of fifty-one members. 
The following list was furnished the Winchester News several years 
ago by Thomas Foster, who obtained it from the archives in Wash- 
ington. It was an artillery company : William Morris, captain; George 
W. Kiger, first lieutenant ; Isaac Lauck, second lieutenant ; William 
Streit, third lieutenant; John Poe, fourth lieutenant; William Van 
Horn, first corporal; William Young, second corporal; Nathan Par- 
rel!, third corporal; William McFee, fourth corporal; John Day, fifer; 
John Everly, drummer. Privates: Daniel Gray, John Allen, Thomas 
Austin, William Barnes, Levi Booker, Francis Beckwith, David Gather, 
John Cooley, Louthan Cochrane, Joseph Kremer, Robert Davidson. 
William Dalby, John Fenton, John Farmer, Thomas Foster, Roger 
Fulkerson, Richard Gibbs, John Hoffnagle, Samuel Herdsman, William 
Hutch inson, George Heinrich, John Johnson, John Haas, John Hoff- 
man, John Hesser, Asa Joyce, Richard Jones, Daniel Kiger, John 
Keeler, John Klyfustine, Thomas Lafferty, John Miller, John Morris, 
James McCann, Craven Shaw, John Schultz, George Schreck, Elisha 
Winn, Henry Young. 

Several other companies left this portion of the valley. .One was com- 
manded by Capt. Michael Coyle, with William Throckmorton as first 
lieutenant, and the names of some of the privates, which have been 
preserved, are Daniel Brown, John V. Brown, Frederick Aulick, Jacob 
Lauck, Henry Sloat, Isaac Russell, Jacob Mesmer, Robert Long, John 
M. Magson, who had been in one of the first companies, also, Benja- 
min Scrivener, Michael Copenhaver, Jacob Copenhaver, Henry Crebs 





John Coyle, William Jenkins, John Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins, J. Fos- 
ter, S. Hester. These three companies were the only uniformed com- 
panies that left Frederick County, but there were a number of other 
persons who were members of other commands whose names are now 
forgotten. Heberts’ and Morris’ companies went to Norfolk and Coyle's 
to Baltimore. At the time of the British advance on Washington 
Judge Henry St. George Tucker raised a cavalry company for ninety 
days. They got as far as Harper’s Ferry, but, having learned of the 
departure of the enemy, returned. They afterward went to Norfolk. 
Capt. Peter Printz commanded a company of militia, and Capts. 
Anderson and Miller were in the quartermaster department. Natty 
and Jaeky Ryan, two young Irishmen, also enlisted in the service at 
the barracks in Winchester, and Natty was killed. Zachariah Craw- 
. ford, Evan Thatcher, Henry Glaize, James Welch, Sampson Touch- 
stone and Richard Jones, were also soldiers from this section. A re- 
cruiting station was maintained, and the headquarters was in an old 
long weather-boarded house on Braddock Street. A number of prom- 
inent officers were here, and among them were Gen. Peyton Smith- 
Maj. Kean, Angus McDonald, Simon Owen and others. The unfor- 
tunate duel that Took place' between Gen. Peyton Smith and Hunter 
Holmes originated in that old building. While the soldiers were en- 
camped in a grove at the southern end of Winchester a Methodist 
minister, Rev. Richard Furguson, frequently preached to them. Lor- 
enza Dow r , the famous and eccentric preacher, also preached in the 
same grove. 

From Mr. Russell’s notes on the early events and structures of 
Winchester the following is taken: “The Episcopal Church and 

graveyard took in about one-fourth of the public square. A stone wall 
covered with plank surrounded that portion now taken in by the Kerr 
and Senseny buildings. The church stood about ten feet from the line 
of the wall on Loudon and Water streets, affording a wide pavement. 
The entrance to the yard was on Water street. Before the building 
of the old stone jail there was a log one built wmy back in the other 
century, but it was destroyed by fire. It stood just about where 
Bantz’s shoe store now is. The Clerk’s office, built in 1805, stood 
about where the present one stands. It w T as of stone, arched inside 
with brick. The Court House square v r as enclosed with a post and 
rail fence, and in the center of the yard stood ‘Black Betty’ — the 
whipping-post; also the pillory and stocks. 









“ One of the gable ends of the court house faced on Loudon 
street, and had up in the angle a ‘ bulls-eye ’ round window and 
with a roof projecting some ten feet. There were doors in each gable 
end, but the front was toward Water street, and had large stone steps 
at the main entrance. Until the removal of the hill in front of the 
Conrad property the old court house stood the wear and tear of time 
very -well, but at the tearing away and blasting of the hill, the build- 
ing became undermined and was considered unsafe. The steeple 
which contained the bell was considered very fine in that day. The 
interior of the court house was well arranged. Entering the door 
you passed under a stairway which led to the jury rooms on the south- 
west corner. These rooms were about fifteen feet square, and fur- 
nished with benches. On the main floor, nearly opposite the door, 
was the Clerk’s desk, raised about four feet above the fioor. Benches 
were arranged for the juries. On the north end was the hustings for 
the judges and justices. The ‘ bar ’ was railed in for the lawyers.” 

In regard to the first stone jail and the old Market House Mr. Bus- 
sell says: “ The jail was about fifty feet square, facing on Cameron 
Street, with a yard running 100 feet on Boscowen Street. It was a 
low building and looked squatty. It was burned January 25, 1813. 
The building stood somewhat back from the street, the north side 
against a bank some five feet high, so on that side the top of the wall 
was not over eight feet high. On the west side of Cameron Street 
there was. a wall fifteen or twenty feet high the whole length of the 
Market House, which was about seventy feet long. This wall was 
surmounted by a heavy log into which were morticed posts, and rail- 
ings were placed at each end. The wall embanked a hill, and perched 
up on top of this hill stood the Market House — the old stone one — 
fifteen feet above the level of the street. It was a rough and rugged 
looking building two stories high, with six arches, all open, and above 
each arch a small window. The upper part was used as a town halL 
•An interior stairway led to the court and council rooms, and to the 
Ma sonic lodge room, as well. In 1815 the Masons and the corpora- 
tion in conjunction put up a brick building on the north end, twenty 
feet on Cameron, and the width of the end of the Market House. 
Over the Market House the room was about sixty or seventy feet long, 
with fire-places in each end, used for public meetings, concerts, shows, 

A dramatic association called “ The Thespian Society,” performed 








in the olcl Market Hall several times during 1820 and 1821. The 
names of some of the plays they produced were, “ The Glory of Co- 
lumbia,” “ The Wife of Two Husbands,” “ Old Mother of Glaston- 
bury,” “Old Tom Wiggins,” etc. The members of the company were, 
Robert Menifee, John Hesser, Samuel H. Hall, Josiah W. AY are, Peter 
E. Sperry, S. H. Ball, AY. G. Russell, David Z. Brown, Nash Gordon, 
Madison Hewlett, J. G. Heist, John B. D. Smith. John Turner, 
Samuel Campbell, Israel Cooper, AYilliam Lauck, John Edmonds, David 
Russell, George E. Edmondson, George Schultz, Samuel Reed, AYilliam 
Sperry. Peter Sperry was a splendid delineator of the Irish char- 
acter, and never failed to bring down the house when he appeared 
upon the stage with his hat on the side of his head, a shillalah in his 
hand and a short pipe in his mouth. John Hesser was an excellent 
singer, and during one of the performances, while he was rendering 
“ Hail Columbia ” in his best style, he so aroused the patriotic ardor 
of the audience that Judge Holmes stood up and joined in, all the 
balance of the audience following him. They made the old hall ring. 

A dramatic society formed in 1825, met in a house on Loudon 
street, near Piccadilly, and the members were George Schultz, AYilliam 
C. Anderson, Samuel Reed, Isaac Hoff, J. S. Heist, AY. G. Russell, 
Isaac Matthias, Jacob Everly, AYilliam Sperry, AA 7 illiam Schultz, H. P. 
AYard. John Turner, J. B. Smith, John J. Smith, John Hesser and J. 
G. Heist. They also gave public performances. 

Another company of amateur players performed in the old Metho- 
dist Church on Cameron Street in 1827. Some of the members were 
James Darlington, George Baker, J. George Heist, James P. Riely, 
John J. Harris, John S. Heist, John Charles, Samuel Johnson, C. 
Toler AYolfe, Joseph Hamilton, J. AA r . Hollis and A. Seal. 

Richard Bowen, who started the Centinel newspaper in AYinchester 
in 1787, continued to publish a paper here for many years after 1800. 
He was a tall, fine looking Englishman, according* to Mr. Russell, over 
six feet in height, and wore, till his death, short clothes, with blue 
silk stockings and silver knee and shoe buckles. He must have gotten 
control of the rival sheet, the Gazette , after some years, for he pub- 
lished that paper in a two-story building on Boscowen Street, between 
Loudon and the alley at the Lutheran Church. The paper passed from 
Bowen to Collett; then to John Haas, John Heiskell, Freeland and 
Lewis Eichelberger, and others, including the late Judge J. H. Slier- 
rard, who also published the Virginian about 1827. Jonathan Eos- 





ter published a paper about 1810-11. He purchased from Frizzell, 
who purchased from Lingan, said to have been the same who was 
killed in 1812 by a mob in Baltimore. Foster and Janies Caldwell 
published a paper called the Constellation. They were very enterpris- 
ing printers, and published several boohs, “ The Olive Branch,” by 
Mathew Carey; “The Irish Emigrant,” by Adam Douglas, and the 
“Horse Farrier,” compiled by Foster. Mr. McGlashell bought the 
Constellation from Foster, who in turn sold to J. G. Brooks, from 
whom it passed to S. H. Davis, then to Gallaher, then to Towers. 
Peter Printz started a printing office about 1824, and issued the Win- 
chester Republican for many years. L. Eiclielberger published the 
Virginian for several years preceeding and after 1839. E. C. Bruce 
also published the Virginian for several years prior to the late war. 
He sold to J. J. Palmer, who moved the office up the valley in 1862, 
where it was destroyed. George E. Senseney published the Republi- 
can for a number of years before the war, and sold to Nathaniel B. 
Meade, who ran the paper until Gen. Banks came into the Valley, in 
the spring of 1862, when the plant was destroyed by the soldiers. 

In 1865, on the first day of July, the News was started by G. B. 
Henry, P. L. Kurtz and H. K. Pritchard, and continued under that 
management till September, 1888, when the News Publishing and 
Binding Company was formed, Dr. J. F. Ward and It. M. Ward being 
the proprietors. During this same year, 1865, the Winchester Times 
made its appearance, with Goldsborough & Clark as editors and pro- 
prietors. Clark retired and the firm became Goldsborough & Russell ; 
then Goldsborough ran it alone; Maj. R. W. Hunter then obtained 
control, but afterward sold a half interest to Mr. Beall, and the firm 
became Hunter & Beall. Beall retiring, Mr. Hollis purchased an 
interest, and the firm became Hunter & Hollis; then Hunter ran it 
alone, but afterward sold a half interest to T. W. Harrison. Hunter 
*old his other half to R. E. Byrd, and in 1888 the Winchester Times 
Publishing Company was formed, and November 7, 1884, Col. William 
Riely took the management of the paper and still retains it. In 1865 
A. M. Crane started the Journal , a Republican paper, and ran it for 
three or four years. It finally passed away, and Mr. Meade purchased 
the material and started the Sentinel , a Democratic paper, which ran 
ft bont one and a half years, when it, too, disappeared. In September, 
1^84. T. II. Gosorn commenced the publication of the Leader^ a 
Republican paper, which still runs successfully. 



The tavern of Maj. Edward McGuire was started before the Revo- 
lution, and as has been shown in another place, was a famous house of 
resort for many years succeeding the great war for independence. It 
continued in notoriety after the beginning of the present century, and 
the spot where it stood has ever since been occupied as a hotel site; 
the original house kept by McGuire is described as being two long 
log and weather-boarded buildings, fifty feet each in length, with an 
alley dividing them. Next to McGuire’s stood another tavern, a stone 
building kept by an Irishman named Brady, and it was, in the rear of 
this house, where in 1808 the first elephant ever exhibited in the val- 
ley made his debut. 

Philip Bush kept a noted tavern for many years on Cameron 
street, south of the run. It was a fine large stone house, two stories 
high and some fifty feet in length. It was considered the fashionable 
hotel of Winchester in its day, and nearly all the dignitaries and for- 
eign worthies sought Mr. Bush’s hostelry when sojourning in these 
parts. In front of the door stood three or four willow trees, and in 
the yard was a large English walnut tree. Also, in front stood the sign 
post, and at its top was a fine gilded deer painted on the sign board. 
The tavern was known as the “Golden Buck.” Landlord Bush, who 
was from Mannheim, Germany, was an irritable though kind-hearted 
man, and had, withal, an utter dislike to royalty and all the airs of roy- 
alty, and an illustration of this peculiarity is given in an anecdote re- 
lated by the late C. Toler Wolfe, who got it from Dr. Philip Hoff (a 
brother of Lewis and John Hoif ), who was in the habit of frequenting 
the Golden Buck in its palmy days. The story, in substance, is as fol- 
lows: During the temporary absence of Mr. Bush two distinguished 
looking gentlemen alighted in front of the “Buck,” and requested to 
be shown to a private room. “ Old Sam,” the servant, perceiving 
that the guests were no ordinary mortals, hustled around and did the 
honors in great shape. It being about the dinner hour, the two gen- 
tlemen ordered their meals to be served in their room, and although 
this custom was unknown at the Buck, Sam began to comply with the 
request. In the meantime Philip returned to his house, and as Sam 
was conveying a tray of eatables to the upper floor he discovered him, 
and was informed that the guests had ordered their dinner upstairs. 
The irate old landlord rushed to the room of the strangers, and told 
them if they were too good to eat at his table that they w r ere too good 
to stay at his house, and ordered them to leave instanter. They 






informed Busli who they were — that one of them was the crown 
prince of France and the other his brother, the Due de Chartres, who 
were then in exile from their country. Bush replied that that fact 
made it so much worse, and he would not keep them at any price. 
They then pointed to liis sign in proof of their having a right to 
demand public entertainment, whereupon the now fully aroused old 
landlord rushed to his wood-pile, and grasping Iiisaxe was about to 
hew down his sign-post, exclaiming, “Comedown, Buck!” when the 
polite Frenchmen told Philip that they would go farther on. The 
prince was afterward Louis Phillippe of France. 

In 1812-11 McGuire’s tavern was the headquarters of the mili- 
tary gentlemen. Gen. Wilkinson, Col. Preston, Lieut. Shambaugli 
and others stopped there. Nearly opposite McGuire’s Daniel Linn 
kept the “Golden Sheaf.” Linn was a good-hearted man and met 
everybody with a pleasant smile. Around the sheaf on the sign 
was the legend, “May our country never want bread.” William 
Van Horn kept a tavern on the corner of Loudon Street and Fairfax 
Lane. Brady’s was the “Indian Queen.” South of the run was 
the “ Columbian Inn,” kept by Capt. Peter Printz, who had been a 
gallant soldier in the war of 1812—14. Still further south on Loudon 
Street, where the Presbyterian Church now stands, was a large log and 
frame building kept by Henry Bush, son of Philip Bush. After Bush 
came Elisha E. Bussell, John C. Clark, Mrs. Edmund Pendleton and 
John Pitman. On the hill, corner Loudon and Monmouth Streets, the 
“Wagon and Four Horses” was kept by Elijah Walker. After 
Walker the house was kept by Benjamin Richards and William Hurr. 
Opposite Walker’s a house was kept by Philip Amik. Further on 
Mrs. Hollenbeck kept a house, afterward by Benjamin Lanley. Mr. 
Osborne kept a tavern on Cameron Street, mostly for town trade. L. 
T. F. Grim kept a tavern which was afterward kept by Henry Fridley, 
then by Robert Brannan. Mr. Edmonson kept a tavern on Braddock 
Street which was afterward kept by William Doster. Peter Lauck’s 
tavern, the “ Bed Lion,” was on the corner of Loudon and Cork Streets. 
It was afterward kept by Edmund Pendleton, James Bryarly, Col. 
George Kiger and Josiah Massie. Later on Bushrod Taylor ran a 
stage line from the hotel named after him, he succeeding Barrick, who 
had succeeded Edward McGuire. The line ran from Winchester to 
Alexandria, and was a great public convenience at that time when rail- 
loads were only begun to be thought of. Winchester has always been 




a good point for hotels, as it was, and still is, the “getting off place ” 
for several of the noted springs and summer resorts of this section. 

For the purpose of preservation and reference the following lists of 
officers of the city of "Winchester, as fully as seems necessary for the 
matter in hand, are here given. There are no records of any officers 
earlier than the date 1804, as the books, if there ever were any, are 
now not to be found. 

At a court of hustings, held for the corporation of Winchester 
on Friday, November 2, 1804, there were present: 

Mayor, Lewis Wolf; recorder, Joseph Gamble; justices, Nathan 
Anderson, Charles Brent, Jr., Henry Bush, William Ball. 

John Peyton having died, Thomas McKewen was chosen clerk by 
the justices, and the vacancy created by the resignation of McKewen, 
•who was commissioner of the revenue, was filled by the appointment 
of Charles Brent, Jr. 

March 1, 1805. — Charles Magill having been elected, was sworn in 
as mayor; Jjewis Wolfe, as recorder; Charles Brent, Jr., Nathan 
Anderson, Joseph Gamble and Henry Beatty, aldermen. 

Justices. — Charles Magill, Lewis Wolfe, Charles Brent, Jr., Nathan 
Anderson, Joseph Gamble, Henry Beatty. 

Councilmen. — Samuel Col vert, Goldsmith Chandler, Simon Lauck, 
Peter Lauck, William Ball. 

February 28, 1806. — Mayor, Lewis Wolfe; recorder, Charles 
Magill; aldermen — Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, Abraham Miller, 
Joseph Gamble; justices — Lewis Wolfe, Charles Magill, Charles Brent, 
Abraham Miller, Beatty Carson, Joseph Gamble; councilmen — Gold- 
smith Chandler, Nathan Anderson, John Brady, William Ball. 

February 27, 1807. — Mayor, Charles Brent; recorder, Beatty Car- 
son; aldermen — Samuel Colvert, Abraham Miller, John Baker; jus- 
tices — Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, Samuel Colvert, Abraham Miller ? 
John Baker; councilmen — Lewis Barnett, William Doster, Joshua 
Newborough, Simon Lauck, Jacob Poe. 

March 4, 1808. — Mayor, Beatty Carson; recorder, Charles Brent; 
aldermen — Abraham Miller, Nathan Anderson, John Baker, John 
Oockwell; justices— Beatty Carson, Charles Brent, Abraham Miller, 
Nathan Anderson, John Baker, John Crockwell; councilmen — Daniel 
Overaker, Simon Lauck, John Schultz, Peter Harm 

March, 1809. — Mayor, Charles Brent; recorder, Beatty Carson; 
aldermen — Henry St. George Tucker, George Heed, Joseph Gamble; 




justices — Charles Brent, Beatty Carson, H. St. G. Tucker, George 
Ileed, Joseph Gamble. 

February, 1810. — Mayor, Beatty Carson; recorder, Charles Brent; 
aldermen — Abraham Miller, George Heed, Henry Beatty; justices — 
Beatty Carson, Charles Brent, Abraham Miller, George Reed, Henry 

March, 1811. — Mayor, Joseph Gamble; recorder, Beatty Carson; 
aldermen — George Reed, John Bell, John Barton, Abraham Miller; 
justices — Joseph Gamble, Beatty Carson, George Reed, John Bell r 
John Baker. 

The order book or books of the corporation from the last date, 
1811, are missing till 1843, but the officers from that period will be 
continued to the present time, before giving some of the more im- 
portant proceedings of the common council, -which, fortunately, are 
extant from 1819 to 1850. 

In 1843 James P. Riely was elected mayor, and Lemuel Brent was 
made clerk. Riely sometime afterward resigned, and George W. 
See vers was elected, who continued in office till 1847, when J. 1L 
Sherrard was elected and continued in office till the close of the late 
war, although for several years during the existence of hostilities no 
business was transacted. 

In 1865 Robert T. Conrad was elected mayor, and the following 
appears as the first entry in the books: 

August 7, 1865. — The mayor, recorder and aldermen-elect of the 
corporation of Winchester assembled in the clerk’s office of the cor- 
poration of Winchester. (the place appointed by a previous order of 
the court for holding said court by reason of the destruction of the 
court-room proper by the Federal army), pursuant to an adjournment 
of Saturday the 5th of August, 1865, by the commissioner appointed 
by the governor of Virginia, T. A. Pierpoint, for the purpose of or- 

Present: R. Y. Conrad, mayor; Joseph H. Sherrard, recorder; 

Elijah McDowell, alderman-at-large, and W. G. Russell, Frederick 
Schultz, Oliver M. Brown, William D. Brown, aldermen of wards, who 
severally took the oaths prescribed by the third article of the con- 
stitution of Virginia, before Henry M. Brent and William A. McCor- 
mick, commissioners appointed by the governor of Virginia for hold- 
nig an election of legislative and judicial officers for said corporation. 

Robert Y. Conrad, mayor, also took the oath of office before said 



• 182 


Henry M. Brent and Dr. William A. McCormick, commissioners 
aforesaid; and the recorder and aldermen, whose names are also set 
out, took the oath of office before Robert Y. Conrad, mayor; thereupon 
the court was organized, and appointed William G. Singleton clerk 
pro tern. 

Judge Conrad retained the position till 1868, when George W. Ginn 
was elected. In 1870 Capt. L. N. Huck was elected. From 1872 
till the spring of 1876 Rev. J. B. T. Reed filled the place, when W. 
L. Clark was elected and continued till 1884, at which time John C. 
Williams took the municipal reins; in 1886 Richard L. Gray, the 
present genial clerk of the corporation, came into power, and in 1888 
William M. 'Atkinson, the present incumbent, stepped to the front, 
who gracefully wears the robes of municipal state. 

To return to the proceedings of the corporation council: After 

reciting the fact that two amendments had been made to the original 
act incorporating the town of Winchester, and another declaring jus- 
tices of the peace of Frederick County residing within the corporate 
limits of the town to be eligible as members of the common council, 
the first ordinance passed prescribes the duties of the treasurer and 
town sergeant. This was in 1820, at which time, also was passed an 
ordinance providing for the appointment of a committee of accounts. 
March 12, 1822, foot-ways were ordered to be placed on both sides of 
Boscowen Street from Loudon to Washington. At this same meeting 
of the council an act setting forth and commanding a number of pro- 
gressive movements was passed, viz.: For the appointment of a 

superintendent of police; keeping streets, alleys, and gutters clean: 
to give information of nuisances ; for the employment of scavengers; 
to contract for the sale of dirt taken from the streets ; to clean snow 
and ice off of pavements; to remove snow from public square (a 
pointer for the city in the cause celebrc) ; no porch to be erected on 
any paved street, except within certain limits; regulating building 
materials piled upon streets; wagons not permitted to stand on streets 
unless in actual use; carriages not to be driven at an unusual rate of 
speed; horses not to be galloped; about slaughter houses, out-houses, 
distilleries, soap-boilers, hatters, etc. ; not to hound or chase any 
horse or cow, or throw at them in the streets; regulating lime-kilns, 
not to fire cannon or muskets in the town; regulating; market, weights, 
measures, butchers, hucksters, etc. An ordinance was passed for wid- 
ening and deepening the town run ; also an act for the “preservation of 




< rood order on the Sabbath, and for the suppression of other disorderly 
conduct of slaves and others.” Patrol appointed, and slaves must be 
in at 10 o’clock, p. m. An act whs passed for the curbing “the side- 
walks from Fairfax Lane on the west side to Piccadilly street.” The 
rate of taxes as set at this time was: On houses and lots for every 

one hundred dollars, §2.50; every tithable person, §1; male dog, §1; 
female dog, §10. ■ 

October 28, 1826, the council appropriated §50 for erecting an 
engine house “fronting on Water street in the corner formed by the 
walls of the Episcopal church yard and the court house yard, and the 
space in front of the house to be graveled.” Beatty Carson, John 
Bell, and Samuel II. Davis were commissioned to contract for and 
superintend the same (another pointer for the city). A town clock 
was ordered to be procured, at a cost not exceeding §750, to be placed 
in the steeple being erected on the court house. Alexander S. Tidball, 
S. H. Davis and Daniel Lynn were commissioned to procure said 
clock and have it put up. 'The year 1826 was an extremely unhealthy 
one, and they blamed it on the uncleanness of the streets; so the next 
year the council instituted measures for obviating any return of the 
great distress that prevailed. They regulated the using of the public 
hydrant, when they must be let run, and for cleansing the gutters, etc. 

An act passed this year, 1827, looks rather favorable to the city — 
seems as though they had charge of the public square at that date, 
at least. For the council enacted that “no person shall place any- 
thing in or on the walls enclosing the public square, the court house 
wall, or the wall in front of the south end of the court house.” 

February 7, 1829, an ordinance was passed to lay cast-iron pipes, 
from the spring to the jail of six-inch dimensions; those on Loudon 
Street to be three-inch, and those on the other streets to be two-incli, 
excepting Stewart, Piccadilly and Boscowen Streets, east of Cameron, 
which are to be one and one-half inch. Those to be used in conveying 
water from the main pipes to hydrants to be two-inch. John Heiskell, 
Alexander S. Tidball, John Bell, William L. Clark and Henry ]Jd. Brent 
were appointed commissioners to contract for the purchase of the 
pipes. §10,000 was borrowed and stock issued, redeemable in 1838. 
Lead or iron pipes not over one inch in diameter were to be the only 
ones used by private parties to their hydrants. In this year a build- 
ing was ordered to be erected at the southwest corner of the jail wall, 
21x12 feet, two stories in height, the lower portion to be used for the 




fire engine and the upper stories for a watch-house. Lamps were also 
ordered to be placed at various points on Loudon and Cameron Streets, 
and the next year, more of them were ordered to be put up on other 

April 1G, 1832, a new fire engine was ^ordered to be purchased, to 
cost §800, to be seven and one-half inch, thirty-man power, nozzle 
three-fourths inch-, play 170 to 175 feet. John W. Miller, Edgar W. 
Robinson and John Heiskell were appointed committee to purchase. 
Shortly afterward an engine house was ordered to be built on the 
public square, fronting on Loudon Street, but the plan was subse- 
quently changed to a building of larger dimensions. 

The cholera appearing in the United States during this year, 1832, 
the city fathers in August, appointed a committee consisting of Dr. 
John R. W. Dunbar, John W. Miller, John Heiskell and Thomas B. 
Campbell to take such steps as they deemed necessary to prevent the 
appearance in 'Winchester of the dread disease, and by October they 
became seriously alarmed and passed the following: 

“ Whereas, at the present crisis when death in all its terrific forms, 
is sweeping off its thousands and tens of thousands of our fellow men, 
and whereas the disease which has proved such an appalling scourge 
to almost every region of the world, is advancing towards us with 
slow but apparently certain strides, it becomes us as members of a 
Christian community, to discountenance and suppress (for the present 
at least), all public exhibitions calculated to bring together large as- 
semblies of people of all classes and habits, and affording to a certain 
class of our population, opportunities to indulge in the intemperate 
propensities, therefore, be it enacted by the President and Common 
Council of the corporation of Winchester, that the exhibition of all 
public shows, circuses or theatrical performances, be, and the same are 
hereby prohibited until the first day of April next. The penalty was 

Tbe health committee was also augmented by the following gen- 
tlemen: *Dr. Holliday, Dr. Davison, Joseph H. Sherrard, Dr. H. H. 
McGuire, Dr. William D. McGuire, Beatty Carson, Isaac Russell, Dr. 
Ro. T. Baldwin, Dr. James R. Conrad, John R. Cooke, Dr. A. S. Bald- 
win and Charles JI. Clarke. 

Having purchased the engine and built a house or two for it, it 
was necessary to procure some other apparatus, so June 29, 1833, the 
council ordered the purchase of two hose-carriages; 250 feet of 





large and 125 feet of small hose; two large water tubs, four checks 
and chains, two hydrant wrenches, two fire-hooks, four axes, two lad- 
ders and four torches, and John M. Brome, Thomas B. Campbell and 
Lewis Lindsay were appointed a purchasing committee. 

Daniel Gold became president of the council in the spring of 1834, 
and a general spirit of improvement seems to have pervaded that body, 
as acts for the improvement of most of the streets, alleys and roads 
were passed. The walls enclosing the public square were improved 
and the bridges over the run were repaired. John Bell, Henry F. 
Baker, John Miller, John M. Brown, Thomas B. Campbell, John F. 
Wall, Beatty Carson, Godfrey Miller, Jacob Baker, James P. Biely, 
Abraham Miller, John Price, Lewis Lindsay, William Henning, Fred- 
erick Schultz and John B. Campbell were deputised to attend to the 
public improvements. 

In 1835 the council ordered the purchase of the Tidball spring, 
and in 1836 the purchase of a suction engine, for §750 and additional 
hose, hooks, ladders, etc. The Baltimore A Potomac Bailroad was 
given permission to have space in the public building for a ticket 
office, and further improvement of the streets was ordered. Bobert Y. 
Conrad, Bobert Brannan, David Bussell, Abraham Miller, John Bruce, 
David W. Barton, Bushrod Taylor and Mr. Senseney were ordered 
to carry out the designs of the council. 

In 1838 §50 were appropriated toward building an engine 
house on the corner of Loudon and Monmouth Streets, and §25 
to the Friendship Fire Company to repair and paint their engine. 
Iu 1839 an act was passed authorizing a loan of §25,000 to pay the 
subscription to the Yalley Turnpike Company. 

In 1840 the General Assembly of the State, by petition of the 
citizens, changed the charter of the town so that instead of voting by 
wards, a general vote of the voters should be sufficient to elect coun- 
cilman, etc. In 1847 the council appropriated §75 to the Eagle Fire 
Company, and in 1848 an act was passed appropriating annually the 
following sums: To the Sarah Zane Company, §125; Union, or 

Eagle, Company, §75; Friendship Company, §50. 

But here is an order that is calculated to give the “city’s case” a 
black eye, for it reads: “Whereas, the County Court of Frederick 

County at its June Term passed an order that leave be granted to the 
corporate authorities of the town of Winchester to erect suitable 
buildings for the fire engines on any part of the public square, except 

I 2 





on the west or northwest of the court house, be it enacted, etc.” This 
act w r as amended by ordering the houses to be built elsewhere. 

In 1850, the Winchester & Berryville and the Front Royal Turn- 
pike Companies each received a §10,000 subscription. August 21, 
1855,. gas w r as introduced, and in 1889 the old town w*as brilliantly 
illuminated with electricity. 

In closing this chapter, a number of incidents related to the author 
by William G. Russell, Esq., now in his ninetieth year, the oldest living 
land-mark in this section, whose faculties are still almost perfectly 
preserved, wdiose education and social position has been w r ell adapted 
to the obtaining of the facts furnished, will here be given. 

It was a tradition that the members of Morgan’s first company, 
when they encamped at the spring near Shepherdstown in 1775, had 
all agreed to meet at that spot fifty years from that time, should they 
be living. At the expiration of that time two old men appeared on 
the spot, both of them from Winchester, and the fact was so stated in 
the papers. Shortly after this was published Mr. Russell went to 
Tennessee on a visit to his uncle, William Greenway, a soldier of the 
Revolution, and while there the young man (Mr. R. ) read the 
accounts as published of the meeting alluded to, with the additional 
remark of the editor that the old veterans were all dead but the two 
w’ho met at the spring, whereupon Mr. Greenway sprang to his feet, 
jumped into the air and cracked his heels, exclaiming, “That’s a lie; 
here's one of them!” And he was, too, being at that time over seventy 
years of age. 

Way back in the 20’s, there lived in Winchester an old Revolu- 
tionary soldier named Mark Hays. He v r as a peculiar old character, 
used to ring the bell for auctions, etc. He was helping to dig a well 
near where the gas-liouse is now located, and in blasting the rocks the 
fuse was shorter than Mark expected, so it exploded the powder 
prematurely and blew r the old veteran into an apple tree, from which 
he was rescued entirely unhurt. 

In the early days a brutal case of mayhem occurred out in the 
mountain, not far from Winchester. A man named Rudolph, through 
spite for her father, bit one of the ears off of an innocent little girl, on 
meeting her alone. The miscreant was pursued by a man named 
Joseph Parker, §500 reward being offered for his capture. Parker 
discovered Rudolph up a tree, and, as lie approached the fugitive, 
received a shot in the shoulder; but, notwithstanding his being 




partially disabled, made the villain come down, tied him, and marched 
him off to the authorities. He was sentenced to the penitentiary, and 
Parker got his $500, besides other funds. 

It is related that on one occasion Mr. Marshall went to William 
Ball and Peter Schultz to collect his “quit rents.” Schultz reached 
for his old musket he had used at the storming of Quebec and told the 
collector to “git out o’ here in double quick,” and lie went pretty 
lively. Old man Ball grasped his sword and flashing it around his 
head two or three times, informed the gentleman (Mr. M. ) that 
Morgan had seen him use that, but “I'll use it now when he don’t see 
it, if you come fooling around here.” Those old Revolutionary he- 
roes, as the year came round, were in the habit of “ celebrating ” their 
soldier davs, and Mr. Bussell says they had hiqh old times. Get 
“full?”— well! 

Several of the Hessian prisoners remained in Winchester after the 
Revolution, and some of their descendants are said to be living there 
still. The boys, in consequence of the stigma attached to the unfortu- 
nate old fellows, who were only either sold to the English or were 
soldiers of fortune, making arms their profession, used to poke a 
good deal of fun at them. There was one, named, Gyer, and the 
mischievous lads used to cry after him, “Hessian Gyer! Hessian 
Gyer!” One Sunday old man Gyer went to hear Rev. Reck, a Lu- 
theran minister, and it so happened that the preacher took his text 
from Hezekiah, having occasion to repeat the word several times. 
Gyer, who was on a front seat, dressed in his velvet breeches, blue 
stockings and silver buckles, rose to his feet and said, “Mr. Reck, you 
call me Hessian Gyer, I no stay.” 

Miss Sarah Zane, the daughter of Col. Isaac Zane, a man whose 
name appears as one of the first justices to take the oath of fealty to the 
commonwealth when she threw off the British yoke in 1776, spent 
much of her time in Winchester. She boarded with Mrs. Christian 
Streit ; she also stayed with the Baldwin and Mackey families. She 
was a woman of fair size, compactly built, and rather good looking, 
with an extremely benevolent, pleasant and kindly face. She will 
always have a warm place in the hearts of Winchester people, and es- 
pecially among the fire laddies. 

About 1815 land and other property depreciated fifty per cent, 
and great stagnation in trade was the result. This lowering of values 
was undoubtedly the result of the extravagance that followed the 





natural exhuberanee of spirit that prevaded all classes at the favor- 
able ending of the struggle for autonomy on the part of the colonies. 
But by 1820 to 1825 another reaction occurred, and business went 
booming along. Hundreds of persons could be seen daily on the 
streets of Winchester, some of them coming 75 to 100 miles with 
pack-horses for supplies, for there were very few good wagon roads 
over and through the mountains to the westward at that time. These 
pack-horses carried everything, even furniture, and it was a curious 
sight to see piled upon the back of a horse tables and chairs. Bar* 
iron, one of the most awkward articles to transport on horse back, 
was bent to the proper shape, all the stores that kept it having large 
heavy logs with staples driven in them around which the iron was 
bent to the shape of the horse. Teaming along the valley pike was a 
tremendous business before the railroads were constructed, and long 
lines of six-horse teams with those large, partially boat-shaped, 
wagons, appropriately called “ land schooners,” could be seen, some- 
times as many as fifteen or twenty in company, and with bells upon 
every horse. Their pleasant jingle was particularly inspiring. The 
old stage lines were an interesting feature, and the regular arrival of 
them with the mails was an event looked forward to by every body. 

In regard to dress, our aged informant is quite interesting. In 
cities and towns the men generally wore short breeches, black velvet, 
if it could be had, with yarn or silk stockings, and with knee and shoe 
buckles, the vest was very long, cut off at the corners, and with huge 
pockets. It would sometimes be made of different colored goods, so 
that when lapped over and buttoned one way it would be blue, and 
another way it would show red or yellow. The coat was a “shad- 
belly,” of various stuffs. The buckles on the shoes were sometimes 
three or four inches in length. The three-cornered cocked hat was 
used by almost all “gentlemen,” as the old Revolution had made it 
very popular. In the country the men usually wore a hunting shirt. 
The breeches were of nil styles. Sometimes they were like bags, 
with a red or blue ribbon in the bottom to draw them close. When 
short breeches were worn the boots were long, and at the top a por- 
tion turned down about six or eight inches, generally of buff colored 
leather. When short breeches went out of fashion the “ Suwarrah ” 
boot came into vogue. It was long, but was pressed down and wrinkled 
and some of the old “bloods” took as much pains in “wrinkling” 
their boots as a modern belle does her sixty-four-button undressed 
Bernhart kids. 






The Bench and Bah— Eminent Early Settlers— Their Famous Descend- 
ants — Lists of Lawyers — Some Noted Names — Superior Court of 
Chancery— Judge Tucker’s Law School— Distinguished Graduates— 
A Brilliant Galaxy — Churches and Ministers— Claims for tiie 
First Church— Theories Thereon — Rev. William Williams, First 
Preacher — Two Early Chapels— Frederick Parish— Lord Fairfax 
and His Bequests— Alexander Balmaine— Centenary Reformed 
Church— Evangelical Lutheran Ciiefildi— P resbyterian Churches— 
Methodist Episcopal Churches— Catholic Church— United Breth- 
ren Church— Friends’ Meeting House— Baptist, Christian, Church 
of God and Colored Churches— The Cemeteries— Honors to the 
Heroic Dead— Educational— Splendid Schools— Fire Companies— 
Public Improvements — Industries— Societies— Stephens City, Mid- 
dletown, and tiie Villages— General Summing Up. 

W INCHESTER from its very foundation, and Frederick County 
as well, lias always been the center and seat of much cultiva- 
tion, courtesy and patriotism. x4t first it was so from force of cir- 
cumstances, Winchester being the point at which the first court of 
justices was organized (1743) throughout not only the entire Shenan- 
doah Valley, but stretching to the southern boundary of the State, the 
organization in Augusta County not occurring until two years later 
(1745). Afterward, during colonial times, and from the Revolution 
onward, notwithstanding the rise of rival towns and cities in the val- 
ley and in other sections of the two Virginias, Winchester has main- 
tained its ancient prestige as the mother of many eminent men and 
women and a home for learning and refinement. The social standing 
of its very early pioneers was above the average of those who usually 
make new settlements. Such men as Richard ap Morgan, Morgan 
ap Morgan, Welshmen of gentle birth; Marquis Calmes, the Hugue- 
not; Thomas Ashby, James Wood and Thomas Rutherford, English- 
men of education ; Andrew Campbell, Lewis Neil, George Hoge, Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians; the Van Metres and Swearengeus, Hollanders 
of enterprise; Dr, Frederick Conrad and Tost Hite, the wealthy Ger- 

■ ■ 



mans; tlie Cartmells, the Hollingsworths and many others, all were 
here not long after 1730. These old leaders in the vanguard of civili - 
zation could not fail to leave an impress of simple grandeur upon 
their time, and many of the descendants of these sires are still fore- 
most among their fellow-men. Some have gained well-merited fame, 
many have reached the highest stations conferable by their constitu- 
ents, while one (to name a glorious instance) -is embalmed in the 
heart of nearly every man, woman and child who was fortunate 
enough to have seen the knightly trooper, the intrepid leader, the 
courtly gentleman — Gen. Turner Ashby, the Chevalier Bayard of the 
Civil war. 

Other representative men came in over 100 years ago whose 
characters are felt to-day, but almost from the moment that Lawyer 
James Porteus, the first attorney to make application for admission 
to practice his profession, stepped up to the rude bar at the first session 
of the first court held November 11, 1743, the bench and bar of Frederick 
lias had no superior and but few equals in ability and recognized stand- 
ing throughout Virginia. And in the succeeding fifty vears, whilst the 
able but eccentric Gabriel Jones (admitted 1743) and the brilliant 
and accomplished Alexander White, prominent about the Revolution- 
ary period; onward through the sixty-two years and five months of 
service as clerk of the court of James Keith (ending in 1824); and 
still onward during the fifty years of service of Thomas A. Tidball as 
clerk, the profession of the law was and is still graced by minds that 
would do honor to any community in any land. There are so many 
names that loom above the average horizon, that to give a sketch of 
each of those who bore them would far transcend the limits allotted 
to this subject in this work. To select a few would not only be in- 
vidious but extremely unjust to the descendants of . those left unmen- 
tioned. But a list of all the attorneys gleaned from the records, will 
be found below, running up to and including those of the present day. 
A number of the first-named practiced before the Revolution and 
many others have been mentioned in preceding chapters of this work. 
They were not all residents of Frederick County, large as it was, 
several of them living in the eastern counties of the State, but their 
names appear as practitioners in the courts of this county, and are 
therefore given. The list commences at 1781, and gives the date of 
admission to practice, in most cases, and runs till 1812: 



1781. Robert White. 


John Brown. 

1785. Francis Whiting. 


Isaac Hite Williams. 

1785. Charles Magill. 


Elijah Gaither. - 

1786. Samuel Reed. 


Alexander White, 3d. 

1787. Buckner Thruston. 


Daniel Thomas.. 

1787. George Nicholas. 


Joseph Sexton. 

1787. Charles Marshall. 


William Tate. 

1788. Argur Treadwell Furman. 


James Chipley. 

1788. John James Maund. 


Richard Holliday. 

1788. John Thompson Mason. 


Thomas Griggs, 

1788. Robert Page. 


Matthew Lodge. 

1789. John Dixon. 


Samuel McMechen. — 

1789. Hugh Holmes. 


Henry Daingerfield. 

1790. Maxwell Armstrong. 


Joseph Caldwell. 

1791. Archibald Magill. 


Alfred H. Powell. 

1791. James Cochrane. 


Daniel Lee. 

1791. Thomas Swan. 


Josiah Tidball. 

1791. James Ash. 


William A. Menzies. 

1791. David Holmes. 

In conformity with an act of the General Assembly of the common- 
wealth, the first term of the superior court of chancery to be held in 
Winchester, was begun on the 7th of July, 1812; Dabney Carr, judge: 
Daniel Lee, clerk; William Eskridge, sergeant-at-arms of the court. 

The first attorneys to take the oath, preparatory to practice in the 
new tribunal of justice, were: Archibald Magill, Henry St. George 
Tucker, Alfred H. Powell, Obed Waite, Elisha Boyd, William Naylor, 
John B. Cooke, Charles Magill, Lewis Wolfe, Bobert B. White, 
Warner Throckmorton, Augustine C. Smith, Oliver Bliss and Samuel 
Kerch eval, Jr. 

The following list of attorneys, gleaned from the records of the 
court of chancery, covers all who were practicing in the courts of 
Frederick County, at or about the date given, and although a number 
of the names may be repeated in this and the succeeding lists, yet as 
a matter of reference they are given in all cases: 

November 22, 1819. — Dabney Carr, judge, and Daniel Lee, clerk. 

Charles Magill, 

Archibald Magill, 

Henry St. George Tucker, 
Alfred H. Powell, 

Obed Waite, 

Elisha Boyd, 

Kobert B. White, 

William Naylor, 

John R; Cooke, 

Warner Throckmorton, 
Augustine C. Smith, 

Samuel Kerchevel, 
Robert Page, 

Joseph Sexton, 
Sampson Blincoe, 

Lewis P. W. Balch, 
John Baker, 

Richard II. Henderson, 
Jonathan Carlyle, 
Alexander S. Tidball, 
William Chilton. 

Moses T. Hunter, 

John Hopkins, 
BurrW. Harrison, 
John E. Page, 
Humphrey Powell, 
Richard H. Lee, 
Henry Berry, 
Joseph Strother, 
George Murray, 
William L. Clark, 
John McPharlane, 
Thomas Marshall, 


' ■ 





Richard Barton, 
Aaron Jewett, 
Richard McLane, 
James M. Mason, 
John Ransdall, 
William Jenners, 

Province McCormick, 
Andrew Kennedy, 
Charles T. Magill, 
Joseph H. Sherrard, 
James Mcllhaney, 
Thomas B. Turner, 
Cuthbert Powell, Jr., 

Lewis Wolfe, 
Oliver Bliss, 
Thomas Griggs, 
Ebene/er Martin, 
M. Munroe, 

Francis W. Gilmer. 

Henry St. George Tucker having been .appointed judge of the 
superior court of chancery, for the districts of Winchester and Clarks- 
burg, March 24, 1824, he presented his commission and opened ’ the 
court in Winchester April 5, 1824; Daniel Lee, clerk. David H. Con- 
rad and John B. Smith were admitted to practice at the same date. 

In the records of 1825 appear the following additional names as 
practitioners before this court: Charles L. Powell, Charles J. Faulk- 
ner, William Lucas, A. S. Kerclieval, and Messrs. Dougherty, Taps- 
cott, Samuels, Fowke, Grey, Seymour and Williamson. 

Hi chard E. Parker being appointed judge of the superior court, 
opened the same June 8, 1881. In 1833 the following names appear 
as either practicing, or having practiced, before the court indicated: 

Obed Waite, 

John R. Cooke, 

James M. Mason, 
William L. Clarke, 
John Hopkins, 

Philip Williams, 

James Marshall, 
Robert Y. Conrad, 
David W. Barton, 

W. G. Singleton, 
Province McCormick,.- 
Edmund P. Hunter, 
Alex. S. Tidball, 

James J. Randolph, 

Charles T. Magill, 
William Kay lor, 
Samuel Kerclieval, Jr., 
Andrew Kennedy, 

John S. Magill, 

Joseph H. Sherrard, 
Edmund I. Lee, 
Richard E. Byrd, 
Richard H. Henderson, 
Henry Berry, 

Angus W. McDonald, 
James Hervey Carson, 
Joseph S. Carson, 

Burr W. Harrison, 

Lewis Glover, 

Giles Cook, 

Richard Parker, 
W T alter Brooke, 
Beverly Snickers, 
David H. McGuire, 
William R. Johnston, 
Robert Page; Jr., 
John L. Green, 

J. L. Snodgrass, 
Andrew Hunter, 
Henry Byrne, 
Edward E. Cooke, 
John A. Thompson. 

Isaac It. Douglass was appointed judge of the chancery court, and 
opened his first term March 6, 1837, and having served fourteen years, 
Richard Parker was appointed and opened the court June 13, 1851. 

The following gentlemen are recorded in the chancery order books 
covering the years included from 1858 to 1889, as practitioners of the 
law in the courts of Frederick. Some of the first named are still in 
active practice here, some have removed to other fields of usefulness, 
and some have gone to the bar of that High Court whose judge is 
always just, and from whose decisions there is ho appeal: 




Phillip Williams, 

Powell Conrad, 

E. E. Stickley, 

Robert Y. Conrad, 

Lewis N. Huck, 

M. Walton, 

David W. Barton, 

Charles L. Ginn, 

C. A. Yancey, 

Andrew Hunter, 

Morgan, Wells & Co., 

William Lauck, 

Edward E. Cook, 

J. W. Jenkins, 

J. R. Tucker, 

Province McCormick, 

C. L. Watrous, 

W. J. Robinson, 

Giles Cook, 

Urial Wright, 

G. W. Brent, 

Lewis T. Moore, 

U. L. Boyce, 

W. W. Arnett, 

John Randolph Tucker, 

J. P. Riely, 

P. McCormick, 

William L. Clark, Jr., 

J. J. Williams, 

G. W. Ward, 

David H. Conrad, 

E. Holmes Boyd, 

G. W. Ward, Jr., 

Charles L. Brent, 

R. T. Barton. 

William Byrd, 

F. W. M. Holliday, 

Randolph Barton, 

Richard E. Byrd, 

J. B. Hoge, 

J. W. Denney, 

Thomas W. Harrison, 

T. T. Fauntleroy, Jr., 

Joseph S. Carson, 

William M. Atkinson, 

N. S. White, 

Joseph H. Sherrard, 

William A. Alexander, 

Lawson Botts, 

J. Hayes Shields, 

A. R. Pendleton, 

E. B. Mantor, 

E. P. Dandridge, 

M. M. Lynch. 

S. J. C. Moore, 

T. Shumate, 

James P. Whittaker, 

Charles T. Magill, 

Holmes Conrad, 

D. LI Bragonier, 

Robert E. Seivers, 

J. H. Williams, 

C. S. W. Barnes, 

Robert Turner, 

Richard Parker, 

W. Roy Stephenson, 

James M. Mason, 

R. W. Hunter, 
B. C. Campbell, 

Robert M. Ward. 

In consequence of the Civil war very little was clone in the courts 
of Frederick County, and the severance of the western portion of the 
judicial districts, owing to the creation of the State of West Virginia, 
changed the entire mode of procedure. Instead of a superior court 
of chancery, at the close of the war circuit courts were established. 
In 1SG9, June 10, Edmund Pendleton, having been appointed judge 
for the Thirteenth Judicial District, which comprised Frederick 
County, that gentleman opened the first session of the court under the 
new regulations, but he retained the position only one year, as on 
June 10, 1870, Judge Robert II. Turner held the court as a portion of 
the Twelfth Judicial District. Col. Joseph H. Nulton is the present 
clerk of the circuit court. Hon. W. L. Clark is judge of the city and 
county courts. 

Not only has the bar of Winchester always borne a first-class repu- 
tation, but as early as between 1820 and 1830 Judge Henry St. George’ 
Tucker conducted a School of Law, which had a large attendance for 
several years. Many men who afterward became noted in the history 
of their respective counties and States attended this school, among 
whom were Gov. Henry A. Wise, of Virginia; Gov. Francis Thomas, 
of Maryland, and William Cost Johnson, of the same State, besides a 
number cf Frederick County’s best known lawyers. 



It is safe in saying that no other county in the State of Virginia 
can point to a more numerous galaxy of legal lights, men who stood 
above their fellow man in all those attainments that go to make up 
genuine ability, with intellects that were broad, far-reaching, firm- 
grasping, and yet intensely subtle and analytic, than Frederick County. 
Not to go farther back than the Revolution, one must pause at that old 
heroic parson, Charles Mynn Thruston, the clergyman-soldier, the 
educated gentleman, and chief dispenser of justice in this county for 
many years; then to Gen. James Wood, son of Col. James Wood, the 
first clerk of the county, in 1743. Gen. Wood, from the position of 
deputy clerk of the county, successively was honored by his fellow 
citizens until he reached the position of Governor of the Common- 
wealth in 1798. A little further onward -we behold the names of 
Judge Hugh Holmes and Judge Henry St. George Tucker, and onward 
still loom up the names of Powell and Boyd and Augustine Smith, and 
the Lees and Robert Y. Conrad, and the Marshalls, and the Masons, 
and the Bartons, and Pendletons and Hunters, and a number of others 
almost as gifted, including many who are still living, and who are 
destined to leave their impress on those to come after them. Win- 
chester has furnished one governor of late years in the person of the 
gallant Col. F. W. M. Holliday, who bears the evidence of the faith 
that was in him during the late disastrous struggle between North 
and South, in the empty sleeve that hangs by his side, and one of her 
great lawyers, James M. Mason, -who resided here from 1821 till the 
breaking out of the war, was selected, in conjunction with Mr. Slidell, 
by the Confederate government to attempt a hazardous and uncertain 
mission abroad, the outcome of which nearly precipitated war between 
Great Britain and the United States. Another gentleman who was 
admitted to practice here in 1825. but w r ho resided in Berkeley County, 
became Minister to France during President Buchanan’s administra- 
tion, the Hon. Charles James Faulkner. But space forbids further 
mention of the bench or bar of Frederick County. 


Wherever civilized man goes his religion always accompanies him ; 
wherever he sets up his rude cabin or stately mansion, one of his first 
acts after planting himself is to erect a place of worship, and the next 
is to induce the settlement in the new village or community of a min- 
ister of the gospel. And there never is wanting some valiant soldier 





of the cross to adventure into the wilds; only too happy is he of the op- 
portunity to spread the glad tidings to those to whom it may be difficult 
to reach. Grand old heroes were those early pioneer ministers — those 
henchmen of the Lord — who, with rifle on shoulder and bible and 
prayer-book in pocket, were as capable of drawing a bead on the sav- 
age foe as drawing a conclusion from a text. They were mighty fac- 
tors in the settlement of the wilderness, for their words of consola- 
tion in times of peril and privation made the life of the pioneer not 
only bearable but content, hopeful and even pleasant. The Presby- 
terians claim the honor of being the first to introduce worship into the 
valley of Virginia ; the Quakers, or Friends, do the same, as well 
as the Lutherans and Calvinists, now known as Reformers, and 
with equal propriety can the Episcopalians lay early claim. The facts 
are these, and all can judge of the matter as may suit their pleasure: 
The first settlement, beyond a doubt, south of the Potomac River was 
made on the spot where now stands Shepherdstown, by a number of 
German mechanics from Pennsylvania. They naturally brought their 
religion with them; now, were they Lutherans or Reformers? A 
settlement of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians w r as made not long after the 
Germans came to their new' home, and some of them went farther up 
the valley, on the Opequon above Winchester, at the same time that 
the German, Yost Hite, and his three German sons-in-law and some 
others went there. It is altogether probable that Hite and his party 
w r ere Calvinists or Reformers, and that they built a small church on 
the Opequon, as is claimed that the Calvinists did in 1740, by the 
present Reformed Church, and on wdiich claim they have based the 
fact of calling their church in Winchester, established in 1840, the 
Centenary Reformed Church. Quakers, or Friends were here, un- 
doubtedly before Yost Hite came to the Opequon settlement, as Alex- 
ander Ross, a Quaker, obtained a large grant of land near Winchester 
before 1732, as the wndter has seen a survey from him of a tract of 
land made fora Hollingsworth, whose grandfather came over wdth Will- 
iam Penn. This old document is dated 1732, but the family claim 
that their ancestor settled on the tract as early as 1726. About 1730 
is, possibly, the correct date. The Episcopal Church came a little 
later than the dates given above, although writers of that denomina- 
tion claim priority of establishment, and with good reason, as Mor- 
gan Morgan, a devout Episcopalian, the first justice named in 1743, 
had doubtless been living in the valley many years before the county 




was created. Shortly after the organization of the court in 1713, “Mor- 
gan’s Chapel ” and “ Cunningham’s Chapel” appear in the old records. 
But the first mention of a minister is in 1713-11, where Rev. William 
Williams is spoken of, as lias been stated in a former chapter of this 
work, in connection with having violated the law in presuming to 
marry various persons, he “ not being an orthodox minister.” He was 
doubtless a Presbyterian. 

The Episcopal Church . — The introduction of the Episcopal Church 
into Frederick County is coeval with the organization, or rather 
creation (the latter antedating the former by about five years) of that 
county, for inasmuch as it was the established religion of the mother 
country, England, it was obligatory on the part of the colonial rulers 
to make provision for the spiritual as well as political welfare of the 
subjects of their sovereign lord and master, the King; so, when Fred- 
erick was cut off from Orange County, in 1738, a parish named Fred- 
erick was also instituted, and although there may have been no rector 
and no church edifice for several years, yet collections for their main- 
tenance went on all the same. They had a vestry, of course, and 
church wardens whose general duty it was to superintend, as it Tvere, 
‘the morals of tlieir less religious fellows, but whose special province 
seems to have been, according to the ancient records, to take charge 
of and punish the unfortunate female victims of man’s inordinate 
passions. Yery little otherwdse is heard of church, vestry or -wardens, 
until after the arrival of Lord Fairfax, in 1749, but there seems to 
have been a misapplication of the funds set apart for church purposes, 
some £1,500 having been badly used by the virtuous old churchmen, 
as an act of Assembly -was passed in 1752, dissolving the vestry for 
that cause, and the appointment of another set. These were Lord 
Fairfax, Isaac Perkins, Gabriel Jones, John Hite, Thomas Swearen- 
gen, Charles Buck, Robert Lemmon, John Lindsay, John Ashby, 
James Cromley and Levds Neil. Lord Fairfax, in 1752, gave a lot 
on the southw r est corner of the public square in Winchester, upon 
which shortly afterward was erected a rude chapel. This was occu- 
pied many years, but a better one, of stone, w T as reared on the same 
spot some time before the Revolution, which v 7 as continued to be used 
until the sale of the lot by the congregation, and the building of the 
handsome • edifice on the corner of Water and Washington Streets. 
The mortal remains of his lordship, originally deposited in the grave- 
yard of the old church, upon the sale of the lot to private individuals. 




.. i 







5 * 




were removed and now repose under the altar of the new church. 
Bishop Meade says that the first minister of Frederick parish was a 
Rev. Mr. Gordon, but where he came from, when he took charge, and 
when his ministry ended is now not known. Rev. Mr. Meldriim suc- 
ceeded Mr. Gordon, who was in turn followed by Rev. Mr. Sebastian, 
who took charge about 1766 and remained till 1777, when he, like 
patriotic Peter Muhlenberg, threw off the gown .and grasped the 
sword in defense of the struggling colonies. From that date until 
1785 there was no regular pastor of Frederick parish, but at about 
the date named Rev. Alexander Balmaine, who also had fought for the 
independence of the colonies, was chosen rector and remained in 
charge for over thirty years. He lived on Cameron Street north of 
Piccadilly Street, and was highly respected and loved by all classes of 
the community. After Mr. Balmaine’s death, Rev. Mr. Bryan, as 
assistant to Bishop Meade, filled the position. Then came Rev. Mr. 
Robertson. In 1827 Christ Church, Winchester, was organized into 
a separate parish, the parish to which it was attached extending, up to 
that time, over a large extent of country. Rev. J. E. Jackson was 
chosen minister, and under his supervision the present fine church 
edifice was erected. He resigned in 1842 and went to Kentucky, be- 
ing succeeded by Rev. Mr. Rooker, who resigned in 1847. Rev. Cor- 
nelius Walker then took charge, and was succeeded by Rev. Dr. W. 
C. Meredith, who continued till the commencement of the Civil War, 
into which he entered as a private in a Confederate regiment, after- 
ward becoming chaplain. Rev. Mr. Maury filled the position as 
rector during the war, but at its close Rev. Mr. Meredith resumed his 
connection with the parish, and retained it till his death in 1876. 
Then Rev. Dr. James R. Hubard was accepted as pastor, and remained 
about eleven years, when he was succeeded by Rev. Nelson R. Dame, 
the present rector. 

Centenary Reformed Church . — From actual records and from tradi- 
tions handed down, the Reformed Calvinists, or German Reformed, 
ministry from the Palatinate, Germany, organized a congregation near 
to the town of Winchester, or rather the spot whereon that now delight- 
ful little city stands, in 1740 or 1741, and the crumbling foundation of 
the little stone church near Kernstown is supposed to be the locality 
where that congregation worshiped. The church was abandoned in 
1753-4, when a Presbyterian congregation occupied it, and by long 
occupation by them it has since been known as a church of that denomi- 




nation. On May 15. 1753, Lord Fairfax by deed gave “Lots num- 
bered 82 and 83.” The bequest in part reads as follows: “ Do give, 

grant and confirm unto the said Philip Bush, Daniel Bush, Henry 
Brinker,' Jacob Sowers, and Frederick Conrad, as trustees appointed 
by the said congregation (Reformed Calvinists), the said recited Lots 
of land, for erecting and building a meeting-house for the use of the 
said congregation and for no other purpose.” Soon after this grant a 
log and frame meeting-house was erected on these lots, situated in 
the eastern portion of Winchester, being bounded by Philpot Lane 
and East Lane, etc. The records bring the church history up to 
about the beginning of the present century. From 1791 for a number 
of years Rev. G. W. Schneyder was pastor. Rev. Bernhard Willey 
made the first records of the church, which are preserved, and Rev. 
Mr. Schneyder about 1800, and the last by Rev. Dr. John Brown, 
October 16, 1804 From this date for many years the church organi- 
zation seems to have been so scattered or dissolved that no services 
of this denomination were held in the building. It was used, however, 
by Rev. Robert Sedwick, a Baptist minister, who preached there for 
abput nine years, and after he left it was occupied by Jonathan 
Robinson, colored, also a Baptist minister, who came to Winchester 
with Col. Preston during the war of 1812. Nothing is known to 
the members, of the church from 1823 till 18-10, at which time efforts 
were made to raise funds for the repair of the church built in 1754, 
but on aid being promised from the synods and classes it was con- 
cluded to build a new edifice in commemoration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of the organization in this section of the State, and the 
“ Centenary Reformed Church ” was the result. This structure is 
still standing, although it was wrecked and ruined during the late war. 
The original log and frame house was destroyed by fire on the night 
of February 13, 1844; and the sight is said to have been a wonderful 
one, as the ground and roofs of buildings were covered with snow, in 
addition to the light from a full moon. Persons awaking from their 
sleep imagined that the whole town was on fire, and great consterna- 
tion prevailed. After the completion of the new church in 1840 Rev. 
George A. Leopold became pastor for a short time, and was succeeded 
in December of that year by Revs. D. H. Bragonier and Robert Doug- 
las, as joint pastors of several churches, but in 1845 Mr. Douglas be- 
came sole pastor. In 1847 Rev. G. W. Willard, now president of Heidel- 
berg College, Tiffin, Ohio, became pastor, resigning in 1850, and being 




succeeded by Rev. now Dr. J. O. Miller, who remained four years, being 
followed by Rev. now P. Seibert Davis, D. D., until recently editor-in- 
ellief of the Reformed Messenger of Philadelphia, Dr. Davis resigning 
in 1857, Rev. Mr. Douglas became a supply for two years, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Dr. John M. Fetzell, now of Lancaster, Penn., who 
continued pastor till the breaking out of the civil war in 1861. Rev. 
Norval Wilson, a resident minister of the Methpdist Episcopal 
Church, preached for the congregation until 1862, when the church 
building was taken possession of by the Federal troops, which use and 
occupation resulted in the almost complete destruction of the property. 
The lecture room in the basement was used as a stable, the pews and 
pulpit for tire wood, and holes cut in the floor of the audience room 
and walls for convenience. This scandalously treated congregation 
have never received one cent damages for the loss of their property. 
When the building was repaired or patched after the war Rev. Hiram 
Shaull became pastor, remaining from 1866 till 1873. He was suc- 
ceeded in 187-1 by Rev. Charles G. Fisher, who resigned in 1880. 
Then came Rev. A. R. Kremer till 1881, followed by Rev. S. L. Whit- 
more. The last pastor, Rev. U. O. Mohr, only remained a few months, 
and the church is now without one. In the burying ground of the old 
church is a tombstone erected to the memory of George Helm, bear- 
ing date 1769. 

The Evangelical Lidheran Church.— The old Lutheran Church, as 
will be seen from the following records deposited in the corner-stone, 
was commenced in 1761, but it was not completed till 1793, which date 
it bore on the gable end. In 1821 the spire was erected. After the 
erection of the handsome edifice on Boscowen Street, the old one was- 
used now and then for public meetings, celebrations, etc. Following 
is the record: 

‘•In the name of God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Amen! 
The foundation of this temple, by the grace of God, was laid in the 
year of Christ, 1761, on the 16th of June. 

“The hearers and founders of this temple are all and each mem- 
bers of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, at this time, residing in the 
city of Winchester, to wit: 

“Thomas Schmidt, Nicholas Sclirack, Christian Heiskell, David 
Dieterich, Christopher Wetzell, Peter Holferstein. George Michael Lau- 
binger, Heinrich Becker. Jacob Sibert, Jacob Braun, Stephen Fraen- 
cker, Christopher Altrich, Tobias Otto, Eberhard Doling, Andreas 
Friedly, Amanuel Burger, Christopher Ileintz, Donald Heigel, Jacob 



Trautwine, John Segmoncl Haenli, Johannes Lemley, Johannes Lentz. 
Christian Newberger, George Schumacher, Michael Roger, Michael 
Wafnig, Christopher Lamber, Samuel Wendell, Michael Gluck, Julius 
Spickert, Balthazer Poe, Jacob Koppenhaber, Heinrich Weller. 

“ Under whose care and inspection, and at whose expense this 
temple was built, at that time bore rule George III, King of Great 
Britain, our most clement master, and his officers and governor in 
Virginia, Francis Fauquier, in Williamsburg, then presiding with 
highest authority, and Thomas Fairfax, chief magistrate of this whole 
district, at that time residing not far from this city, who has given to 
us gratuitously and of good will, two lots of ground, comprising one 
acre, for sacred use. 

“This temple has been consecrated to the Triune God, and to the 
Evangelical Lutheran religion alone; all sects whatsoever name they 
may bear, and all others who either dissent from, or do not fully assent 
to, our Evangelical Lutheran religion being forever excluded. As a 
permanent record of which to our posterity, this paper is here placed 
and has been deposited for everlasting remembrance in this corner- 
stone. Drawn up in Winchester April 16, MDCCLXIIII. 


“At that time minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. 

“Ludwig Adams, Scribe. 

“Anthony Ludi, 

“ School Master in this city.” 

In 1772 the walls were completed, but the ambitious old Germans 
seem to have undertaken a larger job than they were aware of, and in 
consequence of their exclusiveness, which bordered on intolerance, as 
evidenced in the document placed in the corner-stone, they received 
very little help outside of their own denomination. But they are said 
to have worked like beavers to finish their church, women even assist- 
ing in any thing that they could do, even carrying stone and timber, 
and helping to lift heavy articles. It was not finished as late as 1787- 
88, at which time a lottery was inaugurated to raise the requisite funds 
to complete the building. During the great struggle for liberty, of 
1775-81, the church was used for a barracks. In 1785, when Rev. 
Christian Streit took charge of the church, there were no doors nor 
window-glass nor shutters. But they persevered to such an extent 
that in 1790 they had cast at Bremen, Germany, two bells of extra- 
ordinary sweetness, and in 1795 they had an organ put in. The 
church on Boscowen Street has been in charge at various times of 
Revs. Abraham Reck, Eichelberger, C. P.. Krautli and Rev. Messrs. 
Baum, Messach, Dosli, Gilbert and Miller. 




The Presbyterian Churches . — The Presbyterian denomination was 
possibly the oldest religious society in the vicinity of Winchester, 
and yet they had no church in that town till 1790, the members wor- 
shiping at the old Opequon Church. Decisive measures were taken 
for the erection of an edifice in the town named in 1787, as has been 
shown in a former chapter, where plans are sought by the trustees of 
the church from persons competent to build the same. The edifice 
thus proposed was built in the course of a year or two. Dr. Hill 
came to the charge about 1785, and remained till 1838, off and on. 
This first church is now used as a school for colored children, and is 
on the ridge in the eastern section of Winchester, where at one time 
there were four churches all in a row. 

The original society, known as the Loudon Street Church, was 
organized by some thirty or forty members, who were dissenters from 
the body of the old Presbyterian Church in 1838, because they sym- 
pathized with wliat was known as the “ New School Movement ” in 
the United States. Under the pastoral charge of Dr. Hill they first 
occupied the stone house on the west side of Cameron Street, south of 
the run, once the property of Philip Bush, but at that time belonging 
to J. and A. Miller, who gave them the use of it free. The present 
building was erected in 1840. Soon after completion the pulpit was 
filled by Rev. Moses Hunter. The first synod of the Virginia “ New 
School” branch of the church was held in this church in 1841. The 
late Dr. H. H. Boyd was installed pastor in 1842, and remained till 
his death, in 1865. Rev. J. W. Lupton succeeded Dr. Boyd, but re- 
signed after one year’s pastoral charge. Rev. G. L. Leyburn took 
charge in the spring of 1867, and remained till he was appointed mis- 
sionary to Greece, dissolving his connection in 1875. Rev. H. M. 
White, the present pastor, took charge in June, 1875. 

The “ Old School” Presbyterian Church was built about 1838-39, 
after the division, and the pulpit has been filled by Rev. Dr. Riddell, 
Rev. Dr. William M. Atkinson and Rev. Dr. Graham, the present 

Methodist Episcopal Churches . — Methodism in the valley of Vir- 
ginia no doubt dates to a very early period, for the ministers of that 
denomination have always been noted as pioneers upon tlie frontiers, 
and where the ax could be heard felling the primeval forests, it was 
not long before the voice of one of those “bringers of glad tidings” 
accompanied the strokes of the woodsman. Before the Revolution, it 





is thought, itinerant preachers of the faith of Wesley had penetrated 
the settlements in the valley, and although there is no evidence that 
a church in that behalf was erected, yet the foundation was laid from 
which has arisen one of the most numerous and influential religious 
societies in Virginia. Their churches are noted for numbers and 
beauty and their ministers for eloquence and ability. 

The first Methodist Episcopal Church was, erected about 1791 on 
Cameron Street, between Water and Cork Streets, the lot being pur- 
chased from William Beatty in 1791, and deeded to James Holliday, 
John Steed, Samuel Colvert and Richard Holliday. In 1805 confer- 
ence was held here for the first time. There were no regular preach- 
ers stationed here till about 1827. In 1818 the building was sold to 
Peter Ham, by the trustees of the church, George Reed, Beatty Car- 
son, James Walls and George M. Fryer. The trustees then purchased 
the lot on which “Fairfax Hall,” the school of the Misses Billings, 
now stands, and erected thereon the second church. About 1851-52 
this property w r as sold and the fine brick church on the corner of Cam- 
eron and Cork Streets was built, the corner-stone being laid Septem- 
ber 12, 1853. From 1821- to 1827 the pulpit was mostly filled by Rev. 
George Reed, and has been successively filled since by Revs. Edward 
Smith, Henry Furlong, John L. Gibbons, John Miller, Job Guest, 
Norval Wilson, William Hamilton, John Smith, E. Dorsey, William 
B. Edwards, Norval Wilson (second time), Samuel Kepler, William 
Krebs, John S. Martin, William Hirst, Thomas Sewell, N. J. B. Mor- 
gan, S. V. Blake, B. F. Brooke, J. R. Wheeler, and since the division 
of the church after the late war, by Revs. Mr. Creever, W. F. Ward, 
Revs. Mr. Reed, W. T. L. Weech, Revs. Messrs. Gardner, Courtney, 
Ferguson, H. S, France, M. Bishop and the present pastor, Rev. Mr. 

The Braddock Street Methodist Episcopal Church South was 
erected under the supervision of Mr. William R. Denny, in 1858. It 
is connected with the Virginia Conference, and was in charge of Revs. 
George H. Ray, Peterson and August. The church was terribly abused 
by the United States soldiers during the Civil War, and particularly 
by those under Gen. Banks. The Cameron Street Chinch was used 
by the Methodists generally during the war, after the soldiers had 
made the Braddock Street Church unsuitable for occupancy, but at the 
close of the great struggle when the difficulty arose as to the owner- 
ship of the Methodist Churches in Virginia, and when the soldiers in 



pursuance of the decisions of. the courts took charge of the Cameron 
Street edifice, the original adherents of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South bought the Braddock Street building and worship 
there now. The ministers who have been stationed there since the 
war are: Be vs. Dr. B. B. S. Hough, I. B. Finley, D. D., J. E. Arm- 
strong, T. E. Carson, Samuel Bogers, D. D., James S. Gardner, II. II. 
Kennedy, J. W. Shoaf, W. P. Harrison, D. M. James, J. S. Martin, 
George Tyler and Thomas E. Carson. 

The Catholic Church . — The history, or rather the starting point 
of the Catholic Church in Frederick County is now not definitely 
known, but it is altogether probable that it antedates the period gen- 
erally set down — 1790 to 1794— as there were a number of Irish fam- 
ilies here at a very early date, and some of them very prominent. 
Although there may have been no church building or edifice set apart 
for public worship, yet the religious zeal for which the Catholic 
Church is noted, makes it almost certain that priests found their way 
to the splendid section of Virginia that was rapidly coming into notice, 
and celebrated mass at private residences. TTie first priest, as far as 
records show, who visited Winchester, was Father Dubois, who came 
from Pennsylvania, or Maryland. It is claimed by some that the first 
church was built in 1790 to 179J, and in support of this view there is 
a tombstone in the little cemetery on the hill, where once stood the 
church, which reads: “ 1794 Sacred to the memory of Maria 

Holker, daughter of John Holker, late Consul General of France and 
Agent of the Boyal Marine. Aged 10 years.” Tradition says that a 
wealthy Frenchman furnished nearly the entire funds for building the 
church and Monsieur Holker is doubtless the person indicated. 
Holker remained in America after he left the French consular service, 
and his daughter dying in Winchester, she may have been buried 
elsewhere, and after the building of the church and consecration of 
the graveyard, her remains v r ere re-interred where they now repose. 
This theory is supported by the fact that only the year of her death is 
on the slab. Maj. Edward McGuire, the ancestor of a family that is 
extensively known and honored throughout Virginia, who was a lead- 
ing citizen over one hundred years ago, gave the lot upon which the 
first church was built, but there is no record of the time of building. 
Mr. W. G. Bussell says the church was built in 1805, and as the old 
gentleman, who was then five years of age, has been found to be ex- 
tremely correct in his early dates on other matters, as the writer 




hereof lias verified by records, it is safe to assume that be is correct in 
this case. There may have been a separate burying ground for the 
Catholics, but no church till the last date named. In the little srrave- 
yard on the hill lie many of the pioneer Catholics, and among the 
number is Patrick Denver, who came to Winchester about 1795 from 
Ireland. He was the grandfather of Gen. Denver, governor of 
Kansas before its admission as a State, and from whom the city of 
Denver, Colo., is named. Patrick Denver died March 31, 1831. The 
names of the priests who officiated here from the building of the 
church till 1840 cannot now be ascertained, but they were doubtless 
identical with those at Harper’s Ferry, as the church at that place 
had a resident priest. Years would pass without the opportunity for 
the little band of the faithful partaking of the blessings of the mass. 
In 1844, however, Father O'Brien began visiting Winchester every 
three months. A few years later, when great impetus was given to 
improvements in the way of turnpike roads, which necessitated the 
employment of Irish Catholic laborers, the visits of the priest were in- 
creased to once a month, which was kept up till the outbreak of the 
Civil War. Father PJunket succeeded Father O’Brien, a very pop- 
ular gentleman among all classes, and he in turn was succeeded by 
Fathers Talty and Costello. During the war the church was turned 
into a stable by the soldiers of Banks and others and when the disas- 
trous struggle closed, naught but ruins marked the sacred spot where 
once the little edifice opened wide its doors to all. Rev. J. J. Kain 
became the first spiritual adviser, but without a church, so services 
were held in the parlor of one of the members, and afterward better 
accommodations were afforded. Father Kain worked unceasingly for 
the erection of a new church, and in 1870 the corner stone of one of 
the largest churches in the Valley was laid, and some time after, the 
building had progressed enough to permit the use of the basement for 
the services. It was a hard struggle to complete the church, and to 
make matters worse Father Kain was taken from them, he having 
been advanced to the Bishopric of Wheeling. Father Van De Vyver 
succeeded and the church was completed in 1878, and consecrated 
under the patronage of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Rev. J. Hagan 
became the first resident pastor in 1S7S, all those preceding him 
being missionaries from other sections. During Father Hagan’s 
pastorate, a neat residence was built adjoining the church, and a paro- 
chial school was established, which is in a flourishing condition. Rev. 



D. J. O'Connell succeeded Father Hagan, and after remaining one year 
was followed by Ilev. J. B. O’Reilly, under whose influence and untir- 
ing devotion the communicants have increased, till there is a congre- 
gation now of 300 souls. Father Reilly has purchased and laid out 
a most suitable site for a cemetery. All the property is paid for and 
the church, which is one of the handsomest in the v Yalley, is an honor 
to all connected with it. 

Untied Brethren in Christ Church . — Although this denomination 
had a number of church buildings in various parts of the Y alley, not 
until 1873 were they in sufficient numbers to establish one here in 
Winchester. But through the exertions of Rev. G. W. Howe the 
neat and comfortable building on Braddock Street was erected at the 
date given. The present pastor is Rev. J. B. Chamberlain. 

The Friends' 1 Meeting-House . — This denomination of Christians 
have a very neat and tasteful building on Washington and Piccadilly 
Streets. It was built since the war. They had a meeting-house, built 
many years before that time, as it is one of the oldest religious organi- 
zations in the Y alley, but the building was destroyed by soldiers. 

The Baptist Church dates back to a tolerable age, but its early 
history seems not to be known to even prominent members of that 
church, as an account of it could not be obtained after repeated en- 
deavors. They have no pastor at present. 

The Christian Church has no pastor at present, and the Church of 
God is in the same condition. Rev. Mr. Pirkey had been in charge 
of the former and Elder Morgan of the latter. The colored people 
have four congregations, two Methodist and two Baptist. 


There are several beautiful cemeteries adjoining Winchester. The 
Catholics have lately laid off a very beautiful site as a city for their 
dead, but Mount Hebron, for all denominations, is one of the loveliest 
spots of ground for the purposes to which it is dedicated, to be found 
anywhere. It is situated upon a commanding eminence just outside 
of the city limits, and contains thirty-five acres of land. In the main 
portion it is covered with beautiful trees, evergreens and creeping 
plants. Imposing monuments rise from beds of lovely flowers and 
many a moss- covered slab reveals a date that takes one back to the 
beginning of the century, and a few, even years before that time. The 
humble end well-nigh ruined slab that marks the resting place of Goil 





Daniel Morgan lies in tlie front of the grounds, and with the vacant 
space surrounding it seems to appeal to the patriotism of this genera- 
tion to rear some better testimonial to his unselfish patriotism in the 
war that gave us this grand constellation of States. Mount Hebron was 
first laid out in 1844, 

Sionewall Cemetery . — Within the enclosure that marks the bounds 
of Mount Hebron is situated the Confederate Stonewall Cemetery. The 
Confederate dead who fell in the many engagements in this portion 
of the Talley lie here, and a number of beautiful and costly monuments 
attest the love the living have for the departed heroes who laid down 
their lives in a cause they deemed pure and just. As an evidence of 
the promptness with which the ladies of the Talley hastened to erect a 
testimonial to the dead soldiers of their defeated and scattered army, 
this cemetery has the honor of being the first one finished in the 
United States, North or South. It was opened formally on October 
9, 1866. Ex-Gov. Henry A. Wise delivered one of the grandest ora- 
tions on that occasion that ever fell from the lips of man. A number 
of splendid monuments have been erected, those of Tirginia and Mary- 
land being particularly fine. But the crowning feature of this “ bivouac 
of the dead” is the magnificent marble monument erected exclusively 
by the ladies of the South. It is a shaft forty-eight feet high, surmounted 
by a Confederate soldier, and cost §10,000. Beneath it repose the 
remains of 829 unknown soldiers — unknown to a single soul on earth 
to-day — unknown to all save Him whose eye never overlooks the fall 
of a sparrow, much less these sleeping boys in gray whose pure young 
blood streamed out, mayhap, behind some lonely rock or tree, as he 
thought of a mother, father, sister, wife, who would await the coming 
of their hero, who never would return. On the base of the monumeut 
are the words: “ To the Unknown Dead” and this is the only “ monu- 
ment to the unknown dead” in all our land. On another portion of 
the base are the words: “Who they were none know; what they 

were all know.” A sentiment that no poet of any age ever excelled 
for depth, pathos and intrinsic meaning. 

United States National Military Cemetery . — For the following 
particulars the author is iudebted to Capt. W. A. Donaldson, super- 
intendent of the cemetery: 

Location — Distance from court house, east half a mile. Estab- 
lished and dedicated April 9, 1866. Area of ground, five acres: rect- 
angular in form, with main avenue running north and south; fiat, with 
depression from west to east. 






Names and dates of battles from the scenes of which the dead 
were removed to this cemetery: Kernstown, March 23, 1862; Union 
forces under Gen. Shields, Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson. 
Banks retreat. May 23, 1862. Miles’ surrender, September 1862, at 
Harper’s Ferry. Millroy’s fight, June, 1862. Martinsburg, July 25, 
1864. Winchester, September 19, 1864. Cedar Creek, October 19, 
1864, Union forces under Gen. Sheridan, Confederates under Gen. 
Early. Many were found buried where skirmishes had taken place in 
the vicinity of Winchester. At the entrance to the cemetery is the 
superintendent’s lodge, and none but disabled meritorious officers or 
privates of the United States army can hold the position as superin- 
tendent, under a law in relation thereto. In the center of the grounds 
is a large mound surmounted by a flag-staff sixty feet in height, to 
the top of which is hoisted at sunrise, and lowered at sunset, every day 
in the year, a United States flag. The cemetery is laid off in burial 
sections, there being forty-eight, some arranged by States, others con- 
taining two States. 

Interments — Known dead, 2,098; unknown dead, 2,382. 

Headstones — At known graves, 2,098; unknown, 2,382. 

Monuments — To Third Massachusetts Cavalry, cost Si, 000; to 
Sergt. Thompson, $25; to Eighth Vermont Infantry, §400; to H. M. 
Martin, §75; to Fourteenth New Hampshire, §200; to Thirty-eighth 
Massachusetts, §20. 

These two cemeteries, Confederate and Federal, lie side by side, 
and here repose the gallant dead of some of the bloodiest battles the 
wickedness of man ever devised. Who shall judge between these 
fallen heroes*? Who can deny that both were right? They every one 
of them had the manliness to face the storm of deadly shot and shell, 
to brave the hardships of the march and the camp, to leave home and 
loved ones, and here they lie, silent till that louder trump shall 
waken them to scenes where strife is never known, where all is peace 
and concord. The same blue sky canopies their last earthly resting 
place, the same bright sun makes glad the flowers that bloom on their 
grassy mounds, and' the same Eternal Eye of justice must look with 
pity equally upon these twin camps. 


Excellent schools have from the very establishment of Winchester, 
almost, been one of its main features and a source of much laudable 



pride. One hundred years ago, as shown in a previous chapter, two 
or three exceptionally fine classical schools were conducted here, and 
at no time since has there been wanting facilities for parents to edu- 
cate their children right at their own homes. In addition to the law 
school of Judge Tucker, way back in the 20s, there was in Win- 
chester, from 1855-56 until the Civil war began, a medical college 
that stood very high. There are now four excellent private schools, 
of a very high grade, all of them affording instruction that fits their 
pupils for the highest collegiate course, where that is necessary, but 
the course at either of the female schools is such that further advance- 
ment is not ordinarily required. The male academy was established 
in 1787, and has continued ever since, with the exception of the years 
during which the Civil war raged. Mr. Rhodes Massie, a graduate of 
the University of Virginia, is at the head of this institution. The 
grounds are large and there is a fine gymnasium attached. 

Fairfax Hall, established by the late Rev. Silas Billings, and now 
conducted by his daughters, is the oldest school for young ladies in 
Winchester, having been inaugurated in 1869. The ladies in charge 
were specially educated for the work they have in hand, and held im- 
portant educational positions before they entered upon their duties 
here. This seminary for young ladies is beautifully located on one of 
the finest streets of Winchester. Eight to ten teachers are employed 
and give thorough instruction in science, mathematics, languages, 
music, art and elocution. 

The Episcopal Female Institute was incorporated in 1874 under 
the administration of the Rev. J. C. Wheat, I). D. It is now under 
the management of A. Magill Smith, M. A., principal, who has brought 
this well-known institution up to a very high standard. Its alumni 
are to be found all over the country. The building is handsomely 
equipped with every comfort for pupils, including hot and cold baths, 
ample exercise grounds, and contains chemical and philosophical ap- 
paratus, a telescope of fine power, and a large library. Its course of 
instruction is broad and thorough, and nothing is left undone to insure 
an education that will fit its graduates for all honorable stations in life. 

The Valley Female College is a popular and flourishing institu- 
tion, located on the highest point within the city limits and for some 
distance around. It is situated on the exact spot selected by Wash- 
ington in 1756 for the building of Fort Loudon, and the southwestern 
bastion of that famous old fort still stands on the grounds of this insti- 

. . 



tute; in fact, a cistern is sunk into the bastion itself. The view from 
this spot is one of the most charming in the valley of the Shenandoah. 
To the east may be seen the “burly Blue Itidge,” and almost the 
“brawling Shenandoah,” and to the west rises the North Mountain, 
whilst at closer range loom up the earth-works erected during the late 
war, within and around which fought or fell many who have gone into 
history. Yonder Sheridan dashed along on his black charger, and 
there stood glorious Stonewall Jackson, calm, majestic, inscrutable as 
a sphynx. The location of this school is fine, but its course of instruc- 
tion, under the able management of Kev. Dr. J. P. Hyde, is all that 
can be desired. 

The Public Schools . — Until the close of the Civil war Virginia had 
no public school system. All schools were either the universities, the 
colleges, the academies, seminaries, institutes, and private, or “ select” 
schools, and here and there a school for the very poor, known as a 
“ charity ” school. These “charity” schools were sometimes kept 
up at the expense of the city or town where they were located, 
and sometimes established through the generosity of an indvidual, 
and none but extremely poor parents ever thought of sending their 
children to them, they being patronized mostly by orphans of very in- 
digent persons. Hence, there was a certain stigma attached to these 
lower schools, not alone from the contact with poor children, whose 
rude manners may have been entailed upon them by a drunken father 
or worthless mother, but from the innate Virginian idea of independ- 
ence: that sense of not being dependent upon their fellow-men for 
material support, especially in the matter of the education of their 
children. This feeling, the result of generations of experience in 
this regard, was ingrained and set ; so it can readily be imagined 
that when the “free school system” was mooted it was met with bitter 
opposition on the part of a large majority of the citizens of the com- 
monwealth. The idea of a “ free ” school seemed to imply the old 
“charity” school — highly repugnant and not to be thought of for an 
instant. Thus slowly do ideas grow, for to-day, and for years, the 
best people of the State have been and are upholders of the public 
schools. In accordance with an act of the General Assembly, passed 
a year or two after the war, Frederick County inaugurated the system 
without delay, and now, through the liberality of a respected citizen, 
Mr. John Kerr, Winchester has one of the finest school buildings in 
the State. Mr. Kerr donated $10,000 for the purpose of erecting the 





building, provided the city would furnish an equal amount, which it 
promptly did. It cost $20,000, is heated by steam, fitted with all 
modern improvements, and fully equipped for the work to which it is 

Five Companies . — The fire department of Winchester has always 
had a reputation that seemed to be above the average in towns of its 
•size. Very little damage has ever been done by fire since the three 
fire companies have been organized, which may be a coincidence, or it 
may be in consequence of the working qualities of the members. A 
few years ago considerable discussion was had, and no little feeling 
engendered, upon the subject of which was the oldest fire company in 
Winchester. Of course the “Sarah Zane” was out, there being no 
claim on this score by her. The “Friendship” claims to have been 
organized in January, 1831, and say that there is a tradition that the 
ladies, as far back as 1817, raised funds to uniform this company. 
The “ Union ” claims to be the first organized, putting their date 
down as 1833, and calling their engine No. 1! The “ Sarah Zane ” 
stepped in while the fight was going on, and although only organized 
in 1840, got in a steamer ahead of the balance and justly claims the 
honor of being “No. 1 steamer,” having gotten their engine March 
D, 1887. The others also have steamers. They all do effective work, 
are a fine set of fire laddies and an honor to old Winchester. But the 
boys did not go far enough back in their examination of the records, 
or they would have run against two companies of firemen in Win- 
chester over one hundred years ago, as has been shown by extracts 
from files of newspapers printed right here at that time and incor- 
porated in another chapter of this work. 

Improvements and Enterprises . — Frederick County has been 
blessed with many improvements running back through a long series 
of years. A branch of the Baltimore & Ohio system of railroads 
was chartered by the General Assembly of Virginia March 14, 1831, 
and soon after was put under construction. This is known as the 
Winchester & Potomac Railroad. The Valley Turnpike Company 
was chartered on March 3, 1834. A road from Washington running 
through Loudoun County was chartered and built to a point west of 
Leesburg, with its objective point the Ohio River, to run through 
Winchester, sliortlv before the late war. It has since been re-char- 
tered and named the Washington & Ohio Railroad, and will be put 
under construction some day. The Winchester & Strasburg Rail- 




road, an extension of the Winchester & Potomac branch of the Balti- 
more V Ohio, was chartered March 3, 1867, and shortly afterward 
completed. The extension of the Cumberland Yalley branch of the 
Pennsylvania system was finished to Winchester from Martinsburg in 
the summer of 1889. 

The Shenandoah Yalley Agricultural Association was organized 
March 13, 1869, with Col. Robert L. Baker, president, and James H. 
Burgess, secretary. The grounds are located just north of Win- 
chester. The following counties are represented: Frederick, Clarke, 
Warren, Shenandoah, Page and Loudoun, Ya., and Berkeley, Jeffer- 
son, Hampshire, Hardy and Morgan, AY. Ya. The present officers 
are: Col. IT. L. D. Lewis, of Clarke County, president, and E. Cl. 
Hollis, secretary. 

There are two banks in Winchester : Shenandoah Yalley National 
Bank, with a capital of $100,000, and doing a business of over half 
a million dollars; H. S. Slagle, president; John AY. Rice, cashier; H. 

D. Fuller, assistant cashier. The Union Bank, chartered 1870, capi- 
tal $50,000; paid up and doing $300,000 business; James B. Russell, 
president; M. H. G. AA r illis, cashier; L. N. Barton, teller. Also a 
loan and building association, with James B. Russell, president, and ‘ 
M. H. G. AYillis, secretary and treasurer. 

The Shenandoah Land and Improvement Company have their office 
in this city. Incorporated April 25, 1888; S. IT. Hansbrough, presi- 
dent; L. N. Barton, treasurer; J. Clifton AYheat, Jr., secretary. 

Societies . — The following fraternities, orders and societies are 
located in AVincliester. Each has its hall tastefully decorated and all 
are in a flourishing condition. The Masonic Temple is one of the 
most substantial buildings in the city. The lodge room is superbly 
frescoed in Masonic devices and emblems, and is considered one of 
the finest in the State. Hiram Lodge has had an unbroken existence 
since 1768, when it was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Philadelphia, 
and has preserved its records since that time. 

AVincliester Commandery K. T., No. 12, meets third Monday in 
every month, Charles AA r . Hensell, eminent commander; H. Clay 
Krebs, recorder. 

John Dove Royal Arch Chapter No. 21, meets second Friday in 
every month; Judge R. Parker, high priest; H. C. Krebs, secretary. 

Hiram Lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M., meets iu Masonic Temple 
second Tuesday in every month; Samuel B. Baker, master; Charles 

E. Hoover, secretary. 





Madison Lodge No. 6, I. O. 0. F., meets in Odd Fellows’ Hall 
every Monday; M. Forney, noble grand; 1L L. Gray, secretary. 

Shawnee Tribe No. 21, I. 0. It. M., meets in Redmen’s Hall every 
Tuesday; Hugh B. Striker, sachem; John 1. H. Baker, chief of 

Winchester Lodge No. 65, K. of P., meets every Thursday in 
Castle Hall ; E. M. Houston, C. C. ; William .Riely, K. of R. & S. 
Endowment Rank, Section 870, K. of P., meets once in three months; 
H. D. Fuller, president; Henry Schneider, secretary. 

I. O. G. T. meets every Friday in Red Men’s Hall; Hugh B. 
Striker, C. T. : Richard Koontz, secretary. 

W. C. T. U. meets every two weeks, on Thursday, in Odd Fellows’ 
Hall; Miss Lonie Kern, president; Mrs. M. H. Spotts, secretary. 

A. L. of H. No. 635, meets first and third Fridays of every month; 
John A. Rosenberger, commander; Richard L. Gray, secretary. 

Company A, Actual Survivors Stonewall Brigade, meets in Judge 
W. L. Clark’s law office, first Friday evening of each month; John H. 
W orting, captain; P. L. Kurtz, orderly sergeant. 

Mulligan Post No. 30, G. A. R. ; R. E. Houston, commander; 
Joseph Potts, secretary; meets in Red Men’s Hall, Friday before the 
fourth Sunday. 


Stephens City, formerly Newtown, and originally Stephensburgh, 
was erected a town by act of assembly, September, 1758. Following 
is the act: 

An act for erecting a town on the land of Lewis Stephens in the 
County of Frederick. 

I. WHEREAS, it hath been represented to this present general 
assembly that Lewis Stephens, being seized and possessed of nine 
hundred acres of land, near Opeccan, in the county of Frederick, hath 
surveyed and laid out forty acres, part thereof into lots of half an acre 
each, with proper streets for a town, and hath caused a plan thereof to 
be made, and numbered from one to eighty inclusive, and hath annexed 
to each of the said lots numbered 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, five acres of land, and to each of 
the'remaiuing sixty lots ten acres of land, part of the said nine hundred 
acres: All which lots, with the land annexed thereto, are purchased 
by different persons wffio are now settling and building thereon, and 
humbly desire that the same may be by act of assembly erected into 
a town, and that they may enjoy the like privileges as freeholders and 
inhabitants of other towns in this colony do enjoy. 






Be it therefore enacted , by the Lieutenant Governor , Council and 
Burgesses, of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted 
by the authority of the same, That the said nine hundred acres of land, 
so surveyed and laid off by the said Lewis Stephens, be, and the same 
is hereby erected and established a town, and shall be called by the 
name of Stephensburgh: And that the freeholders and inhabitants of 
the said town shall forever hereafter enjoy the same privileges as the 
freeholders and inhabitants of other towns erected by act of assembly, 
in this colony, do enjoy. 

Stephens City, as will be seen from the above, ranks next to Win- 
chester in age of establishment by law. Many years ago it was con- 
siderable of a manufacturing center, especially in wagons. It is located 
beautifully, and there seems to be every inducement for improvement. 
The Winchester & Strasburg Railroad passes not far from the town. 
It contains two very neat churches, Methodist and Lutheran. In 1789 
Lewis Stephens made a deed for half an acre of ground, on the west 
side of Main Street, to trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
upon which lot, not long afterward, a log church was erected. The 
present edifice was built about fifty years ago. In 1799 Lewis Steph- 
ens, Jr., made a deed to trustees for two half-acre lots at the old 
graveyard for church purposes. About twenty years ago the town was 
incorporated, since which time it has a municipal government. Mr. 
Thomas H. Miller is the present mayor. From the Winchester Centinel 
of July 30, 1788, over 102 years ago, is gleaned the fact that Steph- 
ensburgh had a first-class tavern. Mr. William Glascock advertises 
that he has just opened a commodious tavern at the “Sign of the Ship,’.’ 
where he is prepared to furnish the best the market affords, including 
a “large variety of good liquors.” He gives his prices as follows: 

Lodging 6d. ; Stabling Is. pr. night. 

Spirits 4d. pr. gill. 

Continental rum 3d. pr. gill. 

Wines from Is. 3d. to 8s. pr. pint. 

Toddy Is. pr. pint. 

Porter 2s. pr. bottle. 

Punch Is. 6d. pr. quart. 

Cattle kept in pasture Id. per night. 

In addition to several fine mercantile establishments there are here 
a large carriage and w^agon manufactory and an extensive creamery. 


Middletown, situated south of Stephens City, is quite a bustling 
little city, it being also incorporated, and has a mayor in the person 



of Dr. J. W. Larrick. It received its municipal privileges about 1878 
or 1880, and Mr. J. W. II liodes was the first mayor. In the year 1796 
Peter Senseney obtained a charter for the purpose of erecting a meet- 
ing-house and school and establishing a graveyard. There are two 
churches in the town. A small Methodist Church was built at an 
early day, which gave way to the present one in 1852. F. A. Strother 
is the present pastor. The Episcopal Church is a very neat edifice. 
It was established under the auspices of Strother Jones, the Hites and 
others. It has mainly depended on the ministers of Winchester. Rev. 
Mr. Bryant and Rev. Mr. Irish were each for a time settled among 
them. Several years ago Prof. G. W. Hoenschall established a private 
normal school, which he conducted about four years, at one time hav- 
ing about 100 pupils. He moved farther up the valley. In addition 
to a number of fine stores, Middletown has an extensive woolen-mill and 
a creamery. Here is located “The Middletown Immigration and 
Industrial Improvement Company,” Col. John M. Miller, president, 
and C. B. Guyer, secretary. 

Kernstown and Marlborough both claim to have had the first 
church in the valley, and they certainly had places of worship at a 
very early day. There are. two churches at Marlborough, Presby- 
terian and Baptist. The Presbyterian is the one claimed to have been 
the first, or rather one on the site of the present church. At Kerns- 
town the foundation walls of the old Presbvterian, or, as it is 
claimed by the Reformers, the Reformed Calvinist Church, are still 
to be seen near the little yellow school-house half a. mile from the 
village. In the graveyard are many ancient graves and tombstones, 
the oldest by far in the entire valley being one to the memory of 
the wife and two children of a Mr. Wilson, an Irishman, who is said to 
have been the school-master of that section. The rude slab is of the 
native limestone, rudely lettered, and now almost entirely illegible. It 
bears the date 1742. Brucetown, Gainesboro and a number of other 
‘i* villages and hamlets dot the county, some of which have stores, 
and churches. 

There are in Frederick County thirty-seven fiouring-mills, includ- 
ing the largest steam roller-process mills in the State, eight w’oolen- 
factories and mills, one steam elevator of large capacity, two iron 
foundries, four glove factories, one boot and shoe factory, one sumac 
and bark-mill, three creameries, two canning establishments, two pot- 
teries, ten broom factories, a bottling establishment, four tanneries, 



including one of the largest in the State, one extensive paper-mill, 
three newspapers and a book bindery, eight cigar factories, one nov- 
elty company, two cigar-box and paper-box factories, three marble- 
yards, two furniture factories, in addition to many other industries in 
various sections of the county. In April, 1889, electricity was intro- 
duced into Winchester, and the streets of that old colonial town, along 
which Col. George Washington rode and walked for several years, 
are now among the best lighted to be found anywhere. 



Act of Creation— The Organization— First Justices— Tiieir Duties 
Formulated— Sheriff, Clerk and Attorneys— Gabriel Jones and 
Alexander White— First Will— First Record of Crime— First 
Grand Jury— Inhuman sentences— The Whipping-Post— Rate of 
Taxation— A Judgment in Favor of G. Washington— Mystery of 
“Morgan’s Spring” Explained— County Seat— Building a Court 
House and Jail— Prison Bounds— Generals Horatio Gates and 
Charles Lee— A Niue Law Point— Indentured Slaves— First Case 
of Murder— The Revolutionary" Period— Easy' Transition— Exit 
Georgius Rex— The New Regime— “ Taking the Oatii”— Some Old 
Patriots — Swift- Winged .Justice— The Champion Excessive Bail 
Case— Taking Care of Soldiers’ Wives— Remarkable Will of Gen. 
Charles Lee— Popular Fallacies in Regard to That Erratic 
Soldier— His Real Character and Surroundings— IIis Death. 

U P to the creation of Berkeley County from the northern third of 
Frederick, the history of this section is identical with the mother 
county, and need not be repeated here. Increase in population and 
the necessity for a seat of justice a trip to which would not require 
two or three days, were the impelling motives on the part of the in- 
habitants of the lower portion of Frederick. Therefore, at the sug- 
gestion of Gen. Adam Stephen and others, followed by a petition to 
the General Assembly of the colony of Virginia, that body was in- 
duced to grant a three-fold separation of the extensive county of 
Frederick, stretching from the Potomac to the line of Augusta, nearly 
100 miles, and from the Blue Ilidge nearly to the Alleghany Mount- 
ains. The upper, or southeru third was named Diinmore, in honor 





of the colonial governor of that name, but which was changed to 
Shenandoah in 1777, in consequence of the public actions of his lord- 
ship. The middle third of course retained its original name, whilst 
the lower or northern third was named Berkeley, in honor, not of the 
infamous Lord Berkeley, the pliant tool of Charles II — the brutal 
Berkeley, who had Nathaniel Bacon assassinated, and who “ thanked 
God,” as has been recited in a former chapter of this w r ork, “ that no 
schools or printing existed in the colony of Virginia ” — but of Nor- 
borne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, the “ good governor of Virginia,” 
as he w : as called, under George III. He died at Williamsburg Octo- 
ber 15, 1770, two years prior to the erection of the county, and to 
whom a statue w r as erected by order of the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, which stands in the campus of William and Mary College at 
Williamsburg, Va. The act creating the new r county, passed in 
February, 1772, recites, that, 

“ WHEEEAS, Many inconveniences attend the inhabitants of the 
•county of Frederick, by reason of the great extent thereof, and the 
said inhabitants have petitioned this present General Assembly that 
the said county may be divided into three distinct counties, Be it 
therefore enacted , etc., That from and after the 15th day of May, next, 
the said county of Frederick shall be divided into three distinct 

The act proceeds to give the boundaries of the entire district, but 
the lines including and forming Berkeley County will be sufficiently 
understood by stating that what is now r Berkeley, Jefferson and Mor- 
gan Counties, w r as the district laid off as Berkeley. The usual direc- 
tions in regard to court days also accompanied the act. 

Pursuant to the above act, and having received commissions from 
the governor, Lord Dunmore, the gentlemen named in the commissions 
assembled on the 19th day of May, 1772, and the followdng is the first 
minute of the proceedings. 

“ Berkeley County , ss. 

“ Be it remembered that at the house of Edward Beeson, the 19tli 
day of May, 1772, a commission of the peace and a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, from his excellency, Lord Dunmore, dated the 
17th day of April, in the year aforesaid, directed to Ralph Wormley, 
Jacob Hite, Van Swearingen, Thomas Rutherford, Adam Stephen. 
John Neville, Thomas Sw earingen, Samuel Washington, James Nourse, 
William Little, Robert Stephen, John Briscoe, Hugh Lyle, James 

- } [ 




Strode, William Morgan, Robert Stogdon, James Seaton, Robert 
Carter Willis and Thomas Robinson, and also a dedimus for admin- 
istering the oath directed to the same persons, or any two of them, 
were produced and read:. .whereupon the said Yan Swearingen, hav- 
ing first taken the usual oath to his Majesty’s person and govern- 
ment, repeated and subscribed the test, taken the oaths of a justice 
of the peace, of a justice of the county court in chancery, and of a 
justice of Oyer and Terminer, which were administered to him by the 
said James Nourse and William Little, he, the said Yan Swearingen, 
then administered the same oaths unto Thomas Swearingen, Samuel 
Washington, James Nourse, William Morgan, William Little, James 
Strode, Bobert Stephen, Bobert Stogdon, Bobert Carter Willis and 
James Seaton, who severally took the same, and repeated and sub- 
scribed the test.” 

Previous to the opening of the court as recited, the governor, Lord 
Dunmore, had forwarded to the gentlemen named as justices, a com- 
mission enumerating their duties, etc., the original of which is still 
preserved in the clerk’s office at Martinsburg, with the bold signature 
“ Dunmore” appended thereto. The document reads: 

“ Virginia Set. John, Earl of Dunmore, his Majesty’s Lieu- 
tenant and Governor-General of the Colony and Dominion of Yirginia, 
and Yice- Admiral of the same, to Balph Wormley, Jacob Hite, Yan 
Swearingen, Thomas Rutherford, etc. (naming the other justices), 
greeting: Whereas, in pursuance to an act of assembly made at a 
General Assembly begun and holden at the capital in the city of Will- 
iamsburg, in the fifth year of his present Majesty’s reign, entitled 
‘an act for amending the act entitled an act directing the trial of 
slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing 
conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better govern- 
ment of negroes, mulattoes, and Indians, bond or free,’ the governor 
or commander-in-chief of this colony, for the time being, is desired and 
empowered to issue commissions of Oyer and Terminer, directed to the 
justices of each county, respectively, empowering them, from time to 
time, to try, condemn and execute, or otherwise punish or acquit all 
slaves committing capital crimes within their county: Know ye, there- 
fore, that I, the said John, Earl of Dunmore, by virtue of the powers 
and authorities to me given by the said act as commander-in-chief of 
this dominion, do assign and empower you, the said Ralph Wormley, 
Jacob Hite, etc., or any four or more of you, whereof any of you, the 

I 4 



said [named parties] shall be one, justices, in such manner, and by 
such ways and methods, as in the said acts of the General Assembly, 
are directed, prescribed and set down, to enquire of and hear and de- 
termine, all treasons, petit treasons, or misprisons thereof, felonies, 
murders or other offences, or capital crimes whatsoever, committed or 
perpetrated within the said county, by any slave or slaves whatsoever ; 
for the better performance whereof, you, or any four or more of you, 
as aforesaid, are hereby required and commanded to meet at the 
courthouse of the said county, when thereunto required by the 
sheriff of the said county, for the trial of any slave or slaves, com- 
mitting any of the offences above mentioned, and any such slave or 
slaves being found guilty in such manner, and upon such evidence as 
the said acts of the General Assembly do direct, to pass judgment as 
the law directs for the like crimes, and on such judgment to award 
execution, or otherwise to acquit, as of right ought to be done, or to 
carry into execution any judgment by you given on such trial. Given 
under my hand and the seal of the Colony, at Williamsburg the 17th 
day of April, 1772, in the twelfth year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lord, George the Third. Dunmore.” 

The justices being duly sworn and their authority exhibited the 
court was formally opened and proclaimed, and at once proceeded to 
business, the gentlemen named above being present. 

William Drew, having produced a commission from the honorable 
secretary of the colony, Thomas Nelson, Esq., appointing him clerk 
of the court, and the same being read and approved by the said court, 
the said William Drew having first taken the oaths to his Majesty’s 
person and government, took and subscribed the abjuration oath, and 
repeated and subscribed the test, was sworn clerk of the court. 

Adam Stephen, having produced a commission from Lord Dun- 
more as sheriff for Berkeley County, took the required oaths, gave 
bond and entered upon the duties of the office. Samuel Oldham was 
appointed deputy sheriff. 

xllexander White, having produced a commission from the attorney- 
general of the colony appointing him deputy king’s attorney for 
Berkeley County, took the required oaths, etc., and was sworn into the 
position named. 

Of course, there were attorneys on hand ready to help prospective 
clients out of difficulties. James Keith, John Magill, George Brent, 
George Johnston, Philip Pendleton and Alexander White applied for 




admission to practice as attorneys at the new bar just being estab- 
lished, and they severally taking all the oaths required were admitted 
to the privileges they sought And these six gentlemen were no ordi- 
nary men. All of them were afterward prominent in various ways. 
James Keith, who practiced his profession over nearly the entire com- 
monwealth of Virginia for a period of about sixty-four years, in addi- 
tion to being a lawyer of note, had the remarkable experience of be- 
ing clerk of the court of Frederick County for sixty-imo years and five 
months , as shown in that portion of this work covering Frederick 
County. He entered upon his duties as clerk in the spring of 1762, 
and held it till his death in the fall of 1824. John Magill, in addi- 
tion to being a lawyer of eminence, was the progenitor of a race of 
lawyers, five or six in number, who adorned their profession for over 
half a century. George Brent was one of the brilliant men of his 
time, and George Johnston was a compeer of the famous Gabriel 
JonCs, who applied for admission to practice as far back as 1743, and 
who had the good fortune to live partially through the Revolutionary 
period, he being one of the first to apply for admission to practice un- 
der the new regime, in 1776. The name of Pendleton has always 
been associated with those in the front ranks of the law, whilst Alex- 
ander White had no superior and but few equals in his profession. 
He was engaged by the Quakers, who had been sent to Winchester 
during the latter part of the war of the Revolution, from Philadel- 
phia, for giving aid and comfort to the English. He obtained the re- 
lease of the prisoners, but privately said that, although he never de- 
sired to lose any case that he undertook, yet he would have rejoiced 
to have seen the full penalty of the law enforced against those “ scoun- 
drely Tories.” White was also a delegate to the convention of Vir- 
ginia that ratified the Federal Constitution, and he voted to adopt it, 
having made some most powerful speeches in its favor. 

The first will to be probated was that of Dugall Campbell, and the 
first mortgage to find record was “an indenture of bargain and sale,” 
from John Lemmon to Jacob Vandiveer. The church wardens were 
ordered to bind out a boy by the name of O'Neal, an orphan, to Will- 
iam Die 1 ' .y. Edward Lucas produced a certificate from a constable 
vouching for the fact that said Lucas had exhibited ten hundred and 
one-quarter pounds of winter-rotted hemp, for which he was entitled 
to a bonus. 

Thomas Swearingen, gentleman, was ordered to take the list of 




lithablcs and wheel carriages included in the following districts: 
From the mouth of the Opequon up the same to the Warm Spring 
road; thence down the said road to Eobert Lemmon’s; thence to Poto- 
mac at Mecklenburg, and return the same to court. William Mor- 
gan, William Little, James Nourse, James Seaton, James Strode, 
Eobert Carter Yvhllis, Eobert Stephen, and Eobert Stogdon, were also 
ordered to take lists in their various districts. Thomas Turner, James 
Quigley, Thomas Flagg, Matthias Shaw, Stephen Boyles, Henry Bed- 
dinger, Morgan Hughs, Jr., Thomas Babb, Eobert Renneday and 
William Graham, were ordered to appear and be sworn in as con- 

The court, as indicated at the opening above, was held at the house 
of Edward Beeson, but there was as yet no jail for offenders, so the 
sheriff was ordered to “confine such persons as he may take into cus- 
tody at such plaee as may be most convenient for him, and that he 
bring in any charge that may accrue for the better securing the said 
persons, at the laying of the next county levy.” Eobert Worthington 
and David Shepherd were appointed coroners and sworn in, and Will- 
iam Jenkins was ordered to apply to the public printer of the colony 
for a sufficient number of law books for the use of the county. 

First record of crime appearing in the minute book of the jus- 
tices is as follows : 

“ At a court held in Berkeley County the 18tli day of August, 
1772, for the examination of Richard Lewis, committed upon the sus- 
picion of forging the hands of Samuel Strode and Jonah Simmons, 
present Thomas Swearingen, Eobert Stephen, Robert Carter Willis, 
William Little, and James Seaton, gentlemen, justices. 

“ The prisoner being sett to the Barr and being asked whether he 
was guilty of the offense wherewith he stood charged, or not guilty, 
declared that he was guilty, whereupon the prayer of the said Deft, to 
have some Punishment inflicted upon him immediately, It is ordered 
that the sheriff do take him to the Whipping-Post and give him 89 
Lashes well laid on upon the bare Back.” 

What the extent of the forgery was in this case doth not appear by 
the records, and one may, from the stand-point of our highly advanced 
ideas of justice and mercy in combination, be inclined to look upon 
the sentence as severe, seeing that the prisoner promptly acknowledged 
his guilt, but it must be remembered that forgery at that primitive 
day was an extremely heinous offense — a felony, in fact — and punish- 



able to the fullest extent of man’s devising, short of torture, and many 
a poor criminal had had his neck stretched for the crime named; 
therefore, the old justices were not such a heartless set as we some- 
times think they were: the times made the men and their ideas — they 
simply carried out the statutes as they knew them. The first whip- 
ping-post was probably an improvised affair: some convenient tree or 
fence-post, but the “ authorized edition,” erected later, stood in front 
of where the present court-house stands. 

At this court, August, 1772, the first license to keep an ordinary 
(a tavern) was granted to John Miller, one being also granted to 
George Hilleback. Thomas Shepherd also obtained permission to 
erect a mill on a stream of water running through the town of Meek- 
lenburg (Shepherdstown). A seal for the use of the county was or- 
dered to be procured. It was made of silver, aud fell into the hands 
of some thieving vandal during the late war, who carried it off and 
confiscated it, after a service of nearly 100 years. The seal of Fred- 
erick County, made 132 years ago, is still used. 

But here is an item recorded September 15, 1772, that is of interest 
in these centennial times: Col. Samuel Washington, a relative of the 
immortal George, and one of the justices, who the year before fl771) 
whilst serving as colonel of the militia of Frederick County had ap- 
pointed the “ old wagoner,” Daniel Morgan, a captain of militia, asked 
“permission to erect a water grist-mill on Bullskin Run, on the land 
he purchased of Philip Pendleton.” 

As a matter for preservation the following “first grand jury” is 
copied: John Smith, foreman; Hezekiah Swearingen, Josiali Swear- 
ingen, Joseph Barnes, Martin Antler, Joseph Turner, Abraham Smith, 
John Taylor, Samuel Taylor, Jonathan Simmons, George Cunning- 
ham, William McConnell, Jacob Beller, Andrew McCormick. Matt 
Duncan, John Sewell, Thomas Lafferty and George Creamer. No 
presentments were returned, which is quite commendable in the in- 
habitants of the new county. In those old colonial, kingly days 
offenders had to hide their deeds pretty securely, and when caught there 
was not much dilly-dallying with the culprit. In nearly all cases 
when an alleged criminal was brought before the justices they asked 
him a few questions, examined a witness or two, and then decided for 
themselves, immediately discharging the prisoner, or sending him off 
at once for punishment. But there was one practice that stands as an 
eternal disgrace, even for that age. It was so inhuman that it is a 



wonder that even the cold judicial hearts of those who awarded the pun- 
ishment in the cases referred to, did not rebel against the barbarity of it. 
It was in accordance with law, but still that law was flexible. It orig- 
inated in the midst of fanatical religious excitement in England, at 
a time when the law-makers thought they were doing the Almighty a 
favor by anticipating his after-death punishments. The burning of 
alleged witches was an outgrowth of this same fanaticism, and it 
would have been less improper by Cotton Mather and his descendants, 
but how the Cavaliers ever tolerated the relic of barbarism is strange 
indeed. Wliat is referred to is the whipping of females because they 
were wronged and bore the fruit of their sin. A delicate girl being 
arraigned before the justices charged with illegally bearing a child, 
would almost invariably be sentenced to be 41 taken to the common 
whipping-post and receive twenty-five lashes on her bare back well 
laid on.” Imagine the poor weeping girl, with her delicate back 
bared, tied with her arms clasping the post, shuddering and quivering 
beneath the cruel strokes of the ferocious executioner. And these 
things were done almost up to the declaration of Independence, 
scarcely more than 100 years ago. It is astonishing how slowly prog- 
ress progresses. 

November 17, 1772, the first county levy was laid, the amount 
being £591 3s. Od. ; the number of tithables were 2,252, and the rate 
5s. 3d. After paying off the entire indebtedness of the county and 
appropriating £450 (nearly §2,200) for the building of a court-house 
and jail, the sheriff had in his hands at the next levy nearly §75. But 
here is an item referring to that illustrious man, anv fact in regard to 
whom is now valued, be it ever so insignificant. 

4w Nov. 18, 1772, on the motion of Col. George Washington, judg- 
ment is granted him on a replevying bond against David Kennedy 
and James McCormick, legal notice having been given them.” 

This is the only mention of the 44 father of his country ” within the 
covers of the Berkeley records. Washington was the owner of several 
tracts of land in the eastern portion of Berkeley County, now Jeffer- 
son, and the suit indicated above was, possibly, instituted for the 
recovery of payment for the purchase of land. 

James Keith, the old clerk and lawyer, was appointed overseer of 
the road from his mill into the road leading to Sniggers’ Ferry. This 
adds another occupation to the busy old gentleman. November 20, 
John Nevill, in whose house the jail was kept, as will be shown further 




along, James Seaton and James Strode, gents, were appointed to lay 
off the prison bounds. The first case of counterfeiting was reported 
at this court: William Merchant and Barnaby Hagan were convicted 
of counterfeiting money of the coin of this colony, and sentenced to 
give bonds in the sum of £50 each for their good behavior. The fol- 
lowing entry found at the close of the proceedings of one of the ses- 
sions of the November term of the court has always puzzled those who 
have given the matter any thought: 

“ Adam Stephen, Esq., having produced a writ from the secretary’s 
office adjourning the court to Morgan’s Spring, on the lands of the 
said Stephen, in tliis county, which being read, ordered that the court 
do adjourn until to-morrow morning, nine o’clock, and then to meet at 
the place of adjournment, according to said writ.” 

Now where was the Morgan’s Spring alluded to? The first 
thought is of the famous spring on the place of Col. W. A. Morgan, 
near Sheplierdstown. Jefferson at that time being a portion of Berk- 
eley County, clearly that would seem to be the locality. But it was 
not, for several reasons: Adam Stephen never owned the land on which 
is located the spring named, as it happens that the Morgan plantation 
has never passed out of the possession of the descendants of Bichard 
Morgan, who obtained his grant from Gov. Gooch away back in 1730, 
or thereabouts. Another reason is that Stephen would not have 
schemed to take the county seat away from his town, Martinsburg, 
which, although not named nor established by law as yet, was ten or 
a dozen years old at that time, and contained a mill and a number of 
houses and taverns. Another family of Morgans lived up near Bunker 
Hill, but Adam Stephen would not have moved the court there; his 
land was all around and in Martinsburg, and he had every motive to 
keep the court-house here. The only conclusion that can be arrived 
at is that the spring which has been known as the Town, or Stephen’s 
Spring, by some now unexplainable process became known as Morgan’s 
Spring, which afterward fell into disuse. The only plausible theory 
in regard to the name is this: Morgan Morgan, the first justice named 
in the commission of the peace for Frederick County, was a very early 
settler in this section, he being put down as being here as early as 
. 1826 by one historian. Morgan owned many thousands of acres of 
land, and it is possible (although the writer has no data for the asser- 
tion save what is here given) that he may have originally owned the 
land upon which the “Morgan Spring,” alluded to, was located. 



Certain it is, however, that the county seat was never moved away 
from where it now is. It was moved from Beeson’s house which stood 
a short distance north of the city of Martinsburg into the town, and 
until the building of the court-house the court was held in a house 
belonging to Joseph Mitchell, and a building belonging to John Nev- 
ill was rented for a jail. These facts are established by the county 
levies, wherein it appears that ‘‘Joseph Mitchell was paid the sum of 
£7:10 for the use of his house as a court-house,” and “John Nevill 
w r as paid the sum of £5 for the use of his house as a jail.” 

"Where did Joseph Mitchell live? In confirmation of the suppo- 
sition that he lived in Martinsburg there is a minute on the records 
which states that Joseph Mitchell and three others were appointed to 
“view the ground for a road from Martinsburg to the Opeckon.” 
Also to “view ground for a road from Winchester by the Watkiirs 
Ferry road to run through Martinsburg.” The court was moved to 
the house of Isaac Taylor about 1774, as the next levy shows that he 
was paid £5 for the “use of his house to hold court in.” The court- 
house was not finished for several years after the last date given. 
Joseph Mitchell served in the Continental army as a captain, and is 
said to have joined Daniel Morgan at the' famous spring in the fall of 
1775. After his return he kept a tavern. 

The writer has thoroughly examined the records in regard to the 
“Morgan’s Spring allusion,” and has given the result thereof, from 
which there can be no doubt of the inference — that Martinsburg 
always has been the seat of justice for Berkeley. And in regard to 
that story of a serious contest between Adam Stephen and Jacob Hite, 
related by Kercheval, over the location of the county seat, which re- 
sulted in the death, indirectly, of Hite, there appears not one iota of 
evidence of a contest upon the records. The justices advertised for 
some one to build the court-house and jail, their proposition was 
accepted, and the buildings erected in Martinsburg as a matter of 

November 15, 1772, the justices ordered the sheriff to advertise 
the letting to the lowest bidder of the building of a public jail, to 
be thirty -six feet long and thirty feet wide, with three rooms on a 
floor, and the walls to be built of stone and lined with two-inch plank, 
a plan of which was to be exhibited in December. At the same time 
the letting of the building of a court-house of stone was to take place, 
a plan of which was also to be furnished. Adam Stephen appeared 



before the court and agreed to provide at his own expense all the plank 
and scantling for the building of: the court-house, and have the same 
ready at his mill when he, should be called upon, and that he would 
also donate an acre of ground upon which the proposed buildings 
should be placed. This generous proposition was made, it appears, 
with the provision that work should immediately commence by the 
county. Work did not begin, however, for the records state that 
Sheriff Stephen appeared before the justices on the 19tli of January 
following and canceled a portion of his proposed gift. He would give 
the stone and an acre of land, but not the lumber, which made a vast 
difference, when one considers with what prodigality nature has blessed 
this particular locality with fine building limestone, and as to an acre 
of land at that date, it was a mere bagatelle. Anybody could have an 
acre or more anywhere, almost, if he would put a building upon it. 

At this same session of the January court, the justices promul- 
gated the following order: “That Van Swearingen, Thomas Swear- 
ingen, James Nourse and James Strode, gents., or any two of them, do, 
on the 19th day of April next, let to the lowest bidder, the building 
the court-house and gaol for the county, agreeably to the plans which 
are now lodged in the clerk's office; and it is ordered that the said 
gents., if they think it necessary to make any little alteration in the 
said plans, at the letting the said building, that they are hereby em- 
powered so to do; and it is further ordered that the clerk of the court 
do advertise the letting the said court-house and gaol in the Virginia 
and Maryland Gazettes if he can conveniently do it.” 

The contract was duly advertised, but no bidder came forward, and 
in June the sheriff was again ordered to advertise the matter. Con- 
tractors seem to have been scarce, and not until August were the jus- 
tices able to get any one to undertake the job. William Brown agreed 
to accept the contract, with the proviso that he receive in advance half 
the stipulated sum to be paid therefor, which sum (£400) was handed 
to him on the 18th of August. The remaining £412 was to be paid 
him as the work advanced. An alteration in the original plan of the 
court-house was made, so that the seat of the justices and the back wall 
of that building should be circular in form, instead of square, as at 
first proposed. The building of the court-house moved along slowly, 
but by December of the next year, 1774, the jail was completed and 
turned over to the authorities. Robert Cockburn, the county surveyor, 
was ordered to lay' off ten acres as prison bounds to include the court- 




bouse and jail, and that a stone be set up at each of the four corners of 
the “ bounds,” to mark the same. Stocks and a pillory were erected 
about this time. In this connection it is appropriate to state that the 
thoughtful justices ordered that the price of liquors in Berkeley should 
be the same as in Frederick County. 

Work on the court-house must have progressed exceedingly slowly, 
or to have ceased entirely for several years, for as late as March IS, 
1778, the justices ordered a committee of their board to agree with 
workmen to finish the court-house, “in accordance with the plans of 
the original contractor, who had gone into the service of his country,” 
which slight entry on that old order book tells a tale highly honor- 
able to the old contractor, William Brown, who preferred helping his 
struggling countrymen on the field of battle to making money at 

In September James McAllister was ordered to procure window 
glass for the use of the court-house, and the “finishing the court- 
house ” was ordered to be let to the lowest bidder on the third Tues- 
day of March, 1779, £500 being appropriated for that purpose. The 
contract was advertised three times in the Virginia Gazette. By 17S0 
the building was completed at last and was used till the present one 
was built. 

January 15, 1773, Horatio Gates, afterward a noted general in the 
Revolutionary army, was appointed a justice in the new commission 
of the peace, among a number of others. Gates was also appointed 
to take the list of tithables and wheel-carriages from Opeckon, where 
the Warm Spring road crosses up the same to Jonathan Seaman’s, 
thence down the road to the county line at Vestall’s ford; thence to 
Potomac and up the same to Mecklenburg; thence up the road to 
Robert Lemmon’s; thence with the Warm Spring road to Opeckon. 
Later on an allusion is made to another historic character, one of the 
famous trio who came out of the Revolution in disgrace, and who 
lived in Berkeley County at the time indicated: In laying off roads and 
appointing overseers of the same, a road is specified as running 
“from the cross roads opposite Gen. Horatio Gates to the bridge, in- 
cluding the bridge at Gen. Charles Lee’s plantation.” These old 
extracts take one back to historic times, and bring fresh to the mind 
scenes that were not only fraught with moment to the struggling 
colonies, but painful to all concerned. 

A case involving a nice point of law came up before the court of jus- 





vices in 1773 : John Potts was arrested and arraigned for feloniously as- 
saulting Jude Macke il, and her evidence was alone and unsupported. 
Jude" was a Eoman Catholic, so Pott’s attorney sprang the point on her 
that before she could testify she must take the oath of “ allegiance, abju- 
ration and supremacy,” which was necessary on the part of all who sought 
anything at the hands of the supporters of King George. The oath in- 
dicated avowed entire adherence to the English sovereign, and rejected 
the Pope and all tilings papistical. The attorney knew she would not 
dare, in the face of her religion, take such an obligation, and the 
point was admirably taken, but the old justices with singular justice 
admitted her testimony without the £i test,” yet when they came to a 
verdict they pronounced Potts not guilty, evidently balancing matters, 
as it were, and reconciling their consciences for having permitted 
themselves in the cause of justice to swerve away from the land- 
marks established by their divinely appointed sovereign. 

Martinsburg was so known by name at this time, 1773, and long 
before that period, as is shown by various parties being made over- 
seers of roads in that town, although its establishment and regular 
christening did not occur till 1778. 

At March court, ** On the motion of Richard Stephenson, ordered 
that John Sevanick serve his master, Valentine Crawford, 196 days 
after his time of indenture has expired, agreeable to act of assembly, 
for absenting himself from his master’s service: and three years and 
a half and thirty-one days, or pay fifteen pounds, thirteen shillings 
and three pence, for expenses and apprehending him.” That tvas the 
pi a|i by which when a servant once became indentured, he was held 
frequent! v for the natural term of his life. The greater number of 
these indentured persons were brought from Ireland. They were too 
poor to pay their own passage money and sold a stipulated portion of 
their time to men who made a business of bringing them over. But 
woe to the poor man or woman who would fall into the hands of such 
tyrants as the Stephenson named above. In cases of that character 
the servant was as much a slave to his master as any negro ever was. 
There was no escape for him, for the law upheld the master. In 
many cases where these servants ran away the master was privileged 
to put an iron collar upon the unfortunate, to place fetters about their 
wrists, and to shave their heads and eyebrows, as has been shown in 
another portion of this work. There was a bonus offered to persons 
who would bring into the colony these servants, and an item of the 



proceedings of a session of the court held January 17, 1775, shows 
the fact. It reads: “ James Nourse made oath that lie had imported 

fourteen persons into this colony from Great Britain, and that he had 
not as yet received the land to which he was entitled for so doing.” 

The first case of murder after the creation of the county occurred 
in April, 1776, as on the 27th the prisoner was arraigned before 
the justices, who, after an examination, sent her on to Williamsburg 
for trial. The person charged was Mary Howard, and her alleged 
victim was her own infant. What became of the case is not stated. 

It may be a matter of interest to the reader to know the process by 
which the transition from monarcliial to republican allegiance was 
effected. The records show the transformation, but it is all so much a 
matter of course, and so easily done, that one would pass over it, were 
he not looking especially for the facts in relation thereto. The old 
justices and all the balance of the other officers stepped so impercep- 
tibly into the new harness and began to pull the other way so readily, 
that they appeared as if they had been accustomed to it all their lives. 
The entry in the order book is as follows: 

“An ordinance of the Honorable Convention of this Commonwealth 
of Virginia directing that the different members named in the former 
commission of the peace should continue to act in the said office, upon 
their taking the oath prescribed by the said ordinance, was read, 
W'hereupon Robert Carter Willis and John Cook administered the 
said oath to Samuel Washington, who took the same and then the said 
Samuel Washington administered the said oath to all the aforesaid 
members, who took the same as Justices of the Commonwealth.” 

The justices requested to serve were those appointed by Lord 
Dunmore in April, 1773, and were: Ralph Wormley, Adam Stephen, 

John Nevill, Samuel Washington, Robert Stephen, Robert Carter 
Willis, Robert Tabb, Horatio Gates, John Throckmorton, Thomas 
Lowry, John Cooke, John Aviss, Godwin Swift, William Patterson. 
Henry Whiting, Robert Worthington, Morgan Morgan and Wfilliam 

December 9, 1776, a new commission was granted, under the 
authority of the “Commonwealth of Virginia,” and the following 
gentlemen were named for Berkeley County: Adam Stephen, John 

Nevill, Samuel Washington, Robert Stephen, Robert Carter Willis, 
Horatio Gates, John Cooke, John Aviss, Godwin Swift, Wfilliam 
Patterson, Henry Whiting, Robert Worthington, Morgan Morgan, 




"William McGaw, James McAlister, Anthony Nobles, John Morrow, 
Robert. Throckmorton, John Gaunt, Walter Baker, George Grundy 
and George Cunningham. The duties of the justices were about the 
same as under English rule, but all allusions to “Our Sovereign 
Lord,’;’ etc., were conspicuously absent, as well as those clauses 
instructing the justices to “defend the name of the King” and his 
government, and to “punish all treasonable practices.” 

This important proceeding occurred August 20, 1776, and busi- 
ness went on as usual, there not being one solitary objector or fliiicher 
in the entire body, which is more than can be said of grand old 
Frederick County, where several of the justices declined to serve 
under the new regime, and Thomas Bryan Martin, after whom his 
friend, Adam Stephen, named Martinsburg, was one of them, too, who 
flatly refused to serve. But those who failed to come to time in those 
“trying days” were, possibly, under the influence of Lord Fairfax, 
who also refused, although he was chief justice of Frederick County. 

To return to Berkeley : William Drew stepped forward and was 
sworn in as clerk, under “ His Excellency Patrick Henry,” and 
Messrs. Alexander White, Philip Pendleton, John Magill, Henry 
Peyton and Dolphin Drew flung down the gauntlet to Georgius Rex 
by taking the oath of fealty to the commonw'ealtk of Virginia and 
having their names registered as attorneys. 

Samuel Washington v T as recommended to the governor as- a suita- 
ble person for sheriff, the incumbent at that time being engaged in 
the service of his country and stationed at Fort Pitt. The incumbent 
must have been Gen. Adam Stephen, although John Nevill had been 
filling the position of sheriff for some time; at least he is recorded as 
having been appointed in 1775, possibly only temporarily, after Gen. 
Stephen had departed for the seat of war. David Hunter was ap- 
pointed jailor. 

John Skelding w r as appointed deputy clerk of the court during the 
absence of William Drew', the clerk, and in this connection, as show- 
ing the current feeling and English intolerance of the time, the fol- 
lowing “test” is here printed. It is to be found at the back of one 
of the minute books and is signed by John Skelding, evidently placed 
there when he wras appointed deputy clerk. It w r as necessary for 
officers, when being sworn in, to repeat and “ subscribe ” this so- 
called “ test,” and a singular fact in connection with this particular 
case is that it was enforced after Virginia had cut loose from English 
domination. But here is the brilliant gem: 



“ I do declare that I believe that there is not any Transubstantia- 
tion in the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper or in the Elements of 
of Bread and Wine at or after the consecration thereof by any person 
whatsoever. John Skelding.” 

In a former chapter of this work a case of speedy vindication of 
the law is given in tire primitive times before 1800, but the appended 
example in this county rather throws into the shade any attempt in 
that line made in Frederick. The entire proceedings as recorded. 
November 20, 1776, are contained in one simple paragraph to the fol- 
lowing effect: 

“Proclamation being made for the trial of Nace, a negro man 
belonging to General Horatio Gates, committed to the gaol of 

O O 7 o 

this county, and for breaking open the cellar of the said General 
Gates, and feloniously taking from thence a chest of money and 
clothes; who, being brought to the bar, and it being demanded of him 
whether he was guilty of the offence wherewith he stands charged, or 
not guilty, he says he is guilty. It is therefore the judgment of the 
Court that he be remanded back to the gaol, from whence he came, 
and there to continue till the third Friday in December next, then 
from thence to be taken and hanged by the neck till he is dead. It 
is the opinion of the court that the said slave is worth seventy 

This was the first execution in Martinsburg, and it will be noticed 
that the law was not only vindicated but the owner lost nothing by 
the death of his slave. 

April 3, 1777, Col. Samuel Washington, in consequence of his 
health, which rendered him unfit for public business, requested leave 
to resign his commission as county lieutenant, which was granted 
and Yan Swearingen was appointed in his place. Philip Pendleton 
was appointed in the place of Yan Swearingen who was colonel of 
militia, and llobert Carter Willis in the place of Pendleton, who was 
lieutenant-colonel of militia. Col. Washington did not long remain 
inactive, for in two weeks’ time from the date given, he entered the 
Continental army and was a gallant officer to the close of the great 

Berkeley was not behind in taking care of the wives and widows of 
the gallant soldiers who left their happy homes and comfortable fire- 
sides, and risked their lives and health in northern snows and south- 
ern marshes. She contributed liberally, not only in men and the 




munitions of war, but gave sums of money to numbers of families 
that had been left helpless by the departure of a husband, father, son, 
or brother. Rachel Stewart, wife of William Stewart was allowed $15 
for her present support; sums were given to the family of John 
Mitchell; the wife of John McDonald; wife of John Swan; wife of 
William Mathenger ; wife of Joseph Bowers, and a number of others. 
And the old patriots were going to be sure that no Tories were around, 
for they appointed Mr. William Pattison to administer the oath of 
fidelity to any and everybody, and particularly to those whom they 
suspected of being tainted with “ disloyalty.” Mr. John Morrow was 
also appointed to perform the pleasant task of oath-administering. 
As previously stated, under circumstances quite similar in Frederick, 
that little trick of 64 making ’em take the oath ” duplicated itself in a 
very “ modern instance,” and it is possible the reminder may bring 
to the faces of not a few of the elderly and middle-aged citizens of 
Berkeley something akin to a smile, as their memories run back to 
provost marshals and other high and low dignitaries of the era of 

The Revolution was now at its great turning point, 1778, although 
the end was far off as yet. Very few of the able-bodied men remained 
at home during those wild and uncertain times; and although the 
contest waged hundreds of miles away, yet the Valley continued to- 
contribute its more than quota, when compared with the denser popu- 
lated districts nearer the seaboard. It had furnished at least five of 
the great leaders, and no matter what apparent disgrace has attached 
to the names of two or three of them, through circumstances that 
may have had palliating conditions, yet they were undoubtedly patri- 
otic and did voluntarily what they could have evaded had they chosen 
so to do, and in regard to one of whom, at least, the writer may have 
something to say further along. 

Among the many cases tried before the justices the following, be- 
yond a doubt, stands without a parallel, in one feature, at least, as it 
certainly is the champion “excessive bail” case on record. It hap- 
pened March 17, 1778. James McGonigall, a son of Erin, was ar- 
raigned before the court charged with creating a riot in Martinsburg, 
and after listening to witnesses the prisoner was remanded to jail in 
default of furnishing bail — the amount of which was set at £10,000, 
nearly §50,000, which at that day was equal in purchasing power to 
over §100,000! There is no mistake in the figures, for it is repeated two 



or three times. Just what kind of a riot Mr. McGonigall created by 
himself (no one else being charged with the offense appearing by the 
records) is difficult to determine, but it must have been terribly flag- 
rant, or the justices were very predjudiced. Yet, a glance at the date 
may partially explain the matter, for be it remembered that the 17th 
of March is St. Patrick’s Day. Possibly Jimmy was celebrating the 
natal day of his patron saint and took aboard too much of the “cray- 
tlmr” and got into a “bit of a discushion” .with a gentleman also 
loaded to the muzzle. But he was not permitted to languish long 
behind the bars, for such prominent endorsers as Michael McKewen, 
William Patterson and James Mill in came to his aid and had him 

Among the old documents preserved in the clerk’s office of Berke- 
ley County is the following will of Maj-Gen. Charles Lee, one of the 
most eccentric as w r ell as highly educated officers of the Devolution. He 
was an Englishman and in no way connected with the other Lees of 
Devolution ary fame. He left no descendants. The document is re- 
produced here entire, and gives a clearer insight into the man’s char- 
acter than comments can convey. 

“I, Major General Charles Lee of the county of Berkeley in the 
Commonw'ealth of Virginia, being in perfect health and of a sound 
mind, considering the certainty of death and the uncertainty of the 
time it may happen, have determined to make this my last Will and 
Testament in manner following. That is to say I give and bequeath to 
Alexander White, Esquire, one hundred Guineas in consideration of the 
zeal and integrity he has displayed in the Administration of my 
affairs, Also the choice of any tw r o of my Colts or Eillies under four 
years of age. Item, I give and bequeath to Charles Minn Thruston 
Esquire Fifty Guineas in consideration of his good qualities, and the 
friendship he has manifested for me, and to Buckner Thruston, his 
son, I leave all my books, as I know he will make a good use of them. 
To my good Friend John Mercer Esquire of Marlbrough in Virginia 
I give and bequeath the choice of Two Brood Mares, of all my Swords 
and Pistols, and Ten Guineas to buy a Ding. I would give him more 
but as he lias a good estate and a better genius he has sufficient if he 
knows how to make a good use of them. I give and bequeath to my 
former Aid de Camp Otway Bird Esquire the choice of another brood 
mare, and Ten guineas f or the same purpose of a remembrance Ding. 
I give and bequeath to my worthy Friend Colonel William Grayson 




of Dumfries the second choice of two colts and to my excellent Friend 
William Steptoe of Virginia I would leave a great deal, but as he is 
now so rich, it would be no less than robbing my other friends who 
are poor. I therefore intreat he will only accept of five Guineas, 
which I bequeath to him to purchase a Ring of affection. I bequeath 
to my old and faithful servant, or rather humble Friend Giusippi 
Minghini, three hundred Guineas with all my Horses, Mares and Colts 
of every Kind, those above mentioned excepted, likewise all my wear- 
ing apparel and plate, my Wagons and Tools of Agriculture, and his 
choice of four milch Cows. I bequeath to Elizabeth Dun my House- 
keeper one Hundred Guineas and my whole stock of Cattle (the four 
milch cows above mentioned only excepted) I had almost forgot my 
dear friends (and I ought to be ashamed of it) Mrs. Shippen, her son 
Thomas Shippen and Thomas Lee Esquire of Belle View. I beg 
they will accept Ten Guineas each to buy Rings of affection. 

“ My Landed Estate in Berkeley I desire may be divided in three 
equal parts according to Quality and Quantity. One third part I 
devise to my dear Friend Jacob Morris of Philadelphia. One other 
third part to Evan Edwards both my former Aid de Camps and to their 
Heirs and Assigns. The other third part I devise to Eleazer Oswald 
at present of Philadelphia and William Goddart of Baltimore (to 
whom I am under obligations) and to their Heirs and Assigns, to be 
equally divided between them. But these Divisions are not to enter 
until they have paid off the several Legacies above mentioned with 
interest from the time of my death, and all taxes which may be due 
on my Estate. In case I should sell my Landed Estate I bequeath the 
price thereof (after paying the above Legacies) to the said Jacob 
Morris, Evan Edwards, Eleazer Oswald and William Goddart in the 
proportions above mentioned. All my Slaves of which I may be pos- 
sessed at the time of my decease I bequeath to Giusippi Minghini and 
Elizabeth Dun to be equally divided between them. All my other 
property of every kind, and in every part of the world (after my Debts 
Funeral charges and necessary expenses of Administration are paid) 
I give devise and bequeath to my sister Sidney Lee her Heirs and 
Assigns forever. 

“ I desire most earnestly that I may not be buried in any Church or 
Churchyard, or within a mile of any Presbyterian or Anabaptist Meet- 
ing house, for since I have lesided in this country I have kept so 
much bad company when living, that I do not ohuse to continue it 

i s 






when dead. I recommend my soul to the Creator of all Worlds and 
all Creatures, who must from his Visible Attributes be indifferent to 
their modes of Worship or Creeds, whether Christians, Mahometans or 
Jews, whether instilled by education or taken up by reflection, whether 
more or less absurd, as a weak mortal can no more be answerable for 
his persuasions, notions or even scepticism in Religion than for the 
colour of his skin. And I do appoint the above mentioned Alexander 
White and Charles Minn Thruston Executors of this my Last Will and 
Testament, and do revoke all former and other wills by me heretofore 

“In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 

day of , in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven 

Hundred and Eighty-Two. Charles Lee. 

“Signed, sealed, published and delivered by the said Major Gen- 
eral Charles Lee, as and for his last will and testament in presence 
of “ James Smith. 

“ Saml. Swearingen. 

“ William Garrard.” 

The character of Gen. Charles Lee was a singular admixture of 
great talents, educational advantages, ambition, bravery, and more 
than ordinary military skill, combined with such lack of principle in 
the attainment of his ends that it overshadowed and blotted out the 
good that was in him. He is said to have been born in Wales, but 
was educated in England and was an Englishman to all intents and 
purposes. He entered the military service at a very early age, and 
was with Braddock in his disastrous campaign wherein that general 
lost his life. At Ticonderoga Lee was a captain of grenadiers, 
and afterward, as a colonel, he was with Burgoyne in the Spanish 
wars. Leaving the British service in consequence of some real or 
fancied grievance, he became a soldier of fortune, and fought in Ger- 
many, Poland and Italy. In the latter country he fought a duel with 
an Italian officer, and killing him, he had to fly. Coming to America 
about 1773, he shortly afterward purchased the estate referred to in 
his will, in Berkeley County, now in Jefferson, the little hamlet of 
Leetown being called after him. 

When matters began assuming a belligerent attitude in the colonies, 
Gen. Lee warmly espoused the American cause, and urged immediate 
armed resistance. The Continental Congress appointed him second of 
the five major-generals under Washington, much to the disappoint- 





raent of Lee, who desired to be commander-in-chief. The jealousy of 
Lee continuing, his military career was cut short after the battle of 
Monmouth, where he behaved so that Washington ordered him to 
the rear; a court-martial followed, which found him “guilty of dis- 
obedience, misbehavior before the enemy, and disrespect to the com- 
mander-in-chief,” and was suspended from all command for twelve 
months. This punishment not quelling him, and he continuing to 
abuse Washington and criticise the court-martial that 'condemned him, 
in addition to an impertinent letter, Congress finally dismissed him 
from service. 

Retiring to his estate in Berkeley County he lived the life of a half 
recluse, although he had the companionship of two other worthies, of 
whom mention will be made hereafter. The house of Gen. Lee "was a 
one-storied affair, bat evidently comfortable for the period, and not at 
all in accordance with the descriptions given by the historians from 
Bancroft down, who try to make it appear that Lee lived in a hovel 
with his dogs, etc. His will gives the contradiction to those asser- 
tions, for a man who has a housekeeper and a valet, or personal serv- 
ant, and slaves, in addition to numbers of horses, fillies and milch 
cows, can hardly be considered as living in a “ hovel,” in comparative 
destitution with his canines. It is true he had many dogs, for lie was 
fond of hunting, and it is said that he freely distributed his game 
among his poorer neighbors and his slaves. The Giusippi Minghini, 
spoken of in the will, remained in this county, and has descendants 
by the same name now living here, one in Martinsburg. In 1814 an 
advertisement appears in the Martinsburg Gazette signed Joseph Min- 
ghini, offering for sale a quantity of personal property at “ Sulphur 
Spring, on the Opeekon.” This Giusippi Minghini came from Italy 
with Gen. Lee, as his valet, -when he fled from that country after the 
duel with the officer whom he killed. As will be seen by the date, 
the will of Lee was made in 1782, probably in the spring, as he went 
to the East in the early part of the summer, visiting the seaboard cit- 
ies. In Philadelphia at one of the public houses he was taken sick 
and died October 2 of the year last named, 1782. His dying words, 
true to the character of this gallant though misguided and over-am- 
bitious soldier, were: “Stand by me, my brave grenadiers.” 

f »d 





Martinsburg Before 1772— The Act Establishing the Town— Made the 
County Seat— Naming the Stripling— 1 Thomas Bryan Martin— Gen. 
Adam Stephen— Sketch of the Career of that Gallant and Skill- 
ful Though Unfortunate Soldier— xY Candidate Against Washing- 
ton— Theories— An Election in 1789— An Ancient Poll List— A 
Candidate’s Card— A Boom in Martinsburg— Mr. Butler’s Tavern 
—Fine Liquors— Gen. Daniel Morgan and Congressman Ruther- 
ford— General ys. Statesman— Rutherford’s Little Joke— Berk- 
eley in the Revolution— Gen. William Darke— Gen. Horatio 
Gates— “With Braddock”— Morgan Morgan— Four Noted Minis- 
ters— Tiie Bedingers— Col. Crawford and Gen. Jessup— Felix 
Grundy, Nathaniel Willis and John R. Cook — Sketch of the 
Career of Hon. Charles James Faulkner. 

ABTINSBURG, tlie now beautiful and thriving little city, was 

laid out, or at least had considerable of a nucleus many years 
before the Revolution, and was at first called Martinstown or Martins- 
ville. The proprietor, Adam Stephen, proposed naming it after him- 
self, but as there was already a Stephensburg farther up the valley, 
that name had to be abandoned. He consequently named the town 
in honor of his friend, Col. Thomas Bryan Martin, one of the justices 
of the peace of Frederick County, and a relative of Lord Fairfax. 
Martin was a justice of the peace when the Revolution broke out, 
and was reappointed upon the new commission by Gov. Patrick 
Henry under the new regime, but he refused to serve, evidently think- 
ing that a set of half-civilized and poorly armed inhabitants of a wild 
country would not give more than pastime to England’s powerful ar- 
mies and fleets, and it must, indeed, have appeared so to many. Col. 
Martin, however, must have been a man of prominence, for he ran for 
the House of Burgesses in 1758, at the same time that Washington, 
Thomas Swearingen and Hugh West ran, and, with the immortal 
George was elected, the vote being: Washington, 310; Martin, 240; 
Hugh West, 199; Swearingen, 45. The first two were elected. 

At the creation of the county in 1772 the town possibly had 
twenty or thirty houses in it, most of which were situated along the 




Tuscarora and about the “ spring.” Stephen had in operation a mill 
and there were two or three, at least, ordinaries, or taverns, and two 
stores, a blacksmith shop and a shoemaker. This was five or six 
years before the town was established by act of the General Assembly. 
Martinsburg, after Winchester and Shepherdstown. and possibly 
Charlestown was the most important settlement in the lower valley. 
It was on the great road from up the valley to the Warm Springs, 
now Berkeley Springs, a locality spoken of as early as 1760, or before. 
The Indians had used those springs long before the whites discovered 
them, and it is possible) that even the ancient Mound Builders laved 
their bodies in them. 

During the height of the Revolutionary struggle Adam Stephen 
applied to the General Assembly of the commonwealth to have his 
town established by enactment, which was accordingly granted in 
October, 1778. Following is the act of assemblv: 

An act for establishing the town of Martinsburg , in the County of 

Berkeley , and for other purposes . 

WHEREAS, It hath been represented to this present General 
Assembly, that Adam Stephen, Esq., hath lately laid off one hundred 
and thirty acres of land in the County of Berkeley, where the Court 
House of said county now stands, in lots and streets for a town, and 
hath made sale of several of the said lots to divers persons, some of 
whom have since settled and built thereon, and whereas it would tend 
to the more speedy improvement and settling the same if the free- 
holders and inhabitants thereof should be entitled to the like privileges 
enjoyed by the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns in this State: 

Be it therefore enacted by this present General Assembly , That 
the said one hundred and thirty acres of land laid out in lots and 
streets, agreeable to a plan and survey, relation thereunto being had, 
may more fully appear, be, and the same is hereby vested in James 
McAllister, Anthony Noble, Joseph Mitchell, James Strode, Robert 
Carter Willis, William Patterson, and Philip Pendleton, gentlemen, 
trustees, and shall be established a town by the name of Martinsburg. 

And be it further enacted , That the said trustees, or any four of 
them, shall proceed to sell such of the said lots as have not been 
already sold by the said Adam Stephen, at public auction, for the best 
price that can be had, the time and place of sale being previously ad- 
vertised in the Virginia Gazette , the purchasers respectively to hold 
the said lots subject to the condition of building on each a dwelling- 
house at least twenty feet long and sixteen feet wide, with a brick or 
stone chimney, to be finished within two years from the day of sale; 
and the said trustees, or any four of them, shall, and they are hereby 
empowered to convey the said lots to the purchasers thereof in fee 





simple, subject to tlie condition aforesaid, and pay the money arising 
from such sale to the said Adam Stephen, his executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns. 

And be it further enacted , That the said trustees, or the major part 
of them, shall have power from time to time to settle and determine 
all disputes concerning the bounds of said lots, and to settle such 
rules and orders for the regular and orderly building of houses thereon 
as to them shall seem best and most convenient. And in case of the 
death, removal out of the country, or other legal disability of any 
of the said trustees, it shall and may be lawful for the freeholders of 
the said town to elect and choose so many other persons in the room of 
those dead, removed or disabled, as shall make the number; which 
trustees so chosen shall be to all intents and purposes individually 
vested with the same power and authority as any one in this act 
particularly mentioned. 

And be it further enacted, That the purchasers of the lots in the said 
town, so soon as they shall have built upon and saved the same accord- 
ing to the condition of their respective deeds of conveyance, shall be 
entitled to and have and enjoy all the rights, privileges and immuni- 
ties, which the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns in this 
State, not incorporated by charter, have, hold and enjoy. 

And be it further enacted , That if the purchaser of any lot sold 
either by the said Adam Stephen, or the said trustees, shall fail to 
build thereon within the time before limited, the said trustees, or the 
major part of them, may thereupon enter into such lot, and may either 
sell the same again, and apply the money toward repairing the streets, 
or in any other way for the benefit of the said' town, or they may appro- 
priate the said lot, or part of it, to any public use for the benefit of the 
inhabitants of the said town. 

And be it further enacted l, That the said trustees shall cause the 
survey and plot of the said town to be recorded in the court of the 
said county of Berkeley. 

And for preventing hogs going at large in the said town of Mar- 
tinsburg, be it enacted. That if any swine belonging to the inhabitants 
of the said town shall be found running or going at large within the 
limits thereof, it shall and may be lawful for any person whatever to 
kill or destroy every such swine so running at large. 

Provided always , That such person shall not convert any such 
swine to his or her use, but shall leave the same where it shall be so 
killed, and give immediate notice to the owner thereof, if known, if 
not, then such person shall immediately inform the next justice of the 
peace thereof, who may order the game to the use of any poor person 
he shall think fit. 

Provided also. That nothing herein contained shall be deemed or 
taken to hinder any person or persons from driving any swine to or 
through the said town or limits thereof in order to sell the same, or in 
their removal from one plantation to another. 



And be it f urther enacted , by the authority aforesaid , That the 
trustees for the said town, and their successors for the time being, 
shall, and they are hereby authorized and empowered by that name, 
to sue and implead either in the court of said county, or the general 
court, any person or persons who shall commit a trespass on the streets 
of the said town or lands which may have been appropriated for the 
use of the inhabitants thereof. All sums of money to be recovered by 
virtue hereof shall be applied by the said trustees toward repairing the 
streets of the said town. 

The reason why Adam Stephen, who was and had been a soldier 
nearly all his life, chose such turbulent times for the establishment of 
his town instead of being at the front with his compatriots, will ap- 
pear further along. 

When quite a young man Adam Stephen came to the portion of 
Frederick County now known as Berkeley, but where he came from is 
not now known. It is altogether probable that he came in with the 
Scotch-Irish emigrants from the Cumberland Valley, as the name 
of Stephen and Stephens, two entirely different families, appear at a 
very early date. Those having the letter s as the terminal letter of 
their name all went above Winchester, whilst those without the s re- 
mained nearer the Potomac, or Cohongorooton, as it was originally 
called, and until Lord Fairfax made his immense steal. In early life 
Adam was frequently engaged in Indian fighting, and was with the 
provincials under Washington at Great Meadows, Fort Necessity and 
at Braddock’s defeat. He continued in the Colonial service until 
1768, when he returned to his estate in Berkeley County, but not then 
called Berkeley. He had rendered great service in keeping back 
many Indian incursions and in punishing the savages. He was a 
major as early as 1754, and at the termination of hostilities against 
the French and Indians he was a major-general of the colony. 

In 1761 Gen. Stephen was a candidate for the House of Burgesses, 
the poll-list of which election, as has heretofore been stated, the 
writer has had in his possession. At this election, which occurred on 
May 18, 1761, the candidates were three, two only being elected. 
G. Washington was one, and received 505 votes; George Mercer, a 
colonial captain and one of the leading justices of Frederick County, 
was another, and received 394 votes ; Maj. Adam Stephen was the 
other, and received 294 votes, being defeated. Wliat the politics of 
the time was in Frederick County is unknown, but there were doubt- 
less differences of opinion. It was too early for the colonists to differ 






much iii regard to England’s treatment of her Western subjects. 
Whether or not this defeat of Stephen had anything to do afterward 
with his relations to Washington is impossible to divine now, but 
human nature is about the same in all ages, and politicians had their 
schemes and wires to work as well in the days of 1761 as in 1861. 

Turning his attention to civil affairs he inaugurated the move- 
ment for the creation of a new county out of the lower third of Fred- 
erick, which was accomplished as has been shown, he being one of 
the justices named in the first commission of the peace, and the 
first sheriff. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war he 
was commissioned colonel of one of the Virginia regiments. In 
1776 he was transferred to the Continental line and received the 
appointment of brigadier-general from Congress, and in February, 
1777, he was promoted to the rank of major-general. He did 
service everywhere. He was at Trenton, Princeton and Brandy- 
wine, gaining praise from his commander-in-chief, but at Ger- 
mantown Washington was defeated, and Gen. Stephen, who was 
in command of a division, was charged with being intoxicated, 
whereupon he was court-martialed and dismissed from the army. 
It seems to have been a summary affair, and although the charge may 
have been entirely true, yet there is no evidence that his conduct con- 
tributed in the slightest degree to the defeat of the forces engaged. 
Not a single writer upon the subject lias ever intimated that the in- 
toxication of Gen. Stephen was anything more than a breach of army 
regulations. The sentence at this late day is looked upon as having 
been extremely harsh, in consideration of the well known soldierly 
qualities of the unfortunate general, and the services he had rendered. 
Although there seems to be no evidence that anything besides “be- 
ing drunk ” was the actuating cause of his discharge, yet it is possi- 
ble there may have been something else in connection with the affair. 
It is hardly possible to think of Washington as other than a just man. 
He certainly was a patriot who would dislike to lose the services of a 
good officer, and he had known Gen. Stephen for nearly twenty-five 
years. It is more just to the Father of his Country, more in accord- 
ance with the character of that great man, to suppose that he may 
have hidden something in the conduct of Gen. Stephen at the battle of 
Germantown and covered it up by a simple dismissal on the charge of 
drunkenness, than to suppose that Washington sought a pretext for the 
displacement of his subordinate for the purpose of advancing a friend. 



That was not in consonance with the character of the immortal patriot 
ot the Revolution. That Stephen himself thought the sentence just, 
or at least not extraordinarily harsh, is borne out by the fact that he 
neither made an appeal, nor spoke of it in any other way than as a 
matter of course. 

In 1788 Gen. Stephen and Gen. Darke, who also resided in Berk- 
eley County, were elected to the convention called to take action upon 
the Federal constitution, and to his honor be it said, he voted for it, 
having warmly advocated its adoption before and during the conven- 
tion. He died in Martinsburg in 1791 and lies buried under an ap- 
parently unfinished monument on the Faulkner place in the southern 
portion of the town. 

The following poll-list, copied from an old paper published in 
Berkeley County many years ago, may, and in all probability does, refer 
to the election spoken of above, as Gen. Darke is one of the candidates 
running at the time, 1788-89. This election -occurred, of course, be- 
fore Jefferson and Morgan were created out of Berkeley, and the vote, 
therefore, shows the whole number cast from the three counties, all of 
whom had to come to Martinsburg to exercise their right of suffrage. 
All persons, however, did not then vote, only “freeholders,” which 
accounts for the small number of voters. One of the wards of Mar- 
tinsburg now casts as many votes as the entire three counties one 
hundred years ago. The list is published as a matter of interest to 
the descendants of, doubtless, many whose names appear below. 
Many of those named were descended from the first settlers of this 
portion of the Yalley, men who left their mark, and almost a majority 
of them will be recognized as having descendants in this county and 

in Jefferson and Morgan, as well, at the present time. A number of 
them became men of note, being exalted to the highest stations within 
the gift of their fellow citizens, and not a few of them to-day stand in 
the front ranks for intelligence and ability in the various walks of 
life. There was no heading of any kind to the poll-list, which num- 
bers 239 names: 

G. Swift, 

J. Wilson, 

J. Morrow, 

•J. Kearsley, 

C. Morrow, 
Thos. Robinson, 
Dan’l Bedinger, 
Wm. Little, 

Jno. Briscoe, 
D. Hunter, 

W. Cherry, 
Jas. Maxwell, 
Magnus Tate, 
Rich. Willis, 
J. Bridgeham, 
H. Frank, 

J. Darnhaver. 
H. Yager, 

J. Jackson, 

J. Dominie, 
Jno. Mathews, 
Henry Lieveny, 
Jos. Mitchel, 

M. Riser, 






Riclrd Morgan, 
Adam Bishop, 
Thos. Thornburg, 
John Derry, 

P. Wiisbimer, 

G. Shorne, 

Abr. Morgan, 

M. Haskinson, 
Thos. Swearingen, 
Wm. Morgan, 
Jacob Isler, 

Juo. Daniels, 

M. Hout, 
no. Barns, 

Robt. Lowry, 

>-'S. Hyatt, 

N. McIntyre, 

H. Sheets, 

J. Sharkle, 

Dan. Vanmetre, 
Robt. Snodgrass, 
Thos. Philips, 

Geo. Tabler, 

S. Harlen, 

Wm. Maxwell, 

J. Hendricks, 

J. Bull, 

Cato Moore, 

Jno. McLane, 

K. Stubbs, 

Juo. Tilden, 

H. Bedinger, 

Wm, Henshaw, 

Ed. Beeson, 

J. Graham, 

Jos. McCoy . 

Sami Harrison, 
Aaron Hedges, 
Abra. Sbepperd, 
Ed. Tabb, 

M. McKown, 

Jas. Strode, 

David Gray, 

P. Martin, 

Jos. Foreman, 

D. Vulgamott, 

Bazil Lucas, 

John Gray, 

David Lewis, 

Jno. Eaton, 

E. Gaither, 

Jas. McCallister, 
P. Daugherty, 
Jas. Cowan, 

W. Merrit, 

Jno. Smith, 

Wm. Douglas, 
Jno. Brand, 

J. Angel, 

M. Fouke, 

J. Chapline, 
George Ropp, 

M. Eckhart, 

N. Pucktol, 

Wm. Hall, 

P. Fisher, 

Robt. Wilson, 

N. Strayer, 

X. Young, 

J. Vanmetre, 

J. Fink, 

W. Spalding, 

H. Fisher, 

Jno. Hanes, 

H. Xase, 

C. Cookers, 

Jno. Miller, 

J. Staley, 

Juo. Line, 

F. Polk, 

Jno. Fryatt, 
Thos. Crow, 

T. Laferty, 

Thos. Johnson, 
Jacob Miller, 

H. Boyle, 

Jacob Coons, 
Jacob Pulse, 

P. Burr, 

C. Myers, 

A. Rodgers, 

J. Painter, 

G. Custard, 

P. Sinn, 

J. Renock, 

G. Smallwood, 
M. Houseman, 
Jo s. He dges, 

Jos. Grantham, 

H. Blgck, 

Dan’l Cameron, 
Peter Light, 

Geo. Cunningham, 
Jno. Baker, 

Wm. Lucas, 

James Glenn, 

R. Cockburn, 
Raleigh Morgan, 
Jos. Swearingen, 

J. Banks, 

Math. Porterfield, 
David Horn, 

Isaac Evans, 

W. McConnel, 

Jno. Turner, 

David Bell, 

Thos. Hart, 

A. Nichols, 

W. Kerr, 

Geo. Horn, 

Jas. Buckles, 

T. Osborn, 

Wm. Blue, 

M. Bryarley, 

J. Tramway, 

D. Davis, 

Jno. Fishel, 

Chris. Chase, 

L. Lee, 

C. Claycomb, 

L. Hansil, 

Sam’l Wilson, 

II. Ross, 

Jno. Clawson, 

P. Coons, 

C. Hollinger, 

Jas. Bird, 

G. S. Cofiinberry, 
Ed. Lucas, 

Jon as He dge, 

A. Goosman, 

Jas. Kerr, 

Jno. Moore, 

P. Poisal, 

Z. Morgan, 

Robt. Lucas, 

A. Burnett, 

Jeptha Martin, 

E. Mercer, 

Juo. Hess, 

R. Dunn, 

Geo. Mykle, 

G. Ox, 

Van Swearingen, 



1). Collette, 
A. Malle.tte, 

J. Brown, 

G. Reynolds, 
J. Hart. 

T. Jewell, 
R. Crayton, 
H. Yance, 

J. Aikman, 
Geo. Tabb. 

G. Tilly, 

Jas. Robinson', 

J. Meloin, 

\Y. Gorrell, 

J. Shierlv, 

Thos. White, 
W. Hannah, 

Berkeley County, Set. 

I do hereby certify that Henry Bedinger, made oath on the Holy 
Evangely of Almighty God, that the above is a true statement of the 
poll and impartially taken. 

Given under my hand this 7th day of January, 1789. 

The J. Kearsley, justice of the peace, before whom Henry Bedinger, 
one of the judges of the election, made affidavit to -the correctness of 
the poll, was afterward postmaster of Martinsburg, and in 1802 ran 
for Congress in the district that included Berkeley County. In this 
connection the evidence is furnished to show that the ways of the 
politician were as tortuous nearly one hundred years ago as at the 
present highly improved epoch, for Mr. Kearsley published the 
following card in a Martinsburg paper, the only one in the district, 
by the way, of June 8, 1802: 

To the Freeholders of Berkeley , Jefferson and Hampshire Counties. 

Gentlemen: — A report has been put in circulation that I have 
declined from the offer I made of my services on the 22d of March 
last to represent this district in the Congress of the United States. 
As I am now made acquainted with the design, it may be necessary 
for me to observe, that this report has no foundation in fact; nor do I 
propose to decline (unless the delicate state of my health should impel 
the measure) until the will of a majority of the people in the district 
is known by the event of an election. 

Shepherdstown, May 8, 1802. 

After the Revolutionary war, when victory and peace had blessed 
the happy citizens of the united colonies, prosperity came as naturally 
as the plant after sunshine and shower. Many of the heroes of the 
struggle made their way back to their homes and began business, 
whilst many were left upon the battle-field to enrich by their noble 
deaths the generations to come. Fortunately the ravages of war had 
not reached the valley, as it did nearly one hundred years later; and 
there was not from this cause any rebuilding of destroyed homes. 
Building took a start in Martinsburg and a number of stores and 

John Kearsley, J. P. 




taverns, the facts in regard to which have been gleaned from a file of 
Winchester newspapers printed in 1786-88. In November, 1787, 
Joseph Butler, from the Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), begged 
“leave to inform his friends and the public generally ” that be had 
“taken the noted tavern called the General Washington, in Martins- 
burg, lately occupied by Mr. Rogers, where gentlemen travelers may 
be sure of meeting every accommodation.” He also had on hand the 
“greatest assortment of all foreign and home-made liquors: his 
French, Italian and Spanish wines, and his Jamaica and New Eng- 
land rums” were the best, and all “gentlemen with fine tastes should 
patronize his stock,” as Mr. Butler felt sure that he could please the 
most fastidious tastes. N. B.- — He had good stabling, etc. 

Those old worthies back there, one hundred years ago, knew good 
liquor when they tasted it, and they would have had little patience 
with the decoctions palmed off to-day as “ imported.” When they got 
drunk they did it on respectable stuff, and not tangle-foot, grape-vine, 
or forty-rod. Everybody drank at that primitive day, clergymen as 
well as common folk, and the flagrant offense of poor old Gen. Stephen 
would not have been much out of place in a parlor. It was not for 
getting drunk that he was dismissed from the army, but in consequence 
of the circumstances and time. The great and good G, W., as has 
been shown, electioneered with whisky. 

There w r as considerble activity in real estate for many years suc- 
ceeding the war, and large bodies of land were thrown on the market. 
Among those who advertised to sell was Robert Rutherford, whose 
notice of sale appears in an Alexandria paper of July 6, 1786. He 
and Charles Yates offered for sale 1,000 acres in Berkeley County. 
Y T ates is the gentleman from whom the famous “ Yates’ Garden,” in 
Alexandria, took its name, and Robert Rutherford was the son of 
Thomas Rutherford, the first sheriff, appointed in 1718, who ever held 
office west of the Blue Ridge, being commissioned by the governor at 
the date named as high sheriff for Frederick County. Rutherford was 
elected to Congress several times. In 1797 he ran against Gen. Daniel 
Morgan and defeated him, but in 1799 Morgan defeated Rutherford. 
In connection with these two competitors there are two anecdotes 
worth preserving: Gen. Morgan went to a prominent gentleman whom 
he knew to be a warm friend of his, and asked him to not only vote 
for him, but to use his influence for him and against Mr. Rutherford. 
The gentleman took the old war-scarred hero by the hand, and looking 





into those eyes that never quailed before an enemy, said with much 
feeling: “ General Morgan, you know me, and know that I never have 
and never will, deceive any man. Should a war break out and were I 
to have the selection of a commander-in-chief, there is no man in this 
wide world to whom I would give the place in preference to yourself • 
but, sir, when I am to select a member of Congress, then I must vote 
for Mr. Rutherford.” 

Rutherford was a plain, unassuming man, who dressed in the 
simplest garb, and very few would suspect the intelligence and ability 
that lurked beneath his homely clothing, whilst his integrity and kind- 
ness of heart were known to all. During one of the sessions of Con- 
gress, he was invited to dine with a prominent gentleman of Philadel- 
phia, and at the appointed time repaired to the house of his friend and 
inquired whether he was in, not mentioning his own name, however. 
The lady of the house did not invite him in, thinking he was some 
poor wanderer in search of alms from her husband, so the old gentle- 
man took a seat on the door steps. In a little while the lady came to 
him and told him to come into the kitchen, and that if he would cut a 
little wood and bring some water she would give him his dinner, Mr. 
Rutherford, who had a keen sense of the ridiculous, complied with the 
lady’s request, after which she told him to take a seat on a box near 
the fire. In the meantime the gentleman of the house arrived and, 
his wife meeting him in the parlor, they conferred together as to why 
their guest had not arrived. The wife said that no one had called 
with the exception of a poor old fellow who was out in the kitchen 
waiting for his dinner. The host and hostess sauntering in the direc- 
tion of wdiere the sly old member of Congress was comfortably seated, 
soon made the discovery, much to their chagrin, but to the intense 
amusement of Rutherford. 

The Lower Shenandoah Valley is noted for the number of men who 
became prominent in the struggle of the colonies for independence. 
Two other generals, in addition to Gens. Stephen and Lee, resided in 
Berkeley County, besides a number of other officers, colonels, majors,, 
captains and lieutenants, whom history has placed upon its pages and 
whose names will go down the ages with honor to the Valley of Vir- 

Gen. William Darke, from whom the village of Darkesville took 
its name, and in whose honor Darke County, Ohio, was christened, 
was born in Pennsylvania about 1736, and with his parents came to- 





Virginia at the age of six years. They settled not far from Slmp- 
herdstown, at that time called New Mecklenburg, and by which title 
it was known for over half a century. It is asserted that young Darke 
was with Braddock, being then only nineteen years of age, and it is 
probable that he was — in fact, it could not have been otherwise — for 
everybody else, who lived west of the Blue Badge whose name has 
come down to the present day, and who was not actually an infant at 
that time, was “ with Braddock.” Being “ with Braddock” is very 
much like “ Braddock’s road.” j There is not a square mile of land 
from Mason and Dixon’s line southward for a hundred miles that has 
not a portion of “ Braddock’ s road” upon it. If all the men were with 
Braddock that is now claimed for them, they ought to have swept the 
entire French and Indian forces clear across the Mississippi. At the 
breaking out of the Be volution Darke entered the service as a captain 
and was taken prisoner at Germantown. Upon his release he returned 
to his home in Berkeley, in 1780, but in the following spring he 
assisted in recruiting a regiment in Berkeley and Frederick, and was 
given the command of the regiment. After the cessation of hostilities 
he returned to his fields in Berkeley, and in 1788 was elected as a 
representative from Berkeley to the convention held for the purpose 
of ratifying the Federal Constitution. He afterward represented his 
county in the General Assembly of the Commonwealth. At the break- 
ing out of the Indian war in 1791 Col. Darke offered his services and 
was placed in command of the Second Virginia Begiment. He was 
with Gen. Arthur St. Clair in liis memorable campaign. He did 
splendid service in that series of disastrous events, ending in much 
loss and suffering to the brave soldiers, the victims of a stupendous 
“ folly.” Col. Darke was afterward promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He ran for Congress but was defeated, in conjunction with 
the gallant Gen. James Wood, by that most brilliant lawyer and gen- 
tleman, Hon. Alexander White. Darke died November 20, 1801. 

Another Bevolutionary worthy, who w r as a citizen of Berkeley 
County, was Gen. Horatio Gates. He also was “with Braddock,” for it 
is claimed that he was an Englishman, an officer in one of the two reg- 
iments of regulars sent over by His Majesty George the King, and was. 
consequently, with the unfortunate general who not only was defeated, 
but lost his life, in the wilds of Pennsylvania in 1755. Gates was 
seriously wounded in the same engagement and resigned his commis- 
sion. Being a man of wealth he purchased an estate in Berkeley 




Comity and became an American. His name occurs frequently in the 
old records of the county, and in 1773 was appointed a justice of the 
peace. In 1775 lie espoused the cause of the patriots, and was hon- 
ored by the American Congress by being appointed adjutant-general 
with the rank of brigadier-general. He was, undoubtedly, a skillful 
and gallant soldier, and as long as he kept his inordinate ambition 
under subjection he seemed to be successful. At Saratoga his oper- 
ations resulted in one of the most decisive victories of the war, the 
capture of Burgoyne and his army. But, like Gen. Charles Lee, lie 
desired to be at the head of the army, and did not hesitate to plot 
against the commander-in-chief to accomplish his ends. This brought 
him into trouble and he was relieved of command, being superseded 
by Gen. Greene. Gates was re-instated to his rank in 1782, after 
hostilities had ceased. Peace being declared he retired to his planta- 
tion, where he continued to reside till 1790, when he removed to New 
York City, and was elected in 1800 to a seat in the Legislature of 
New York. Several years before his death he manumitted all his 
slaves and made provision for their maintenance. He died April 
10, 1806. 

One of the very first settlers of the lower valley was Morgan 
Morgan, or as he signed his name, to be seen in hundreds of instances 
in the Frederick County records running from 1743 onward for many 
years, “Morgan ap” — the ap invariably having a line running through 
it, and being placed just above the an in the name — and meaning 
“Morgan son of Morgan.” He was a Welshman, and a man of consid- 
erable wealth wdien he came here, which he very materially increased 
by large grants of land from Gov. Gooch. Bishop M.eade and Hawks, 
the historian, give Morgan great credit for extreme piety, evidenced, 
as they surmise, by his building, in conjunction with Dr. John Briscoe 
and a Mr. Hite, a log chapel, claimed to be the first church edifice in 
the valley. The historian named sets the building of this chapel at 
1726, but as the earliest claims set up for Morgan’s arrival here is 
1732, which is probably correct, it is difficult to reconcile the two 
facts. Besides, the Presbyterians had a little church not far from 
Martinsburg; there was a Calvinist Church above Winchester; a 
Lutheran, or Reformed, house of worship at the settlement of the 
German mechanics at Mecklenburg; all of which have claims to being 
the “first church.” Morgan Morgan, ho'wever, was undoubtedly one 
of the leading spirits, if not the most prominent man in all this lower 

■ V ■ • 




valley, for he is the first person named in the first commission of 
justices of the peace of Frederick, and to whom the dedimus for 
administering the oaths to his brother justices was addressed. He 
died in the year 1766, at the age of seventy-eight years, after an 
extremely useful and adventurous life. His son, Morgan Morgan, Jr., 
was one of the justices named in the commission issued by Lord 
Dunmore in 1773. He was educated as a clergyman in the Episcopal 
Church, and preached in the chapel erected by his father for many 
years, but when the Revolution broke out he entered the Continental 
army and served gallantly throughout the war. 

In addition to those named Berkeley County was the birthplace or 
home of many distinguished men in various walks of life. Alexander 
"Wilson, the famous naturalist, ornithology being his special study, 
was born in Scotland, and was a weaver by trade. He came to the 
United States in 1794, and for a time lived in this county, conducting 
his trade, but not meeting with much success removed to Philadelphia, 
where he died in 1813. He is said to have commenced the first vol- 
ume of his celebrated treatise on his favorite subject whilst living in 
this section. Raleigh Colston, who figured as one of the purchasers of 
the Fairfax estate, owned a fine plantation in Berkeley County near 
the Potomac. Colston, in conjunction wdth his brother-in-law, Chief 
Justice Marshall and Gen. Henry Lee purchased the manor of Leeds, 
comprising 150,000 acres of land lying in Culpeper, Fauquier and 
Frederick Counties; the South Branch manor, Patterson’s Creek 
manor and other large tracts of land from the legatees in England, but 
came near losing their valuable purchase, as Fairfax was an alien when 
he died, and the property just escaped confiscation by the stipulations 
of the treaty with England. For many years persons paid to the heirs 
of these purchasers ••quit-rents,” an outrageous exaction, as the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia in 1785 passed a law^ specially and forever 
abolishing the collection of quit-rents on this property. Mr. Colston 
was a man wdio took great interest in all religious movements, and his 
name appears in the Martinsburg Gazette in 1814 in connection with 
a bible society being organized at that time. He died in 1823. 

Four ministers of the Gospel, who became exceedingly prominent 
not only in Virginia but throughout the country, were either born in 
Berkeley County or had their residence here for many years. 

Rev. Moses Hoge, L. D., a Presbyterian divine of much eminence, 
who was made president of Hampton Sidney College in 1807, resided 






in this county for about thirteen years. He was a son of George 
Hoge, one of the first justices of Frederick County, and was born not 
far from the little village of Kernstown in Frederick County, a locality 
made famous by Stonewall Jackson in his battle with Gen. Shields, 
and afterward noted as the point where the gallant Col. Mulligan of 
Illinois was killed. The Hoge family contributed the funds to build 
the church known as the “ Opequon Church,” three miles from Win- 
chester, in the graveyard attached to which is 'a tombstone bearing 
date 1742. 

Rev. William Hill, D. I)., born in 1769, in Virginia, after his admis- 
sion to the ministry, settled in Berkeley County, but after several years 
residence here took charge in 1800 of the Presbyterian Church in 
Winchester, where he continued to reside the balance of his life, and 
where he died in 1852. Dr. Hill was one of the most prominent 
ministers of his denomination in his day, and was one of the leaders in 
the “ new school ” movement and other questions that came up at 
different times in his church. He was a great personal friend of Gen. 
Daniel Morgan, who became a member of Dr. Hill’s church shortly 
before the death of the old Revolutionary hero. .Many of the pub- 
lished reminiscences of Gen. Morgan are due to conversations held with 
the General by Dr. Hill, and the one wherein Morgan acknowledged 
that he had fear — not of man, but of God — is authentic. 

Rev. Bernard C. Wolfe, was born in Martinsburg, in 1795, and 
learned the trade of a saddle and harness-maker with John Helferstay, 
who conducted that business in the thriving little village named from 

o o 

1810 for many years afterward, as his advertisement shows in the old 
Gazette. Rev. Wolfe was a son of George Wolfe, a most respectable 
gentleman, who was appointed a magistrate in 1810, at the same time 
that Joel Ward, who was for many years a member of the house of 
delegates of the commonwealth, was appointed. Michael Rooney, who 
had the reputation of having been a “Sea Rover,” before settling in 
Berkeley, also was appointed, and a year or two afterward Maj. James 
Faulkner sat with Mr. Wolfe. The young saddler, however, left his 
shop and studied far the ministry under the auspices of the German 
Reformed Church. After his admission to the ministry he was sta- 
tioned in Easton, Penn., and from there lie was called to Baltimore, 
from which city he was summoned as a professor in Mercersburg Col- 
lege, but ill health necessitated a resignation. He then settled in 
Lancaster, Penn., where he died in 1870. 




Hev. A. H. H. Boyd, D. D., was born in 1814, in Martinsburg, and 
was the son of Gen. Elisha Boyd. His first inclinations were to the 
profession of medicine, but he gave that up and entered heartily into 
a preparation for the ministry. He began his ministry in 1835 at 
Winchester, but was called to the charges of Middleburg and Leesburg, 
Loudoun County, Ya., in 1838, from whence he visited many churches 
in search of a location to his liking, but preferring Winchester to any 
other place he settled there, where he remained for twenty-three years, 
till his death, in 1865. He was a pronounced Southern man during the 
war, and was arrested and held as a hostage for some time, the expos- 
ure from which is said to have caused his death. 

Among other prominent residents of Berkeley may be mentioned 
Dr. Bichard McSherry, a son of Bichard McSherry, who brought young 
James Faulkner from Ireland when the lad was but ten years old, lie 
being left an orphan in County Armagh. Bichard McSherry was a 
man of great business qualifications, whilst the son, Dr. McSherry, was 
a physician and surgeon \v T ko had few superiors, if any, at the time he 
practiced here. He was born in 1792, and graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1816. 

The name of Bedinger is one of the oldest in the valley and it oc- 
curs frequently in the old Frederick County records. Daniel Bedinger 
who was a young man when the Devolution broke out, joined the com- 
pany that camped at Morgan’s Spring, in the fall of 1775, or at least 
one of the companies, for there were two, one being under the com- 
mand of Capt. Daniel Morgan, and the other of Capt. Hugh Stephen- 
son. These companies w r ere not there (at the spring) at the same time 
however. At any rate young Bedinger went to the front with one of 
these great captains and was taken prisoner at Brandywine, in 1777. 
After his release he promptly rejoined his command and was made an 
ensign. At the close of hostilities he held the position for many years 
of agent at Gosport Navy Yard, and died in 1818. Abraham Shepherd, 
son of Thomas Shepherd, the founder of Shepherdstown, which was 
established on the site of Mecklenburg, was another Bevolutionary 
soldier. He, also, was a member of Capt. Hugh Stephenson’s com- 
pany and a gallant soldier. He was retired from the service with the 
rank of captain, and died in 1822. 

Magnus Tate, born in 1755-60, was a man whose after life made 
up in a great measure for his youthful follies. He appears in -the 
Frederick County records quite early as a fighter, and one of the first 




references to him is in consequence of a fight he had with some other 
young' tough. One of the items in the proceedings as recorded in the 
justices’ order hook recites that Magnus Tate appeared before the # 
magistrates and lodged complaint against a party for biting off his 
ear. Two witnesses testify to the fact, the “biter” is held for trial, 
and the ear retained as proof of the charge, whereupon the facetious 
old clerk enters on the margin of the record, his “reference side note,” 
these words, “Magnus Tate’s ear placed on record,” and it is so 
indexed. ITe afterward became sheriff of Berkeley County, one of its 
most respected magistrates, and was elected to Congress in 1815. 
Like Gen. Daniel Morgan, who was a hard-hitter in his youthful days — 
a regular tough — Magnus Tate proved that a man need not necessarily 
continue to sow his wild oats till he died. He lived, highly respected, 
although having but one ear and a portion of another, till 1823. 

Col. William Crawford, who was so barbarously tortured and mur- 
dered by Indians in 1782 on the Muskingum in that portion of Vir- 
ginia now comprised in the State of Ohio, was born in Berkeley 
County. Lewis Wetzell, as well as Adam Poe, the great Indian 
fighters, are both thought to have been born in this section o£ the 
valley. Both of these names, Wetzell and Poe, are among the early 
names of citizens upon the early records in Frederick. Hon. Felix 
Grundy first saw the light on Back Creek in this county. This gen- 
tleman, one of the most eminent of American statesmen, was elected as 
a member of Congress from Tennessee, having previously been judge 
of the supreme court of Kentucky. He was United States senator 
from Tennessee and attorney-general of the United States under Van 
Buren. In 1840 he was again elected United States senator, but died 
in December, 1840. John B. Cooke, the father of John Esten Cooke, 
the truest writer of the Sunny South since the Civil war, lived here 
before he moved to Winchester. Nathaniel Willis, the father of the 
eminent poet and journalist, N. P. Willis, also lived in Martinsburg 
where he commenced the publication of a newspaper early in the 
century. Mr. Willis had been connected with one of the newspapers 
established in Winchester in 1787, and got into quite an animated 
discussion with another editor and some outside party, which looked 
serious for awhile, but it was, probably, settled “amicably.” Gore 
is very rarely needed in such cases. 

Gen. Thomas S. Jessup was born in Berkeley County in 1788 
and was commissioned second lieutenant when twenty years of age. 


' A ' 






He rapidly rose through the grades of first lieutenant and captain, and 
successively through the rank of major and colonel till in 1828, for 
ten years’ meritorious service, he was made a full major-general. 
Gen. Jessup was one of the most brilliant officers his country has 
ever honored, and he lived to a good old age, dying just on the eve of 
the great struggle that might have embittered his life for his few 
remaining years, had lie survived to see his countrymen arrayed in 
battle one . against the other. He died in June, 1860. Maj. Henry 
Bedinger was another of that name who fought on the side of freedom 
in the Revolution. He was born in October, 1758, in York, Penn. In 
1798 he was made clerk of the county court, but a contest resulted 
between himself and Col. David Hunter, which was finally settled by 
the courts in favor of Col. Hunter. Maj. Bedinger’s name appears 
in the list of voters, printed in this chapter, at an election in 1789. 
After the contest he retired to liis countrv seat and for many years 
thereafter his tall form and white beard were frequently seen on the 
streets of Martinsburg. The old gentleman, although nearly ninety 
years old at his death, preserved his faculties in a remarkable degree. 
He died in the month of May, 1818. 

Hon. Charles James Faulkner was the son of Maj. James Faulkner, 
who was brought from Ireland about 1786, when he (James) was ten 
years of age. Maj. Faulkner was a man of stirring business qualities 
and with a decided predisposition to a military life. He was a mer- 
chant in Martinsburg in 1810, and the records show that he was 
appointed a magistrate in 1813, continuing in that position till his 
death in 1817, as will be seen in a following chapter on the early or- 
ganization and government of the town by the trustees from 1818 on- 
ward. The son, Charles James, when his father died must have been 
about thirteen years of age, as he was admitted to practice in the 
superior court of chancery of Frederick County in 1825, and was possi- 
bly twenty-one years of age at the time. He imbibed from his active 
father qualities that made his life a success, made him a leader in his 
party, and when that party, the Federalist- Whig organization, lost its 
usefulness, Mr. Faulkner was found on the side of the Democracy, 
where he remained till his death. He was elected to the General As- 
sembly of Virginia in 1832, and about this time was appointed one of 
three commissioners on the part of Virginia to settle, in conjunction 
with commissioners of Maryland, the disputed boundary line between 
the two States. He made his report in November, 1832, and it had 









the effect of substantially settling that matter. In 1841 Mr. Faulk- 
ner was elected to the State Senate of Virginia, but resigned in a 
year’s time. In 1848 lie again was elected to the General Assembly. 
He was a member of what is known as the Reform Convention of 
1850. He was elected to Congress in 1851, and from about which 
time, that is, during 1852, when the candidates for president were 
Scott and Pierce, he changed his political affiliations, coming out 
squarely for Pierce and the Democracy. One of Mr. Faulkner’s 
most noteworthy acts was his canvass of Virginia in conjunction with 
Henry A. Wise, against Know-Nothingism, when the death knell of 
that party of intollerance was sounded. After the elevation of James 
Buchanan to the Presidency, Mr. Faulkner was offered the mission to 
France, but as a distinguished Virginian, Mr. Mason, was holding that 
position he declined. In 1859, however, Mr. Mason dying, Mr. Faulk- 
ner was offered the place once more, which he accepted. Being 
relieved in 1861 by the appointment of W. L. Dayton as minister to 
France, Mr. Faulkner returned to the United States and was arrested, 
but released after a confinement of some months. He was then invited 
by Stonewall Jackson to be chief of his staff, which he accepted 
promptly, and was with that distinguished general till his sad death. 
After the war he took an active part in the interest of the new State of 
West Virginia and was a member of the Constitutional convention of 
1S72. Mr. Faulkner married a daughter of Gen. Elisha Boyd, and 
had several children, two of whom, E. Boyd and Charles James, Jr., are 
prominent members of the Martinsburg bar, the latter being United 
States senator from West Virginia. The distinguished gentleman 
died November 1, 1884, and was followed to his last resting place by 
the largest funeral procession ever witnessed here. 







The Newspaper as a “Mirror”— Its Great Value to History— Some 
Interesting Extracts from Journals of 1787, 1802, 1812-14 and 1825 
to 1835— A "Wily Prisoner— Timely Advertisements— Shopping in 
1811— Fine Stores— P. Xadenbousch & Co,, Daniel Burkhardt, James 
Faulkner, Thomas Smith & Co., Merchants— Patent Medicines— 
A Quaker Goldsmith and Jeweler— Lots of Shoemakers— Some 
Noted Taverns— War of 1812-14— Depression in Values — The Mar- 
tinsburg Academy- James Faulkner, Merchant, Magistrate and 
Artillerist— Gibbs’ Factory— Guseman Nail Foundry— Woolen 
and Flour Mills— Horse Racing — Theatricals— Fourth of July 
Celebration — A White Negro— Kroesen’s Tavern — Library Society 
— Terrible Storm— Another Celebration and Three Fine Toasts— 
Prices Current — Disastrous Fires— Canal to Martinsburg— A 
Temperance Society — A Cyclone — Coal Discovered — Falling 
“Stars”— First Schedule of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

T HERE is no source whence information in regard to current 
events, which is genuine history, can better be derived than from 
the newspaper. The newspaper is the “mirror of its time” — it 
records the happenings just as they are; it reflects, as a general rule, 
the sentiments of the community wherein it is published. It is 
molded by the opinions, the desires, and the passions of its patrons 
and readers, and does not shape, as is popularly supposed, the public 
mind, being itself the shaped, and not the shaper. The reverse of 
this state of affairs exists only in extremely rare cases. It is only 
possible under exceptional and peculiar circumstances, where more 
than ordinary strength of character, combined with the highest stand- 
ing and acknowledged ability, is associated with the capacity of 
wielding a fluent and trenchant pen. These qualities, for reasons that 
are apparent, seldom concentrate in one who is disposed to venture 
upon the treacherous and uncertain sea of journalism. This may be 
considered rank heresy, but it is the truth, as all newspaper men 
know. Y^et there is no class of workers who are so poorly paid, who 
receive less thanks-, or who are so worried and imposed upon, as the 
country editor, especially. He performs his labors honestly, delves 




early and late, and dishes up his weekly modicum, happen what may. 
And these are just the reasons why an old newspaper is so valuable. 
In its age-browned columns one finds the names and businesses of many 
persons long since forgotten. Transactions are recorded in the usual 
every day style that have changed the destinies of nations. Great 
actors on the world’s stage are strutting their brief hour, and now 
where are they? 

The following incident, published in the Winchester Centinel of 
September 20, 1788, in relation to a transaction that occurred in Mar- 
tinsburg 102 years ago, is interesting as showing either the credulity 
of our early justices or the shrewdness of the prisoner, or both : 

John Groves found a young man named James Johnson with his 
great coat on. He was arraigned before Esquire Godwin Swift. The 
young man had a mare and saddle. He said he would go to Loudoun, 
w T here he lived, and get proof of his innocence. He left his horse and 
saddle but did not return, and John Randall, constable, advertises for 
the owner of the horse. 

Of course the coat belonged to Groves and not to Johnson, as the 
involute language would imply. The justice before whom the prisoner 
was examined was one of a commission appointed by Lord Dunmore 
in 1772 and re-appointed by Gov. Patrick Henry in 1776. 

From a newspaper published in Martinsburg in 1802, a copy of 
which is before the writer, a number of extracts will be made. This 
paper is The Berkeley and Jefferson Intelligencer and Northern - 
Neck Advertiser, No. 12, of Yol. 4, dated June 18, 1802, and is pub- 
lished by John Alburtis, at the price of “two dollars a year — one- 
half payable at the time of subscribing.” Advertisements were in- 
serted for “ three-fourths of a dollar per square for three weeks to 
subscribers; to non-subscribers the common price of one dollar,” — a 
discrimination the writer has never elsewdiere met with. From the 
date and number of this issue the paper must have been started in 
March, 1798. 

In the Advertise r Christian Hartman advertises that he lost a new 
red morocco pocket-book containing §30, and offers a reward of §8 to 
the finder. Jeremiah Thompson, in a card, states that some time be- 
fore he had received 814 from Henry Baugh, of Hampshire, but that 
nine of the dollars turned out to be .counterfeit, and that upon return- 
ing them to Baugh and getting good money for them the latter 
said that he was going to pass them otf on somebody. Thompson 






warns the public to look out for them. Joel Ward, one of the justices, 
afterward a prominent member of the General Assembly of Virginia, 
explains in a card the cause of a levy of §1 being laid on all tithables, 
the reason being the cutting off of more than half the population by 
the creation of Jefferson County just previously, whilst the expenses 
were the same. Adam Sheetz offers for sale a two-story log house and 
two lots situated on Martin Street in Martinsburg. Walter B. Selby 
advertises “elegant goods” of all kinds in Shepherdstown, and John 
Kennedy does the same thing in regard to his stock in Charles-Town. 
Joseph Oldfield states in a card that his wife Mary, having left his 
bed and board, that the public are warned not to harbor her, as he 
will not pay any of her debts. Another man named Benjamin Ellis 
advertises that he will pay $5 to anyone returning his lost pocket- 
book, and G. W. Humphreys, at Iveeptryste Furnace, wants an owner 
for a horse that strayed to his premises. 

As the ladies and others required places in which to “shop.” as 
well in those early times as at present, there were some fine stores in 
Martinsburg: Mr. William Kiddle, who was also a magistrate, states 

that he has “just received a handsome assortment of well chosen 
spring goods, groceries, etc.;” and Mr. Kees Branson, a Quaker gold 
and silver-smith, “respectfully informs the public that he has employed 
an assistant and is now ready to furnish gold finger and ear rings, 
watch chains, seals and keys, scissars, broaches, sieve-buttons, etc.;” 
also that he makes clocks and watches. 

Thomas Smith & Co. advertise as having “just received from 
Philadelphia a fresh supply of merchandise, consisting of Irish linens, 
dowlas, Kussia sheeting, German rolls, blue, striped, clouded and 
plane India nankeens, Imperial hyson, skin hyson and Bohea teas, 
coffee, sugar, crowley and blistered steel, etc.” But the big store of 
that date in Martinsburg was, possibly, that of P. Nadenbousch A Co., 
who offered a large assortment of “prime goods” similar to those just 
named, but with the addition of French brandy, wine and spirits, 
molasses, fish oil, and Spanish Indigo;” also, “harness, soal and upper 
leather, iron, salt, etc.” 

James S. Lane & Co., Shepherd’s Town, who not only then, but 
for many years thereafter, kept a very extensive mercantile establish- 
ment, advertise a large stock of goods of all kinds; and Jeremiah 
Evans, in Jamesburg, Berkeley County, four miles from Garrard’s 
Town, informs the public that he will sell for cash a fine stock of 




goods. Col. Samuel Washington has for sale in Charles Town a 
number of lots on Washington Street; and George Wibly, Martins- 
burg, will sell a lot on the main street, w'hereon is a “log dwelling 
house, well paled in as a clover patch.” Newkirk & Porterfield have 
opened a stock of goods at Newkirk’s Mill ; Philip Bedinger offers for 
sale a fine plantation at Watkin’s Ferry; John McCleary, first sergeant, 
notifies the members of Capt. Magnus Tate’s troop of cavalry to meet 
punctually on the 19th at Martinsburg, and the editor of the paper, 
John Alburtis, in a two-column advertisement enlarges upon the 
virtues of a remedy for worms, a cure for the whooping-cough, an 
extract of mustard, and an elixir for sore throats, all of which remedies 
the editor has for sale at his office. And in the matter of taverns 
there were a number in operation. John Bobinson informs the public 
that he has just opened one in the house lately occupied by Ignatius 
O’Ferrall, next door to William Mackey, Jr., at the sign of the “Indian 
Chief.” The proprietor says: “I would just beg leave to remark 

that this house is not exceeded by any in Martinsburg, and is much 
superior to many others.” John Hunter advertises the “General 
Washington Tavern,” and George Smith, Shepherd’s Town, keeps a 
house of entertainment at the “Sign of the Swan.” 

John Dixon offers §10 reward for the apprehension of his negro, 
Charles, and although advertisements of that character were quite 
numerous before the late war, and familiar to all the older residents 
of this section, yet the language of this one is such as to merit a 
reproduction here in part. Mr. D. says: “This villian ran away from 
the subscriber without cause, and has been seen several times near 
Sliepherdstown since his elopement. The subscriber is unable to 
describe his dress, but he is an artful scoundrel and will no doubt 
disguise himself.” And that this “fellow is about thirty-two years of 
age, rather a small man than otherwise, can read and write, and is an 
artful, talkative rascal.” One can scarcely realize now that all this 
was looked upon once as only a passing matter — something that was 
neither wrong nor right — only an event. Truly the sun of progress, 
in the language of Brother Jasper, “do move.” 

In the matter of local news there is not a single item in this old 
sheet of 1802, the idea of chronicling the occurrence of home matters 
not as yet having dawned upon the editors of newspapers anywhere. 
In fact, it was many years afterward before a country paper grasped 
the fact that the news of the community wherein it was printed would 





be interesting to the readers of the same. But instead, lengthy arti- 
cles, months old, reprinted from foreign journals, together with prolix 
essays on trite themes, and redundant discussions on useless points, 
filled the columns of the papers. The advertisements, therefore, are 
nearly the entire source from whence a glimpse of the times mav be 

A volume of the Martinsburg Gazette, commencing January 11. 
1811, having been kindly placed at the disposal of the writer, a num- 
ber of extracts will be made from it. 

The Gazette , Yol. XII, No. 85, was printed and published by John 
Alburtis, the same who printed the Intelligencer in 1802, and was 
considerable of an improvement over its predecessor. Its columns 
are filled with advertisements and interesting reading matter, no 
doubt, at the time it was published. The world at the date given was 
passing through mighty convulsions. The conquering Napoleon was 
laying empires broadcast beneath his feet and his sway seemed only 
limited by the confines of the earth. Even America experienced a 
slight tremor at the onward tread of the great soldier, for Waterloo 
was as yet many years distant. On this side of the water the United 
States was looking sullenly at the encroachments of England upon the 
rights of Americans, and protesting against the many outrages com- 
mitted by her. A volcano v'as grumbling and groaning, destined to 
burst ere long and with such effect as to sweep before it all feeling 
except aversion, from out the hearts of Americans for the mother 
country, who yet entertained the hope of some day recovering her lost 
valuable possessions. England’s course in 1812-11, left in the minds 
of her former children a hatred that exists to this day. 

In consequence of this expected war, lands in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, as well as elsewhere, depreciated much in value, and large 
quantities were thrown upon the market. The uncertainties of the 
time made money scarce, for those who had it hoarded it up. Various 
parties advertise tracts of land for sale, and among those were Adam 
S. Dandridge, Edmund Pendleton and William Anderson. Lots in 
Martinsburg were offered for sale by William Burns and John Bobin- 
son, and Thomas C. Smith, the merchant, desires to dispose of his 
property. But the politicians did not “ depress ” with everything 
else, for Mr. John Baker, the great Federalist, a noted opponent of 
the war with England, announces himself as a candidate for Congress. 
A singular state of affairs existed in Berkeley County at this time; the 



majority of its citizens were rank Federalists, which meant opposition 
to a war with England; singular this was, considering the fact of how 
handsomely her sons turned out during the Revolutionary struggle. 
Mr. Baker was a native of Berkeley County and was one of its most 
able lawyers. He was elected at the ensuing election after he pub- 
lished his card above spoken of, and was active in endeavoring to pre- 
vent a war with England. He advocated whilst in Congress the im- 
provement of the Potomac River. He died in Shepherdstown in 1828 
from a fever that prevailed as an epidemic in that town for some 

T1 re Martinsburg Academy, a school of a very high order, is adver- 
tised by two of the trustees, David Hunter and Obed Waite. Rev. 
John B. Hoge, one of the noted family of Hoges, whose father has been 
spoken of in another chapter, taught Latin and Greek in this academy. 
The tuition was §20 per year, each student to pay in addition to that 
spin a proportion of the expenses of the house rent and fire wood. The 
following June, 1812, the same gentleman inserted the following ad- 
vertisement in the Gazette: 

A teacher of the Latin and Greek languages is wanted to take 
charge of a school in Martinsburg, Ya. The subscribers feel confident 
that a school in this place, for teaching said languages, constantly 
kept, and well managed, would produce to the teacher §400 per annum, 
and they will assure the payment of §300 for the first year to a person 
well qualified to teach said languages; none other need apply. 

Obed Waite, 

Jan. 10, 1812. David Hunter. 

There were numerous stores for that day, and some that would 
doubtless compare favorably with any in Martinsburg at the present 
time, at least in amount of stock kept. 

James Faulkner, in an advertisement dated December 21, IS 10, 
states that he has a fine stock of “fashionable spring goods, liquors, 
wines and groceries.” This gentleman, the father of the late Charles 
J. Faulkner, and grandfather of Senator C. J. Faulkner, and E. Boyd 
Faulkner, Esq., was brought, as has been stated, from Ireland, when 
a lad of ten years, by Richard McSlierry, and placed in charge of 
Michael McKewen. Mr. Faulkner, in addition to being a merchant, 
was a magistrate, being appointed in 1813. He had strong military 
tastes and some time before 1812 had an artillery company in Martins- 
burg. He entered the war and acted with much skill and gallantry, 
coming out of the service with the rank of major of artillery. In 1803 




lie married the only daughter of William Mackey, and died in April, 
1817, being buried with Masonic and military honors. Mr. Mackey 
was a captain in the Revolutionary army and one of the justices of 
Berkeley County, about 1810. 

In 1811 Daniel Zinn & Co. advertises that they have just received 
an additional supply of “ hardware, saddlery, tinware and bonnetts,” 
which to the ladies of to-day must seem a singular mixture of commod- 
ities. Thomas C. Smith still continues to keep a general store, and 
Alexander Cooper informs the citizens that he is just opening a fine 
assortment of new goods. William Long makes it known that he has 
again begun business at the old stand, and Ignatius O’Ferrell has just 
opened a stock of goods in the room formerly occupied by Lewis and 
Robert Willis. 

In 1812 John Stewart advertises that he will shortly open in his 
new store room a fine stock of dry goods and groceries, and Daniel 
Burkhart -wishes to make it known that he has just opened in the store 
formerly occupied by Mr. Price, a “ handsome and neat assortment of 
spring and summer goods.” Some of the old account books kept by 
Mr. Burkhart are still preserved by his son, Dr. Burkhart, of Martins- 
burg, and the writing in them is like copper-plate printing — as even 
as type and not a blotch in the books from beginning to end. 

In 1813 James Faulkner, still in the dry goods and grocery busi- 
ness, took in as a partner John K. Wilson, the firm being Faulkner & 
Wilson. The firm of Daniel Zinn & Co. was dissolved and that of 
Zinn, Nadenbousch & Co. succeeded it. But in 1811, Daniel Zinn, 
alone, states that he is now occupying the store formerly used by 
Alexander Cooper. Adam Young also kept a store at this time. 

The foregoing were the principal mercantile establishments, or 
general stores, but there were a number of others in special lines, or 
rather they were the shops of the mechanics of the varied trades. 
John Guseman had a nail factory in Martinsburg, and George Hivner 
carried on milling in what was even then called the “old Stephen’s 
mill.” Levi Price must have had a kind of drug store, although the 
drug store in its modern shape had not as yet been evolved from the 
cross between a doctor’s shop and a grocery, at least not in country 
towns. Mr. Price has half a column in praise of his patent medicines. 
Edward A. Gibbs conducts a woolen-mill in Martinsburg, and Jona- 
than Cushwa has a “ picking and carding machine, on Tuscarora, two 
miles from town.” George Kearns carries on the chair-making, paint- 






ing and turning business, and Michael Kearns carries on the wheel- 
wright business, making flax, wool, and cotton wheels, check-reels 
and Windsor chairs, and did all kinds of turning. 

Christopher McAllister was a shoemaker, and Jacob Poisal was a 
boot and shoemaker; James B. Small was a tailor; John Helferstay 
a saddle and harness-maker; James Boden was a blacksmith; Jesse 
Hayden was engaged in watch and clock-making' and selling jewelry; 
Samuel Graham succeeded John O’Ferrell in the tanning business; 
Edward A. Gibbs paid cash for old copper and brass; Jacob Bishop 
sold bar and scrap-iron, and William B. King and John Rice at their 
mill on Mill Creek offer twenty-one barrels of flour for 100 bushels 
of wheat. A. Jewett, attorney at law, announces the fact that he is 
ready for clients, and Dr. Thomas McPherrin informs the public that 
he has recommenced the practice of medicine and can be found at “ his 
old shop,” opposite Mr. Ignatius O’Ferrell’s store. 

Taverns were plentiful. December II, 1810, Michael McKewen, 
the Irishman, who took charge of James Faulkner when he was a lad, 
advertises that he has just opened a tavern in the yellow house where 
lie formerly kept store, on South Queen Street, between the market- 
house and the bridge. The “ Globe Tavern ” was also kept at this 
time. The “Martinsburg Inn ” was kept by Luke Pentoney, on Queen 
Street. Graham’s Tavern was also well known. 

Amusements were not overlooked in that early time by any means. 
Racing horses was indulged in by almost all gentlemen of the days 
of 1812-14. Race courses were kept up in the vicinity of every town 
that made any claims to be anything at all. There were courses at 
Charlestown, Berryville, Middletown, Shepherdstown, Hardscrabble, 
Winchester, Martinsburg and ether points, and considerable sums 
were offered as prizes. 

Theatricals, also, were patronized. On the evenings of February 
15 and 16, 1811, a performance was given for the purpose of raising 
funds to purchase a fire-engine. What became of the scheme does 
not appear by the Gazette , the editor not saying a single word about 
it, simply publishing the advertisement. In the following September 
a theatrical troupe played “Matrimony, or the Prisoners,” “The 
Rival Soldiers,” “Love Laughs at Locksmiths,” and “The Wag of 
Windsor,” at Mr. Billmire’s tavern. The “ American Museum of Wax 
Figures,” also gave an exhibition about this time at the “Martinsburg 
Inn,” kept by Mr. Pentoney. 





The first indications hereabouts of’ the war of 1812-14- is an adver- 
tisement signed by Lieut. Lewis P. Willis, U. S. A., who established 
a recruiting rendezvous in Martinsburg and calls for “ Men of patriot- 
ism, courage and enterprise.” 

July 4, 1814, a grand celebration was held in Martinsburg. All 
political differences were laid aside, and to do that involved a struggle, 
no doubt, that was very trying, for the bitterness that prevailed over 
the war issue was scarcely equaled in the days of 1861-05. Yet those 
old worthies of 1812-14 exhibited more of a fellow-feeling for each 
other than their descendants. All must bow at that day before the 
grand idea of celebrating the Nation’s Natal Day — Federal and Be- 
publican joined hands when the name of Washington and the Declara- 
tion of Independence was mentioned. They had speeches and toasts 
and whisky, and a procession, and a grand dinner at Mr. Gouiding's 
Inn, and everybody was happy and had a headache next morning. 

In August of this year a large camp-meeting was held not far 
from Martinsburg on the land of John Campbell. 

The following curious advertisement appears June 30, 1814, and 
is worthy of a reproduction here: 

A White Negro. — Fifty Dollars Reward . — Ban away on Sunday 
the 19th instant, from Barnett Lee, in Berkeley County, and on the 
22d instant was purchased by the subscriber, living at Berkeley 
Springs, where the reward will be paid, together with all reasonable 
charges for the delivery of the said boy — called Losson ; he adds Thorn- 
ton to his name— perhaps he may call himself Thornton or Losson. 
lie is as white as any man on earth, but a slave for life; his hair is 
red and turned up behind with a nice curl; has blue eyes; is a little 
cross-eyed, and but for that would be very likely; is five feet ten 
inches in height, or thereabouts; is about twenty years of age; he had 
on and took with him a light summer coat of cotton striped blue, a 
swan-down vest striped black, two cotton ditto striped of some color 
not remembered; a roundabout white chain filled in with black wool, 
almost black itself — pantaloons of the same; an old fur hat that lops 
a little on the side, but it is more than probable he may have a new 
hat by this time; he had on half-worn shoes; had three shirts, one 
linen and two muslin, two of them considerably worn. 

If this man Losson knew I had bought him, Mr. Lee tells me, that 
he would come home to me, as the white negro expressed a great 
desire to be sold to me. I never saw him myself, but the man has 
seen me, I suppose. I would be thankful to those who may have any 
knowledge of said fellow, for the earliest information of my purchase, 
and if he comes in himself lie shall have the above reward. 

June 23, 1814. Robert Bailey. 


’ V' j 



In 1819 Anthony Blond ell conducts the jewelry and silversmith 
business, and David Scott is a watch and clock-maker, while Adam 
Stewart, Jacob Poisal and Joseph Semans are the shoemakers, and 
Solomon Hedges carries on cabinet-making. Mr. William Kroesen is 
proprietor of the “ Columbian Inn,” the most noted tavern in this sec- 
tion of country at the time. 

In 1825 financial matters had become much easier, the effect of the 
war having worn off to a considerable extent. New businesses were 
springing up. A woolen cloth factory was in operation in Martins- 
burg, with C. G. Oonradt as proprietor, and there were many fine 
stores, among which was one kept by James P. Erskine & Co. 

During the year 1825 India rubber was introduced into the United 
States, and as an illustration of the great progress made since that 
time in an article now so generally used for ten thousand purposes, 
the following is copied from the Gazette: 

“India Bubber Shoes. — These shoes, some of which have been 
imported into Philadelphia from South America, are spoken of as 
very comfortable and useful articles. Indeed, says the National 
Gazette, their advantages must appear evident, when the elasticity and 
impenetrability of the gum of which they are made, are compared 
with the thin and absorbing quality of the leather or stuffs of which 
shoes are commonly manufactured. Females are becoming to exhibit 
a little more prudence in their winter apparel, and it is very likely 
that the bill of mortality would be most happily lessened, were these 
gum elastic shoes substituted for the fashionable sandals which are 
now in use.” 

May 17, 1825, a meeting of citizens for the formation of a library 
society, was held at the reading room of Mr. Evans, and Dr. Ilichard 
McSherry was called to the chair, and Charles J. Faulkner was ap- 
pointed secretary. The committee previously appointed reported in 
substance as follows: The association to be called the “ Martinsburg 
Library Society.” Shares were issued, each member of the society 
being obliged to own one share at least, valued at §2. The following 
were the first officers: President— Dr. Thomas Davis. Directors — 

Bev. Charles P. Krauth, David Holmes Conrad, John F. Snodgrass, 
Dr. Bichard McSherry. Librarian — James N. Biddle. Treasurer — 
William N. Biddle. 

On the afternoon of June 1, 1825, the most terrific storm known 
in this section occurred. The wind and rain was fearful and being 




accompanied by bail, the damage was very great. The storm seemed 
to rage the fiercest in the Back Creek Valley, but extended eastward 
about five miles. Entire fields of the growing crops were cut off or 
leveled with the ground, and as the wheat was in f ull head and heavy 
it could not rise again, thereby causing the destruction of thousands 
of bushels of grain. From the description in the old Gcizetfe this 
must have been what we would now call a cyclone. 

On the loth of June, 1889, the day preceding the one when the 
writer copied the above from the old files of newspapers, a storm 
occurred in Berkeley County that is asserted by old citizens to be the 
severest on record. As in the storm of 1825, whole fields of grain 
were destroyed and many valuable fruit and other trees broken off and 
rendered useless except for fire-wood. One farmer alone lost 300 of 
his best fruit trees. Shortly before this storm, the heaviest flood 
known to residents along the Potomac spread devastation and ruin 
among hundreds of families. The Potomac rose seven and a half feet 
higher than the highest water-mark on record at that time, and swept 
away many bridges, including all on the Potomac except three. In 
Martinsburg along the Tuscarora Creek much property was injured, 
and throughout the county nearly all of the bridges were swept away, 
causing immense loss and inconvenience. 

July 4, 1825, Martinsburg celebrated the birth of the nation in 
splendid style. The day being fine, at an early hour the handsome 
corps of riflemen under the command of Capt. Erskine, paraded in the 
public square. Moses T. Hunter, Esq., was the orator of the day and 
Gen. Elisha Boyd read the Declaration of Independence. Several 
gentlemen of the engineer corps engaged in laying off the route of 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal were invited to join the festivities, among 
whom were Col. Abert, Lieuts. McComb, Findlay, Berry and Vail. 
The procession formed under the direction of the marshal, Col. 
Gregory, assisted by Capt. Lauck, the line being “graced by the 
presence of a large number of the ladies, who walked in the parade 
with the same pride that swelled in every bosom and beamed in every 
eye,” to use the language of the patriotic old editor of the Gazette , 
Mr. Washington Evans. After the oration and reading the happy throng 
moved to the place of Capt. Hansom, near Martinsburg, and partook 
of a plentiful dinner prepared by Mr. John McCleary, at which Col. 
Hunter and Col. Gregory presided. A number of toasts were drunk, 
and from the collection the three following splendid specimens 



have been selected for reproduction. We of this highly cultured and 
superlatively improved epoch, are too prone to look upon things of 
the past as being something not at all to be thought of as equaling our 
efforts— a little crude, in fact, if not even boorish, and especially Fourth 
of July Celebrations, with what we are pleased patronizingly to term, 
their “spread eagle” speeches, etc. But if any modern assembly, 
with the best talent in the land to head it, can show in a group of 
toasts, three of them with as much meaning, as much beauty of 
expression, or as much conciseness and comprehensiveness combined, 
as in these three Martinsburg efforts of 1825, then the pen hereof 
shall be forever silent on the subject. This trio of gems — deserving 
“frames of gold and letters of silver” — are as follows: 

“Let the subjects of crowned despots keep the birth-days of their 
masters: — we celebrate the birth-day of our freedom.” 

“The devoted band of patriots who declared us free; — would you 
try them by their peers : — go to Thermopylae.’* 

“Lafayette, the man without fear and without reproach. His 
whole history is a proof that the days of chivalry are not over.” 

After an interchange of courtesies, much harmless hilarity and a 
general strengthening of the sentiments of liberty among all, the 
company returned to town at an early hour, terminating the festive 
occasion wnth a grand ball at the Globe Tavern. 

Politics in those old days ran high, and if we think these latter 
days have monopolized all the bitterness we are greatly mistaken. 
Gen. Jackson was running in 1825 and the Gazette was strongly 
opposed to his election. It published all the current charges against 
the old hero of New* Orleans, and made light of his nomination. 
Jackson was then United States senator, and when he became the 
nominee of his party he resigned his senatorship, fearing that he 
might be charged with corruption and intrigue if he retained his 
position while running, whereupon the editor of the Gazette remarked 
that “ General Jackson may remain quiet; he has climbed the ladder 
of political fame as high as he will ever get — he will never become 
president of the United States,” but that writer was not the only one 
who ever predicted backwards; half of the newspapers of the country 
made the same mistake a year or so ago. 

The current prices for the leading marketable products on Sep- 
tember 22, 1825, in Martinsburg may be interesting: 





Flour, per barrel 

Wheat, per bushel 

Rye, per bushel . 

Corn, per bushel 

Oats, per bushel. 

Potatoes, per bushel 

Apples, per bushel 

Beef, per pound 

Pork, per pound . . 

Yeal, per pound 

Butter, per pound 

Eggs, per dozen 

Peach Brandy, per gallon . . . . 

xlpple Brandy, per gallon 

Whisky, first proof, per gallon 

$4 00 @ 4 50 
55 @ 60 

30 @ 33 

30 @ 35 

20 @ 25 
40 @ 50 

20 @ 25 

4 @ 5 

4 @ 5 

4 @ 5 

10 @ 12 
6 @ 8 
80 @ 1 00 
34 @ 35 

244 @ 25 

Two fires about one month apart destroyed considerable property 
in 1825. The first occurred October 23, and was the large stone 
merchant, grist, plaster and clover mills of Gen. Elisha Boyd, located 
on Mill Creek. It contained a large amount of grain, including 103 
bushels of clover seed. The general’s loss was §12,000, and the loss 
of other individuals about §4,000. There seemed to be an epidemic 
in fires during the preceding few years, for in addition to several less 
destructive conflagrations there were four other merchant mills in 
the county consumed by the flames during the three years last past 
the date given. 

November 18, a disastrous fire broke out in Martinsburg at 10 
o’clock at night, destroying five buildings: two stone dwelling houses, 
a stone kitchen, a frame house and a stable. The fire originated in 
Col. John Strother’s stable, spreading to his dwelling and a dwelling 
occupied by Abel Dunham. There seems to have been no fire appa- 
ratus, as the trustees of the town immediately voted §500 for the 
purpose of purchasing a fire engine. The scheme for obtaining an 
engine by funds resulting from the theatrical performances given in 
1811, must have fallen through, or they could not raise the money. 

Early in the 30s, Mr. Edmund P. Hunter became proprietor of 
the Gazette and the paper became the Martinsburg Gazette and Pub- 
lic Advertiser. By this time the managers of newspapers had grasped 
in part, at least, the idea of a local column, for in this paper of April 
25, 1833, several local matters are given under a separate heading 
from the balance of the news. The superior court of chancery had 
just closed its sessions in Martinsburg, and the local editor gives 
some account of the proceedings of the court. Judge Richard E. 



Parker presided. The editor states that criminal cases are rare and 
even breaches of the peace are uncommon, and felicitates the citizens 
of Berkeley upon this state of affairs, and consolingly says : “Although 
the editor is a member of the legal profession, he rejoices in this con- 
dition of things.” 

Extensive fires in the country are reported. There had been no 
rain for several weeks, and everything was as dry as powder, when by 
some means or other a fire was started on the farm of Harrison Waite, 
about two miles southeast of town. Large quantities of timber, fences 
and outbuildings were destroyed, and barns and residences threatened. 
The flames spread with the rapidity of a hurricane and extended to 
the plantations of William G. Burns, George Burns, William Kroesen 
and others. Two other fires were on the farms of John Sutton, Mr. 
Welsh ans and Mr. Emmert. 

A local item conveys the important information that “We are 
happy to state that the President of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal 
Company will, in the course of a few weeks, dispatch an engineer to 
this county to survey the route of a canal from this place (Martins- 
burg), along the Opequon to the Potomac.” The next issue of the 
paper gives a glowing account of the fact that the survey has been 
made and that the work will at once be begun. 

The paper bewails the fact that “a line of stages has been put 
on from Hagerstown to this place, as they will now only receive three 
mails from the east per w T eek,Avhereas by the horsemail they had one a 
day.” In this same issue the announcement is made that Charles J. 
Faulkner, John B. D. Smith and John S. Gallalier have been ap- 
pointed to settle the boundary line of Virginia, on the part of this 
State. Edward A. Gibbs has just established an iron and brass 
foundry in Martinsburg. 

Humors of the cholera approaching this section caused the trust- 
ees of the town to bestir themselves in the matter of giving Martins- 
burg a thorough cleansing. A large committee was appointed to 
attend to the matter. 

Berkeley County was quite early in the field in the caused of tem- 
perance. On May 27, 1833, a meeting of the Berkeley Temperance 
Society was held in the Lutheran Church in Martinsburg, and a 
stirring address was made by the president of the society, Mr. Ed- 
ward Colston. The officers of' the organization were: President — 

Edward Colston. Vice President — -John Doll. Secretary — John 




Strother. Treasurer — John K. Wilson. Managers — James M. 
Brown, William C. Matthews, Jacob Medtart, John N. Riddle, George 
Tabb, Hiram Henshaw, Archibald Sheerer, Christian D. Wolff and 
Adam Senaker. 

Among the occasional advertisements of tlie sale of negroes the fol- 
lowing, published in 1883, bears such a stamp of humanity about it 
that it gives the lie to the wholesale charge of heartlessness on the 
part of those who owned slaves. Those who have never lived amoim 
the “institution” as it existed in the ante helium days can not realize 
the verity of it: 

“ Negro Woman For Sale . — One that is well acquainted with 
every kind of house-work, sober and honest, sold for no fault, and 
will not be sold to a trader. Enquire of the printer.” 

“July 11, 1833.” 

The following, copied from the Gazette of July 18, 1833, shows 
that the cyclone, as 'well as the Hood, is not a modern invention: “ The 
southern portion of this county was visited by a tremendous hurricane 
on Sunday evening last. It crossed the mountain near Gerrardstown, 
and blew with violence toward Harpers Ferry, embracing several 
miles in vddth. It unroofed houses and barns, carried off quantities 
of fencing, destroyed a great deal of timber, blocked up the roads, 
and injured a great many growing crops of corn and oats. The storm 
was accompanied with hail. In a ride through a portion of Jefferson 
County over which the storm passed in its fury, we observed immense 
oak trees borne to the earth, and the large tops of some carried to 
such a distance that it was impossible to designate their original 

An account of the discovery of anthracite coal is given in a paper 
issued in September, 1833. It states that for many years the fact of 
the existence of coal in this county had been surmised, and that even 
small specimens had been exhibited, but that during the past month 
Mr. Purcell, an engineer of the canal, accompanied by several indi- 
viduals, made an examination near the source of Meadow Branch, be- 
tween the Third Hill Mountain and Sleepy Creek Mountain, and after 
diiTfifintr a few feet under the surface of the earth encountered a “ bed 
of anthracite coal of the finest quality.” The engineer reported that 
from the physical analogy of the region in this county to the coal fields 
of Pennsylvania, that coal must exist here in great abundance. A 
large specimen weighing several pounds was labeled and sent to the 
Virginia Historical Society. 



In November of this year, 1833, occurred the great meteorological 
display, undoubtedly the finest ever witnessed by. man. The editor of 
the paper makes a note of it the day following, and says that although 
he did not see it himself, those who had that pleasure describe it as being 
wonderful: “the heavens appearing to be wrapped in a blaze of light, 
with hundreds of shooting stars flying in every direction.” The fol- 
lowing issue of the paper gives glowing accounts of the rare scene, 
and the various theories then prevalent, not one of which hinted at 
the now accepted cause known almost to a certainty to science — the 
existence of a great meteor-zone lying near the earth’s orbit. 

As a fitting conclusion to the comparatively primitive era, at least 
in many things, of the days preceding 1835, in the lower valley, and 
as an important precursor of the progress that at the date given was 
about to begin, the following advertisement seems appropriately to 
have a place in this work. It is the first advertisement in relation to 
a railroad train, and the first approach to a schedule ever published 
in this section of country and must have been, consequently, the first 
ever printed in a newspaper west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, 
through the whole extent of country stretching to the Pacific, and for 
that matter clear around the world till it struck England. And 
strange to say, this important event, one of the most momentous in 
the world’s history, received not one word of notice in the paper in 
which it was printed. Politics in 1834 was too important a matter 
upon which to waste a line of the valuable space of a newspaper in 
reference to such a common-place affair as the inauguration of a rail- 
road, even if that railroad teas, the first to stretch its giant arms over 
these mountains, and to bring cities and towns and villages closer bv 
days and weeks to a market for their products. But here is the 
quaint schedule: 



Between Harper’s Ferry and Baltimore. 

T HE CONVEYANCE OP TONNAGE on the Bail Road to and 
from HARPER’S FERRY, will take place on and after Monday 
next, the 1st of December. 

on Wednesday the 3d of December. 

The Rail Road Company will until further notice, receive Produce 
and Commodities generally, at the termination of the Railway at 








Harper’s Ferry, and will give to the parties from whom they may 
receive such produce receipts for the same, engaging to deliver it to 
the consignees in Baltimore, or at any other public or private Depot, 
in good order, when it shall be delivered in such order to the Company. 

They will also receive produce in like manner, at Wever’s Mill, 
and at Berlin, or at such other points as may hereafter be agreed upon 
with forwarders. 

The charge of the Company for conveying flour to Baltimore will 
be as follows, viz: 

From Harper’s Ferry, 33 cts per bbl. 

Wever’s Mill, ' 32 do do 

Berlin, 31 do do 

The Bail Boad Company will also receive Goods or other commod- 
ities in Baltimore, — or any other public or private Depot on the Bail 
Boad, — destined for Harper’s Ferry, — transport and, immediately on 
arrival, deliver the same at the termination of the Bailway, to the 
consignee thereof. 

The charges by the Company for such conveyance from Baltimore 
to the Ferry will be as follows, viz: 

Plaster of Paris, per ton, §2.10. 

Salt & Salted Fish per 100 lbs. 14J cts 

Merchandise, do 22 J do 

Trains of Wagons will start daily from Harper’s Ferry and from 
Baltimore and proceed regularly to those places, respectively, and all 
commodities wflll be promptly forwarded in their successive order 
after being received by the Company. 

Fair prices can be obtained at all times for the GONDOLAS from 
which produce may at .any place have been delivered to the Bail 
Boad Com pan v. 

The TB A NSPOBTATION OF PASSENGEBS will, until further 
notice, be as follows, viz: 


A Train will start at 8 in the morning 


A Train will start every morning at seven o’clock, reaching the 
Ferry at about three in the afternoon. 

Superintendent of B. & O. B. B. 

Office of Transportation, Dec. 4, 1834. 






The Trustee Form of Government— Enlarged Powers— The Act— First 
Officers— Nuisances— Market Eules— Trustees vs. Parrett— James 
Faulkner as a Justice— “No Property Found’'— A Famous Dog Case— 
“Trustees vs. Snowdell et ux.”— Spirit of Improvement— Petition 
of Faulkner, et als.— No Riding on Sidewalks— Tax List— Old 
Market House— Incorporation of Martinsburg— The Act— First 
Proceedings— More Improvements— Fire Engines— The War Period 
— “A Messenger from Winchester” — A Sad Municipal Entry— From 
’62 to ’65— Reorganization — Still Further Improvement— A New 
Charter— List of Officers — List of Justices — Sheriffs’ County 
Clerks, Prosecuting Attorneys— Circuit Court Judges and Clerks 
—Other Officers— Practicing Attorneys. 

~U)ECOMING tired of the old system of justice courts as applied to 
^ their growing little city, the citizens of Martinsburg applied to the 
General Assembly of the Commonwealth to grant them by law the 
privilege of electing a set of trustees to regulate and oversee their 
town matters. So, in response to the reasonable request the follow- 
ing act was passed February 9, 1813: 

“An act concerning the town of Martinsburg in the County of 

“ Be it enacted by the General Assembly, that it shall and may be 
lawful for the free white male freeholders and housekeepers above the 
age of twenty-one years, who shall have been resident in the town of 
Martinsburg in the County of Berkeley twelve months next preceding 
every election to be held by virtue of this act, and all free white male 
persons above the age of twenty-one years, being citizens of Virginia 
and freeholders in said town, whether residents of said town or not, to 
meet at the Court House of Berkeley County within the said town, on 
the first Monday of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirteen, and on the first Monday of April in every second 
year thereafter, and then and there (under the superintendence of 
one or more justices of the peace of Berkeley County resident in the 
said town), nominate and elect seven fit-persons, being freeholders 



and residents of said town, to serve as trustees thereof, who shall 
continue in office until the next succeeding election (provided they 
continue to reside in said town), and no longer, unless re-elected. 
And it shall be the duty of the justice or justices, superintending the 
election as aforesaid, to notify the persons thus elected as trustees 
within five days thereafter. 

“ Every trustee, before he enters on the execution of the duties 
required by this act, shall take an oath, or make solemn affirmation, 
before a justice of the peace for the County of Berkeley, that he will, 
faithfully and impartially, to the best of his skill and judgment, per- 
form his duty according to this act; whereupon all the rights vested 
in, and powers given by the law to, the trustees appointed for said 
town before the passage of this act, shall cease to exist in the said 
former trustees, and shall vest in the trustees chosen by virtue of this 
act, who are hereby made a body corporate and politic by the name 
of £ The Trustees of the Town of Martinsburg.’ 

“ The said trustees chosen by virtue of this act, and qualified as 
aforesaid, or any four of them, shall have power to make bye-laws and 
ordinances for the regulation and good government of the said town; 
and the same to amend, alter and repeal, at their pleasure; and to 
enforce obedience thereto by such penalties as they shall think fit, 
not exceeding ten dollars for any one offense, recoverable by warrant 
before any justice of the peace for the said county of Berkeley: 
Provided, such by-laws and ordinances shall not be repugnant to, or 
inconsistent with, the laws and constitution of the State or of the 
United States. 

“The said trustees, chosen by virtue of this act, and qualified as 
aforesaid, or any four of them, shall have power to remove or abate 
nuisances, or cause the same to be done ; to repair the public streets 
and alleys; and to do, or cause to be done, all other things necessary 
for the benefit of the said town ; and to assess taxes on the inhabit- 
ants, and all property within the bounds of the said town, for the 
purposes aforesaid, and such other purposes as they shall think fit, 
for the benefit of said town; — provided that the assessments and 
taxes aforesaid shall not exceed seventy-five cents on each titliable, 
and five per cent on tiie annual rents of real property within said 
town, in any one year, agreeably to the books of the commissioners 
of the revenue in Berkeley County. 

“ The trustees shall have power to appoint one of their own body 

il: ;!Q - i ./ul 



to preside at their meetings, who shall continue in office, as president, 
during the pleasure of the trustees; and in case of his absence, the 
trustees may appoint a president pro tempore , who shall have power 
to call a meeting of said trustees, whenever he shall think fit, any 
four of whom may proceed to business. They shall keep a fair 
record of their proceedings and accounts of monies by them received 
and disbursed. Every trustee who shall refuse or neglect to meet, 
when required, not having a reasonable excuse (to be judged by the 
board of trustees), shall for such refusal or neglect, forfeit and pay a 
fine, not exceeding, fifty dollars, to be collected by the collector here- 
inafter to be appointed, as other assessments, and applied to the use of 
said town. 

“The said trustees shall have power (upon the petition in writing 
of two-thirds of the freeholders of any section or part of the said 
town, or of so many of such freeholders as represent, or hold, in their 
own demesne as of fee, two-thirds, in value, of the houses and lots in 
such section or part of said town, praying a bye-law to pass for pav- 
ing the sidewalks of such section or part of the town, at the expense 
of the owners of the houses and lots in such section or part of the 
town, in proportion to their property held there) to pass such bye- 
law", if they think it reasonable, and to enforce obedience to the same, 
as in case of any other bye-law made by them. 

“ The trustees shall meet at the court house of Berkeley County in 
the said town of Martin sburg, within fifteen days next after their 
election, and being qualified as this act directs, may proceed to execute 
the duties required thereby. 

“This act shall commence and be in force from and after the first 
day of March next. 

“Wm. Muneord, 

“ Keeper of the Bolls." 

The act also provides for the filling of the places of trustees in 
case of death, resignation, etc. ; to render a true account of their 
transactions; for the appointment of a tax collector; and stipulations 
reserving the rights acquired before the passage of this act, etc. ; which 
is not necessary here to reproduce. 

In pursuance of the foregoing an election w r as held, w hich resulted 
in the selection of the following gentlemen as trustees: David Hunter, 
Elisha Boyd, William Gregory, Edward A. Gibbs, John S. Harrison, 
Thomas C. Smith, and Obed Waite; David Hunter w*as chosen pres- 




ident of the board; Obed Waite, clerk; Charles A. Stewart, collector 
of taxes, and Thomas C. Smith, treasurer. 

The first business after the organization in April, 1818, was the 
drafting and enactment of a number of by-laws for the better govern- 
ment of the town, the appointment of a market master, and laying 
down a set of regulations to govern the market. Peter Shaffer was 
made clerk of the market. 

The first by-law was, naturally, against nuisances. The city fathers 
made it punishable with fines to permit any dead animal to remain on 
their premises, and failing to remove it at least 200 yards from the 
town limits, and 200 yards from the dwelling house of any person. 
Also, prohibiting any “blue-dyer or hatter” from throwing any dye- 
stuff in or near the public spring, and that no one should wash in or 
near the said spring any dirty linen or other wearing apparel. No 
lumber, wood, dirt, sticks or stones were to be thrown on the streets, 
alleys or public square of the town under a penalty of uot less than one 
nor more than ten dollars, provided, of course, none of the articles 
named used for building purposes were included in the proscription. 
It was also enacted that where any person apprehended danger from 
fire emanating from smiths’ shops or other shops, houses or buildings 
without a stone or brick chimney or stovepipe not sufficiently high, 
they could have the same declared a nuisance and removed. Galloping 
or “ straining ” horses in the public streets was likewise prohibited, 
under a penalty of §2.50, and if the offender be a servant or slave, 
unless the master pay the fine for him, the offender was to receive such 
number of lashes, not exceeding fifteen, as a magistrate would adjudge. 
No person was to shoot or fire a gun, rifle, or pistol, except for the 
purpose of killing “ pigeons, mad dogs, or other fowls,” which it may 
be lawful to shoot. Also, that no chimney was to be burned out in 
dry weather, but when the roofs were covered with snow or were wet, 
and if they caught and burned with a blaze out of the top, then the 
owner or occupier was liable to a fine. The usual rules regulating the 
old markets were enacted, prohibiting the sale anywhere in the town by 
any person, except at the market house until after nine o’clock in the 
morning, all kinds of meats, fish, game, vegetables, eggs, butter, 
fowls, and any other kind of produce; empowering the clerk of the 
market to seize all unsound or diseased products, and all light-weight 
butter, etc. A by-law was passed in September, laying the taxes for 
the year 1818 at §2.50 on every §100 of the rent of any property, and 
50 cents on each tithable person. 



The first case on the records for infraction of the by-laws of the 
town was “ Trustees of Martinsburg vs. William Parrett.” And it 
seems to have been quite an important event, at least judging from 
the array of prominent names in connection with the matter. Thomas 
C. Smith, a prominent merchant and one of the trustees of the town laid 
the information before himself and several of his fellow-trustees, 
whereupon they obtained the magisterial services of James Faulkner 
who was a justice of the peace at the time, and that gentleman issued 
a summons for the apprehension of “ said Parrett,” directed to any 
constable of Berkeley County. At the bottom of the old time-browned 
document, entirely written, over the signature of James Faulkner, ap- 
pears the additional direction to “summon the following persons as 
witnesses: A S. Dandridge, Conrad Ilogmire, Meverill Locke and 

Charles D. Stewart.” Squire William Riddle tried the case, or at 
least rendered judgment against the defendant, in the sum of 82.50 
fine and thirty cents costs, with seventy-two cents for 'witnesses. It is 
altogether probable Mr. Parrett failed to put in an appearance, for on 
the back of Squire Faulkner’s summons is the endorsement “ No prop- 
erty found.” The terrible charge, as stated in the summons is that 
■“a certain William Parrett did, on the 22d inst., strain a horse on 
Queen street in the town of Martinsburg.” This was in February, IS 14. 

Another case of almost equal importance as the one just given 
•occurred a little later on, in April: “Trustees vs. Snowdell and ux." 

The charge as stated in the summons -was “a certain Jacob Snowdell 
and his wife Catherine did lay a dead dog at the house of Juliann 
Smurr in the Town of Martinsburg.” An endorsement on the back 
states: “ Dismissed at the Pltf’s cost.” 

# The thriving little town seemed to be ambitious of advancement, 
and she appears to have had property-holders who would be an ex- 
ample not only for the Martinsburg of the present day, but for many 
larger cities, where it is a constant fight between the corporate authori- 
ties and the property-holders in the matter of improvements. In 
many cities protest after protest is entered against grading, opening 
and improving streets, but in 1814, when money was scarce, the 
spectacle is witnessed of the majority of the owners of business houses 
and dwellings petitioning the trustees to pass an ordinance compelling 
themselves and the others on Queen Street from Burk to King Street 
to pave at their own expense and grade the same, the sidewalks in 
front of their property. The trustees favorably heard the petitioners 
and promptly passed the by-law, and following is a portion of it: 



“ Whereas, James Faulkner, Thomas G. Smith, Daniel Burkhart, 
Jacob Hamme, George Porterfield, George Wolff, Nicholas Marquart, 
John Hooper, Adam Young, and Philip C. Pendleton (being two- 
thirds of the freeholders in that section or part of the Town of Mar- 
tinsburg, on both sides of Queen, from King to Burk Street, and 
holding in their own demesne as of fee, two-thirds in value of the 
houses and lots in said section or part of said town) have presented a 
petition in writing to the Trustees of the /Town of Martinsburg, 
praying a by-law to pass for paving the sidewalks of the said 
section or part of the town at the expense of the owners of the houses 
and lots in the said section or part of the town in proportion to their 
property held there: and the Board of Trustees have taken the said 
petition under serious consideration, and having materially deliberated 
upon the subject thereof it is the opinion of the board that the prayer 
of the said petitioners is reasonable and that the said board, etc.” 

Then follow the stipulations in regard to the kind of pavement, 
which was to be of either good flag-stone or brick, with a substantial 
.curbing and a gutter. All porches were to be taken down on Queen 
Street between King and Burk Streets, and all cellar doors leveled with 
the pavement. To facilitate matters James Faulkner, William Long 
and Jacob Hamme were appointed commissioners to see that the work 
was carried out. The time stipulated for the finishing of the work, 
horrever, was too short, and a petition from the majority of the house- 
holders asked further time; they were: Daniel Burkhart, Ignatius 
O’Ferrall, John A. Stewart, Abraham Levy, James Faulkner, William 
Long, Jacob Hamme and Edward Beeson. Time was granted till 
November. Improvements having begun they were gradually ex- 
tended to other sections of the town, for at a meeting of the trustees 
in September, a resolution was passed that three commissioners be 
appointed to view the streets and the market-house and report what 
repairs were necessary thereon. William Gregory, Edward A. Gibbs 
and David Hunter w^ere the committee. At this same meeting a 
by-law was passed prohibiting riding on the sidewalks. 

What the population of Martinsburg was at this time, 1814, is now 
difficult to determine, but, judging from the taxes received for that 
year, it was not large. The committee appointed to view the streets- 
and market-house, in making their report to the board, incidentally 
give an idea of the matter, for they state that as the taxes “will not 
exceed $450,” they of course must keep the appropriations within that 

t ' 



sum, etc. A number of the streets were improved, the following sums 
being appropriated: For market-house, §70; Queen Street, -§150; 

King, §60; Burk, §40; German, §20; John, §30; Martin, §10; 
Stephen, §8; College Alley, §12; Spring, §5 — §405 in all. Quite a 
respectable sum at that time. 

At the election in April, 1815, the same board of trustees as 
previously, were elected, with one exception. It then stood, David 
Hunter, John S. Harrison, William Gregory, Robert Wilson, Elisha 
Boyd, Obed Waite and Edward A. Gibbs. Mr. Hunter was again 
selected as president, and Obed Waite, clerk of the board. William 
Gregory was ordered to prdcure two sledge hammers, two crow-bars, 
one set of tools for blowing rocks and two shovels, for the hands, and 
render an account, etc., and he was also ordered to repair Queen 
Street and Burk Street and draw r on the clerk for the expense, “which 
is not to exceed §10.” At the next meeting in May among other 
matters transacted was the appointment of a committee consisting of 
William Gregory, Robert Wilson, and Obed Waite, to examine the 
stalls in the market house, fix prices on them and rent them. Sev- 
eral appropriations were made to various streets in the town, and 
altogether their seems to have been a spirit of improvement abroad 
that was quite commendable. All the business was concentrated on 
Queen Street between Burk and King Streets, and the old market 
house stood in the center of the public square. It was a rough, 
rambling building and not enclosed on its sides. 

In 1856 application was made by the leading citizens to the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the commonwealth for that body to pass an act in- 
corporating the town of Martinsburg, which request was complied with 
in March of that year, the law to take effect the first Monday in May 
of the next year. Accordingly an election was held at the time speci- 
fied, and the first entry in the minute book of the council is as fol- 
lows : 

“ Pursuant to ‘ An act for the election of a Mayor and Council and 
other officers of the town of Martinsburg, and to define their duties 
and powers, passed March 6, 1856,’ an election was held on the first 
Monday in May, 1857, for one fit and proper person for Mayor of the 
said corporation, and for two fit and proper persons from each of the 
three wards as Councilmen, and for one fit and proper person from 
each of the said wards as sergeants thereof, when the following per- 
sons were duly elected: 





“Mayor — John Q. A. Nadenbouscli. 

“ Councilmen — -First Ward, Bernard Doll, E. G. Alburtis; Second 
Ward, Dennis Murphy, Philip Diffenderfer ; Third Ward, George F. 
Rutherford, Patrick Cunningham. 

“Sergeants — First Ward, George A. Sehoppert; Second Ward, 
Thomas P. Hollis; Third Ward, S. S. Dowlan ” 

At a meeting of the council on the 5th day of May, 1857, were- 
present the mayor, J. Q. A. Nadenbouscli, and Councilmen Diffenderfer, 
Cunningham, Rutherford and Doll. 

Bernard Doll was appointed clerk pro tern, and on motion of P. 
Diffenderfer, the laws then in force were accepted for the government 
of the corporation, and to continue in force until new ordinances be 
adopted. Application was made to the county authorities for the use 
of the jail for corporation offenders, which was granted, and suitable 
rooms w r ere ordered to be procured for the use of the council. Ser- 
geants were required to give bonds in the sum of §1.000 each for the 
faithful performance of their duties. 

At the next meeting, May 16, E. G. Alburtis was elected clerk, 
Bernard Doll, treasurer, and W. II. Mathew r s, market master. 

Many improvements were at once inaugurated, the first being the 
ordering the better paving of the sidewalks on Queen Street. Other 
streets followed during this year and rules for governing the market 
were enacted. Steps also v r ere taken for providing the little fire engine 
with a shed in the rear of the market house. 

To give an idea of the great increase in the valuation of property 
since 1857, the following figures are copied from the estimate for the 
town levy: Estimated amount of rents in First Ward, §17,665; Second 
Ward, §15,388; Third Ward, §8,793; Total, §41,838. 

There were in the town, 585 tithables; 211 dogs; 7 hotels; 14 
pleasure carriages; 7 carts, drays and wagons; 7 ale houses; 9 car- 
riages at livery. 

May 5, 1858, the officers elected w r ere: 

Mayor — Anthony S. Chambers. 

Councilmen — First Ward, Bernard Doll, A. M. Yanarsdale; Sec- 
ond Ward, J. PI. Blondell, M. J. C. Hoffman; Third Ward, P. Cun- 
ningham, David A. Cline. 

Sergeants — First Ward, George A. Sehoppert; Second Ward, 
Thomas P. Hollis; Third Ward, James F. Reed. 

Clerk — A. M. Yanarsdale. 



Treasurer — -Bernard Doll. 

During this year Burk Street and a number of other streets were 
ordered to be improved. 

May 5, 1859. — Mayor, Philip Diffenderfer. 

Councilman — First Ward, Bernard Doll, E. G. Alburtis; Second 
Ward, J. H. Blondell, Charles M. Shaffer; Third Ward, John Weller,. 
George F. Rutherford. 

Clerk — E. G. Alburtis. 

Treasurer — Bernard Doll. 

At the meeting of the council, May 7, J. H. Blondell, E. G. 
Alburtis and C. M. Shaffer were appointed a committee to make inves- 
tigations in regard to the price, construction, etc., of a new fire engine 
and report the same to the council, which they did on the 12th, at 

which meeting J. H. Blondell was instructed to make a thorough ex- 
es t~> 

animation of the First Baltimore Hose Company’s engine, and if it 
was satisfactory to purchase. A favorable report being returned by 
Mr. Blondell the “ machine ” was purchased for the sum of $762.50. 
During this year great improvements were going on in paving, and 
many persons objected to going to the expense of laying new sidewalks, 
or in fact laying any. Many of the objectors had to be fined, and 
some of them repeatedly, before they could be made to fall into line 
with the progressive citizens who desired to improve their little city. 
May 10, 1860. — Mayor, A. S. Chambers. 

Councilmen — First Ward, Joshua Homrich, Bernard Doll; Second 
Ward, C. M. Shaffer, M. J. C. Hoffman; Third Ward, Joseph S. 
Chambers, George F. Rutherford. 

Clerk — Bernard Doll. 

Treasurer — C. M. Shaffer. 

May 8, 1861. — Mayor, A. S. Chambers. 

Councilmen — First Ward, Bernard Doll, C. W. Doll; Second Ward,. 
C. M. Shaffer, James Mathews; Third Ward, G. F. Rutherford, J. S. 

Clerk— L. W. Doll. 

Treasurer — C. M. Shaffer. 

Matters in Martinsburg at this date were in a terribly unsettled 
condition, but bad as it was it was only a slight breath of the storm 
that was to break around her during the next four years. Many 
valuable lives were to be sacrificed, homes broken up and property 
destroyed, before white-winged peace would again hover over the- 




little billed city at the gate of the great valley. Yet scarcely any indi- 
cation of what was going on around them appeared in the recorded 
proceedings of the council. Those were times when men had to be 
cautious. No one could tell who would occupy the town to-morrow. 
So it behooved the city fathers, as well as all others, to keep their 
public mouths closed, and to be chary of what they instructed their 
clerks to put down in black and white. Only one business entry 
indicates for this whole two or three months of almost continued war- 
fare anything to tell of the awful drama. One of the minutes of the 
proceedings states that the council appropriated “$25 for the relief 
of the families of soldiers who were away.” But it does not state to 
what kind of soldiers. There were decidedly two classes of soldiers 
who went from Martinsburg, and there were most decidedly two classes 
of opinions here. One can not tell from the records whether gray or 
whether blue received the benefit. 

Another record, in the proceedings of July 23, stands simple and 
sad in its simplicity: It tells one of the most sorrowful tales ever 

recorded. The elder Martinsburg resident will recall that gloomy 
episode in the annals of the first year’s strife. The minute speaks its 
own unwelcome tidings: 

“A messenger from Winchester arrived announcing the battle of 
Manasses, and the expected arrival of the bodies of Peyton B. Harri- 
son, Holmes A. Conrad, Tucker Conrad and John Fryatt, whereupon 
the council adjourned to meet at 1 o’clock on Saturday afternoon next.” 

After this last meeting no further proceedings occur until 1862, 
where the record states that no regular election took place at the 
proper date, and then a further skip is made to July 12, 1865. That 
hiatus in the proceedings is eloquent in its very silence. 

July 12, 1865, a special meeting was held with A. S. Chambers, 
the last mayor elected, present, Bernard Doll, C. M. Shaffer, J. S. 
Chambers, G. F. Butherford, C. W. Doll. A special election was 
ordered to be held, and as a result the following officers appear on 
September 11, 1865: Mayor, James Mathews; clerk, George B. 

Wisong; treasurer, George F. Butherford. 

1866 — James Mathews, mayor; William Wilen, clerk. 

1867 — J. W. Ilobinson, mayor; Frank Burr, clerk. 

In 1868 the charter of the town was re-enacted and amended by 
the Legislature of West Virginia, and several changes were made. 
The number of wards was retained, but the time of election was made 













J ff- J ft 



to occur on the fourth, instead of the first, Monday in May. Addi- 
tional powers were granted to the corporate authorities, under which 
many important improvements have been accomplished. 

Up to 1870 Martin sburg had no defense against fire save one of 
the old-style, ineffective fire-engines, but in September of that year 
the council appropriated a sum of money for the purchase of a steamer. 
A committee was selected to make choice of a first-class engine and 
apparatus, and they contracted with the Silsby Manufacturing 
Company for one of their best rotary steam engines of fine power, and 
the town is now in possession of a splendid defense against conflagra- 
tions of any extent. The sum paid for the machine, including hose 
and other necessary apparatus, was about §8,000, and it was a good 
investment,- for property holders now feel a security they never felt 
before its purchase. 

Several special acts of legislation were obtained in 1872, among 
which was one “ for the extension of the corporate limits of the town 
of Martinsburg ;” one for the purpose of authorizing the corporate 
authorities to issue bonds for the purpose of repairing streets and 
public highways, and the construction of gas and water-works; and 
another amending the act passed in 1868 amending the original char- 
ter of 1856. 

An election was held in July to take the sense of the voters in 
regard to an extension of the town limits, and was carried for extension 
by a handsome majority. The town was also re-arranged in regard to 
wards, two more being added, making five in all, and a special election 
was held to fill the vacant positions in the said two. An election was 
also held in 1872 to provide for the issuing of bonds for the purpose 
of constructing water- works and repairing the streets of the town. 
The creation of a police force w*as ordered in this year. In 1873 
a water board was created, and a grant of certain privileges to the 
Martinsburg Gas Company, for up to this late date (1872-73) Martins- 
burg had neither gas nor public water-works. 

Following is a list of the mayors and clerks from the re-enactment 
of the charter for the town in 1868: 

1868 — J. N. Abel, mayor; H. N. Deatrick, clerk. 

1869- 70— J. N. Abel, mayor; J. T. Picking, clerk. 

1871 — A. P. Shutt, mayor; George Doll, clerk. 

1872- 73 — A. P. Shutt, mayor; Frank Patterson, clerk. 

1874-75 — A. S. Chambers, mayor; Archibald Oden, clerk. 



■■'■V " 








1876 — A. P. Shutt, mayor; W. G. Butler, clerk. 

1877 — P. Showers, mayor, appointed. 

1878 to 1883 — W. T. Logan, mayor; P. J. Foreman, clerk till 1872, 
when G. A. Young was elected clerk and has continued till the pres- 
ent time. 

1884 — C. O. Lambert was elected mayor and has successively 
filled the position since that date, still retaining it (1890). 

The corporate authorities are doing much to improve the town. 
Streets are being re-graded, obstructions are being removed, paving 
of sidewalks is being strenuously insisted upon, and altogether the 
ancient little city is gradually emerging from its primitive condition 
to a very beautiful and thriving place of 8,000 population. A num- 
ber of factories are in successful operation and there are prospects for 
several more in the near future. 

For purposes of preservation and reference for those who may wish 
to know wdio were the officers of the law from the formation of the 
county onward the following lists have been gleaned and prepared 
with much labor from the old records; and although there may be an 
occasional mistake, and a few omissions, yet it is as perfect as all require- 
ments necessitate: 



Ralph Wormley.. 
Jacob Hite. 

Van Swearingen. 
Thomas Rutherford. 
Adam Stephen. 

John Neville. 

Thomas Swearingen. 
Samuel Washington. 
James Nourse. 
William Little. 
Robert Stephen. 

John Briscoe. 

Hugh Lyle. 

James Strode. 
William Morgan. 
Robert Stogden. 
James Seaton. 

Robert Carter Willis. 
Thomas Robinson. 


Horatio Gates. 

Robert Stephen. 

Robert Tabb. 

John Throckmorton. 
Thomas Lowery. 
Godwin Swift. 

James Ariss. 

William Patterson. 
Morgan Morgan. 


Adam Stephen. 

John Neville. 

Samuel Washington. 
Robert Stephen. 
Horatio Gates. 

John Cooke. 

Henry W r hiting. 

Robert Worthington. 
William McGaw. 

John McAllister. 
Anthony Noble. 

John Morrow. 

Robert Throckmorton. 
John Gantt. 

Walter Baker. 

George Grundy. 
George Cunningham. 


James Nourse. 

Moses Hunter. 
Robert Baylor. 
Robert Stewart. 
George Scott. 

James Wiison. 

John Kearsley. 


John Davenport. 
William Porterfield. 


Joseph Swearingen. 
William Henshaw. 
James Maxwell. 
Nicholas Orrick. 


John Turner. 

Andrew Waggoner. 





Alexander White. 

John Kerney. 


John Briscoe. 

William Darke. 

Charles Orrick. 


James Stephenson. 

Winn Winship. 

Richard Baylor. 

Charles Orrick. 

William Alexander. 
Charles Cramer. 

George Hite. 

William Riddle. 


James Anderson. 

George North. 

Daniel Collett. 

Abraham Davenport. 
Smith Slaughter. 

Magnus Tate. 

John Hunter. 

Vau Rutherford. 

John Packett. 

William Hancher. 
George Porterfield. 


Erasmus Gantt. 

Jacob Weaver. 

Philip Nadeubousch. 
John Campbell. 


William Mackey. 

Joel Ward 
George Wolf. 

Michael Roouey. 

George Harris. 

Joseph Baldwin. 
William Pendleton. 


James Faulkner. 

James E. Throckmorton 
William Rush. 


William Riddle. 

James Faulkner. 


Thomas Robinson. 
Dougal Campbell. 
Samuel Boyd. 

Levi Henshaw. 

William Gregory. 

Jacob Weaver. 

George Harris. 

Jonathan Jones. 

Elias Edmunds. 

1818. • 
Edward Colston. 

John S. Harrison. 
William Morrison. 
Edward A. Gibbs. 

Benj. Comegys. 

William Campbell. 
Robert Snodgrass, Jr. 


John Porterfield. 

Israel Robinson. 


Richard Cleggett. 


Jacob Van Doren. 

Silas Harlan. 

Isaac S. Lauck. 

William Grantham. 


Daniel Burkhart. 
Tillotson Fryatt. 
Archibald Shaver. 
Robert V. Snodgrass. 
John Lamon. 

Thomas Davis. 

Francis Silver. 


Philip C. Pendleton. 
Conrad Hogmire. 
Edward Winning. 
Samuel Baker. 

William L. Boak. 
Alexander Pain. 


Thomas S. Page. 
Richard McSherry. 
William Maslin. 



Jacob Hamme 
Stephen R. Snodgrass. 
Robert K. Robinson. 
Jacob M} r ers. 

Daniel B. Morrison. 


James M. Newkirk. 
James H. Robinson. 
Alfred Ross. 

James L. CampbelL 


Lewis B. Willis. 

John Sencendiver, 


B. M. Kitchen. 

Thomas J. Harley. 

James L. Cunningham. 
William Dorsey. 

Daniel H. Doll. 

John McKown. 


Lew is Fry. 

George W. Holida. 
Andrew McCleary. 

1852 to 1856. 

John A. Vorhes. 

George W. Holida, 

Jacob Myers. 

A. R. McQuilken. 

A. W. McCleary. 

James L. Cunningham. 
Owen T. Hedges. 
Charles Downs. 

Thomas J. Harley. 
Robert V. Snodgrass. 
Richard Bodine. 

Henry J. Seibert. 

Robert K. Robinson. 

B. M. Kitchen. 

Lewis Grantham. 

Philip Everhart. 

Casper Stump. 

Joseph D. Haven, 

John McKown. 

James L. CampbelL 
Lewis Fry. 

Alfred Ross. 




D. S. Eiehelberger. 
John E. Boyd. 
Alexander Newcomer. 
Philip C. Pendleton. 
Stephen R. Snodgrass. 

1856 to 1860. 
George Doll. 

G. II. McClure. 

B. Cushwa. 

W. Dorsey. 

Bernard Doll. 

S. J. Williamson. 

J. Hoffman. 

F. D. Dollinger. 

Isarel Robinson. 

J. W. Hollis. 

E. Showers. 

Christian Tabler. 

J. C. Rawlins 

J. L. Cunningham. 

A. R. McQuilken. 

J. R. Stewart. 

T. J. Flagg. 

W. H. Mong. 

Joseph Stuckey. 

C. Stump % 

G. Doll. ’ 

M. H. Payne. 

P. Everhart. 

J. Q. A. Nadenbousck. 
W. Leigh. 

W. J. Hensell. 

M S. Grantham. 

J. M. Newkirk. 

I. E. Houser. 

M. Lupton. 

B. C. Speck. 

P. T. Hedges. 

W. D. North. 

J. T. De Haven. 

W. H. Mong. 

R. K. Robinson. 

A. Buckles. 

II. J. Seibert. 

R. Bodine. 

J. G. Manor. 

A. W. McCleary. 

1860 to I860. 

R. Bodine. 

H. J. Seibert. 

A. R. McQuilken. 

P. J. Musseter. 

J. W. Hollis. 

G. Doll. 

B. F. Harrison. 

J. L. De Haven. 

J. Hoffman. 

W. McKee. 

M. S. Grantham. 

C. Stuckey. 

W. N. Riddle. 

O. T. Hedges. 

B. M. Kitchen. 

J. H. Barnetts. 

J. Q. A. Nadenbousch. 
W. Sperow. 

A. Myers. 

R. Lamon. 

J. W. Stewart. 

C. Tabler. 

J. M. Newkirk. 

J. E Brady. 

T. Henshaw. 

J. W. Kendrick. 

1881 to 1S85. 
Charles Stuckey. 

M. Tucker Bowen. 
John D. Barney. 
Joseph Hollis. 

James Billmyer. 

C. U. Thornburg. 

William II. Mathews. 
W. B. Colston. 

G. M. Tabler. 

G. R. Hollida. 

George H. Ropp. 

P. H. Thomas. 

Jacob Syester. 
William Light. 

1885 to 1889. 
Charles Stuckey. 

M. T. Bowen. 

John Myers. 

James M. Billmyer. 
Thornton Henshaw. 
Robert C. Burkhart. 
Charles P. Matthaei. 
William McKee. 

G. W. M. Tabler. 

G. W. D. Folk. 

J. H. xYlexander. 

R. R. Coffenberger. 

S. O. Cunningham. 
Jacob F. Lemen. 
Jacob S3 r ester. 

H. H. Cox. 

1889 to 1893. 
George W. Swimley. 
S. S. Felker. 

John II. McBride. 
John Myers. 

Robert P. Bryarly. 
William McKee.- 
E. G. Bartlett. 

W. H. Frankenberry. 
W. H. Taylor. 

R. R. Coffenberger. 

B. W. Oyer. 

G. C. Ditto. 

D. W. Snyder. 


Aclam Stephen, April 1, 1772; Samuel Washington, October 17, 
1776; Cato Moore, August Bl, 1793; James Wilson, August 29, 1795; 
John Kearsley, July, 1797; James Campbell, July 12, 1799; John 
Davenport, August 29, 1801; William Porterfield, July 23, 1803; 
Nicholas Orrick, July 27, 1807; John Turner, August 5, 1808; 
Andrew Waggoner, July 26, 1809; — second term, July 17, 1810; 




Janies Stephenson, July 5, 1811; — second term, July 22, 1812; 
Charles Orrick, September 22, 1813; — second term, September 21, 
1814; William Kiddle, June 28, 1815; — second term, August 19, 1816; 
James Anderson, July 7, 1817; — -second term, November 13, 1818; 
Magnus Tate, July 19, 1819; — second term, August 1, 1820; George 
Porterfield, July 20, 1821; — second term, August 23, 1822; Erasmus 
Gantt, July 30, 1823; — second term, September 17, 1824; Jacob 
Weaver, November 29, 1825 ; — second term, January 16, 1S27; George 
Harris, December 6, 1827 ;—second term, December 15, 1828; Philip 
Nadenbousch, January 5, 1830; — second term, February 21, 1831; 
Joel Ward, January 30, 1832; George Wolff, 1834; Michael Kooney, 
March, 1836; A. S. Chambers, being coroner, was acting sheriff in 
1838; Levi Henshaw, March, 1840; William Gregory, 1842; Edward 
Colston, January 9, 1844; Benjamin Comegys, January, 1846; Silas 
Harlan, 1848; Daniel Burkhart, 1850; Tillotson Fryatt, 1852; Jacob 
Van Doren, July 1, 1852; Barnett Cushwa, 1854; — second term, 1856; 
Daniel Lafevre, 1859; — second term, 1861; J. W. Pitzer, appointed, 
1864; — elected, November, 1866; Andrew J. Thomas, 1871; — second 
term, January 1, 1873; M. C. Nadenbousch, January 1. 1877; George 
A. Chrisman, January 1, 1881; Robert Larnon, January 1, 1885; 
Charles H. Miller, January 1, 1889. 


William Drew, May 19, 1772; Moses Hunter, 1785 to 1797; Henry 
Bedinger, 1798 to 1803; David Hunter, 1803 to 1829; John Strother, 
1829 to 1831; Harrison Waite, June 13, 1831, and Norman Miller, 
acting clerk; Jacob Van Doren, 1851; E. G. Alburtis, 1852 to 1858; 
James W. Robinson, 1858; Seamans Garrard, 1865 to 1870; Bernard 
Doll, January, 1871; C. W. Doll, 1873, still acceptably fills the posi- 
tion, 1889. 


Alexander White, May 19, 1772, appointed king’s attorney for 
Berkeley County; Elisha Boyd; David H. Conrad; Edmund P. Hun- 
ter, died of cholera, September 7, 1854; John E. Norris, 1854 to 1856; 
George W. Murphy, till breaking out of war; Joseph T. Hoke, 1865; 
J. Nelson Wisner, H. H. Blackburn, Edmund Shaw, R. M. Price, Lu- 
ther M. Shaffer, AY. H .H. Flick, D. C. AVestenhaver, P. A. Rohrbaugh, 
George AV. Feidt. 







This court was established in 1809; the first judge was Hon. 
Hubert White, and the first clerk Obed Waite. The judges succeed- 
ing were: William Brockenbrough, who acted pro tern.; John Scott, 

also pro tem.j Richard E. Parker; Isaac R. Douglas; Richard Parker, 
son of the former judge of the same name; John W. Kennedy, 
appointed; L. P. W. Balch, appointed in 1865; Ephraim B. Hall, 
1865; Joseph Chapman, appointed 1868; E. B. Hall, elected in 1868, 
but failed to qualify; John Blair Hoge, 1872; Charles J. Faulkner, 
Jr.. 1881,. but resigned in 1887, being elected United States senator; 
Frank Beckwith appointed to fill unexpired term, and in January, 
1889, the present incumbent, Joseph S. Duck wall, was elected. 


Obed Waite, April 24, 1809; John Strother, Israel Robinson, John 
Dunn, Joseph Burns, John Lanby; E. S. Troxell, appointed in 1866, 
and elected same year, serving till 1879, when the present incumbent, 
S. H. Martin, was elected. 


Robert Cockburn, 1772; Joseph Swearingen, 1787; David Hunter, 
1796; John Turner, 1798; James Maxwell, 1811; same continued for 
many years; John P. Kearfott, until breaking out of the Civil war; 
David Pultz, 1866; John P. Kearfott, 1872; James W. Robinson, 
1880; George W. Vanmetre; I. W. Woods. 


Robert Worthington, appointed May 19, 1772; David Shepherd; 
George North, July, 1800; William Riddle, 1S01, continued for many 
years; George Wolf, October, 1821; William Riddle, 1826; Conrad 
Hogmire, April, 1830; Anthony S. Chambers, 1831, retained the posi- 
tion many years; Frank D. Staley, appointed in 1882, and is the 
present incumbent. 

In addition to those mentioned in the foregoing lists, the following 
are the officials of the county at the present time: The three commis- 
sioners forming the county court of Berkeley are: B. M. Kitchen, 

president; William Kilmer and George P. Riner. 

School commissioners are E. L. Hoffman, Samuel Gold, M. S. 
Grantham, George D. Miller, Joseph A. Morgan, R. C. Burkhart, 
R. P. Bryarly, R. W. Stewart, John Grozinger, Ed. Barton, N. H. 




Snyder, Jacob Whitson, W. H. Wilen, W. Cost, W. H. Myers, D. H. 
Small, W. H. Kilmer, W. T. Cunningham, W. T. Siler, G. P. Finer, 
J. Kennedy, G. C. Ditto. 

The local board of health consists of Dr. James W. McSherrv, 
M. S. Grantham, E. L. Hoffman, the president of the county court 
and the prosecuting attorney. The parish physicians are: Drs. 
G. W. Swimbey, J. B. Wiley, S. N. Myers, G. R Hedges, E. C. 
Williams, Ft. L. Grove, J. T. Harris, E. M. Davis, N. D. Baker. 

Attorneys practicing at the bar: E. Boyd Faulkner, Blackburn 

Hughs, C. J. Faulkner, W. H. H. Flick, J. Kelson Wisner, George 
W. Feidt, M. T. Ingles, D. C. Westenhaver, Hugh A. White, Stuart 
W. Walker, A. C. Nadenbousch, U. S. Grant Pitzer, L. D. Gerhardt. 



The Churches— Which Was First— Early Houses of Worship— Trin- 
ity Episcopal— First Pastors— Some Noted Ministers— St. John’s 
Lutheran— Visiting Ministers— Rev. Christian Streit— Old Bell- 
German Reformed — Joint Worship— The Old Gravestones— The 
First Organ — St. Joseph’s Catholic--The First Missionaries— Fram- 
bach, Gallitzin, Zocchi— Present Prosperity— Methodist Episco- 
pal— Methodism in the Valley— Itinerant Preachers— Methodist 
Episcopal South — Speedy Recuperation— Faithful Workers— First 
Presbyterian — The Scotch-Irisii— u Old Tuscarora ’’—First Baptist 
—Rev. David Gerrard— Late Organization United Brethren— Its 
Recent Establishment— A Neat Edifice— Colored Churches— Edu- 
cational —Improvements — Fine Water System — Railroad Shops— 
Newspapers — Societies— Tornados and Floods— Other Towns of 

elsewhere in this work, when Frederick County was created by act 
of the General Assembly of the Colony of Virginia, in 1738, a parish was 
constituted embracing the entire district and given the same name as 
the county. But in 1769, this large parish was subdivided iuto three, 
the upper being Beckrord, the middle Frederick, and the lower 
— comprising the counties now known as Berkeley, Jefferson and 
Morgan — Norborne; so named in honor of Gov. Norborne Berkeley. 







There were three chapels in this parish at a very early date, some 
contending, in fact, that the Episcopal, or rather, at that time, the 
Church of England, has the best claim to having built the first church 
edifice in the Yalley, south of the Potomac. The reasons seem to be 
strong for this claim: the leading men who organized Frederick 
County were Church of England men, and it is very natural that they 
should have a house of worship shortly after the erection of a parish. 
Certain it is, from actual documentary evidence (the records of Fred- 
erick County), that there was a “Morgan’s Chapel” and a “Cunning-' 
ham’s Chapel,” before 1750. One of these was near Bunker Hill and 
the other about twelve miles southeast of Winchester. Hedsresville, 
also, lays claim to having a chapel at an early day. Not until after 
the Revolutionary war had Martinsburg a church of this denomina- 
tion. Bishop Meade says, in his interesting and valuable work on 
“Old Churches and Old Families of Virginia,” that this first church 
was erected chiefly at the cost and under the superintendence of Philip 
Pendleton, who was a devout Episcopalian, and a man of very liberal 
mind. The church stood at the entrance of the cemetery laid out by 
Gen. Adam Stephen, who had it established by law. About 1835 
the old church began to be considered unfit for use. Its walls gave 
evidence of being unsafe and measures were taken to build another 
one, not upon its site, but nearer to the center of the population of the 
town. A lot being donated on King Street, an effort to raise the nec- 
essary funds was made, which, being successful, the building was put 
under construction about 1839. Not until 1843, however, was the 
structure finished, at which time it was consecrated by Bishop Meade, 
who was assisted by Revs. Alexander Jones and J. Chisholm, of Vir- 
ginia, and Revs. James A. Berck and Theodore B. Lyman, of Mary- 
land. In regard to the clergy of the parish there are many breaks in 
the succession. Whether their names have been forgotten, or whether 
there were no ministers in charge of the parish at those times, it is 
impossible now to determine. But it is altogether probable the latter 
is the correct solution. 

Although Norborne parish was organized in 1769, no clergyman 
can be identified as its rector until 1771, when Rev. Daniel Sturgis 
was licensed for the parish by the bishop of London. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1786 by Rev. Mr. Veasey, and he by Rev. Mr. Wilson. In 
1795 Rev. Bernard Page became rector, who was, according to Bishop 
Meade, “deeply pious, zealous and far beyond the. ministerial stand- 





arc! of the parish.” Ilev. Mr. Heath came next, who was minister till 
about 1800, when he died not far from that date. Rev. Emanuel 
Wilm'er succeeded Mr. Heath, and was in charge of the parish about 
1805-06-07. Rev. Mr. Price was rector from 1811 till 1813, and then 
there seems to have been a gap of several years in consequence of the 
War of 1812-14. In 1815 Rev. Benjamin Allen took charge of the 
parish. He is said to have been “a man of untiring energy and deep 
piety, and not unknown to the literary world. He published six 
volumes of poems, a history of the Reformation that ran through 
three editions,® a history of the church and edited the Christian Maga- 
zine. He also edited, while in Martinsburg, the Layman's Magazine , 
the first religious paper ever published in the valley of the Shenandoah. 
He was the first to propose a division of the diocese, and the commit- 
tee appointed to confer with the bishop and standing committee on 
this subject was Rev. Enoch Lowe, Edward Colston, and Robert Page. 
He died on ship-board coming from a foreign trip wdiere he had 
sought a restoration of his shattered health. His successor was Rev. 
Thomas Horrel, in 1816, who remained three years. From 1819 rect- 
ors served in the following succession: Revs. Enoch Lowe, Edward 
R, Lippitt, 1823; John T. Brooke, 1826; James H. Tyng, 1830; 
William P. C. Johnson, 1832; Cyrus H. Jacobs, 1836; Charles C. 
Taliaffero, 1837 ; James Chisholm, 1842; D. Francis Sprigg, 1850; 
Richard T. Davis, 1855; W. D. Hanson, 1860; John W. Lea, 1875; 
Robert Douglas Roller, 1879; and Rev. Henry Thomas, the present 
pastor, 1888. 

St. John's Lutheran Church .- — The main facts in the following 
sketch are gleaned from a sermon delivered in 1876 by Rev. M. L. 
Culler: St. John’s Lutheran is one of the oldest organized congrega- 
tions in the valley, and w*as founded by German emigrants, who came 
from Pennsylvania and Maryland, the nucleus being formed here 
about 1776. A church record book, the joint property of the Lutheran 
and Reformed congregations (which worshiped in the same house 
until 1832) is still in existence, bearing the date 1779. The first 
record made therein is the baptism of Magdalena Frantz, February 
25, 1779. Not until 1790 was there a resident pastor, but the Gospel 
was preached faithfully to the congregation, and the sacraments ad- 
ministered by ministers of the Lutheran Church, who visited them as 
often as possible, in connection with numerous other congregations 
scattered over four or five counties. Until a church building was 
obtained, these services were held in the houses of the members. 








The first regular pastor of whom any certain knowledge remains 
was Bev. Christian Streit, a man of fine education and earnestly 
devoted to the work. In 1785 he took charge of a Lutheran con^re- 
gation in Winchester, the field of his operations embracing a circuit 
of about fifty miles, including the present counties of Frederick, 
Clark, Jefferson and Berkeley. Bev. Mr. Streit was born in New 
Jersey and graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1771, 
where he studied theology under the instruction of Bev. Dr. Muhlen- 
berg, the father of Bev. Peter Muhlenberg who threw off his gown 
and put on the uniform of a soldier at Woodstock in 1776. During 
the Devolution Mr. Streit was chaplain of the Third Virginia Begiment. 
While at Winchester he was, associated with Bev. Dr. Hill of the 
Presbyterian Church, in charge of the Female Seminary. He died 
March 10, 1812. 

Succeeding Bev. Streit, and the first pastor who resided in Martins- 
burg, was Bev. John David Young, who took charge in 1790 and 
continued till 1800, and then after an absence of two years, returned 
and remained till his death, February 11, 1804. Bev. Freidrich 
Wilhelm Jazinsky filled the two years of absence of Bev. Young. Bev. 
John P. Bavenack became the second pastor, in 1808, continuing till 
1814, when he resigned his pastorate, and entered commercial pursuits 
in Martinsburg. Bev. John Kachler, a very young man, became 
pastor in 1817 and continued till 1819, when Bev. C. P. Krauth, also 
a young man, took charge. This gentleman became one of the leading 
ministers of the church, being in 1834 elected president of the Penn- 
sylvania College, and in 1850 professor of biblical and oriental 
literature in Gettysburg College, in which position he remained till 
his death in 1867. Bev. Jacob Medtart succeeded Dr. Krauth in 1827. 
and remained till 1835, when Bev. Beuben Weiser took charge till 
1837. Then came Bev. Charles Martin, from 1837 to 1842; Bev. 
Samuel Sprecher in 1842, who resigned during his first year on 
account of ill health; Bev. Joseph A. Seiss, 1843 to 1845; Bev. John 
Winter, 1845 to 1847; Bev. C. P. Krauth, Jr., for one year till April 
1, 1848, when he became pastor at Winchester; Bev. B. M. Schmucker, 
1848 to 1852; Bev. Beuben A. Fink, in 1852; Bev. William Kopp, 
1855 to 1857; Bev. Edwin Dorsey, 1S58; Bev. Charles Martin, 1S60 to 
spring of 1861, when his labors were cut short by the war. In 1866 
Bev. J. S. Heilig became first post-bellum pastor, and remained till 
the summer of 1868, when Bev. M. L. Culler took charge, December 

im i 




1. 1869, continuing till July 24, 1881. Key. R. C. Holland came in 
1881, and Rev. 0. S. Trump in 1888, the present pastor. 

The first church edifice was the common property of the Lutheran 
and Reformed congregations, and Was built of logs. It was located 
on the corner of John and Church Streets, and purchased in 1786 
from John Shartel, who had it almost finished as a tavern. It was 
under roof when it was purchased, the deed being made to Andrew 
Siling, Martin Riser, Christopher Wagner and John Smith. An 
organ was purchased, and a bell (the first church bell ever seen in 
Martinsburg) w*as brought from Hagerstown, Md. It w r as of cast- 
iron, and served its purpose well, hanging from the gable of the old 
log church, summoning worshipers to the house of God. In 1803 
this old bell v r as replaced by one of bell-metal, weighing 313 pounds, 
and costing $181.89. The first communion cup of which there is any 
knowledge preserved here, is still in existence. It bears the date 
1791, and a myterious inscription — P. K* B. K. M. Its meaning 
is not known. 

In 1815 a fund was raised jointly by the Lutherans and Reformers, 
amounting to §3,059, for the purpose of building a new church for 
their general use, but the project failed. But at a council-meeting in 
1829 the Lutherans resolved to build a church, which w r as consummated 
in a few years, but not until 1832 was it dedicated. Rev. Abraham 
Reck dedicated it. In 1854 the church w T as much improved. They 
purchased a new bell and sold their interest in the old one to the Re- 
formers. During the Civil war the congregation was very much scat- 
tered. For about four years the building was used as a hospital, and 
it w r as very much injured. There w r ere many differences in opinion 
among the membership at the close of the -war, in regard to questions 
of politics, but they have nearly all died out. The government ap- 
propriated, in 1868, the sum of §1,078 as compensation for injury 
done the building, and this sum together with §500 additional raised 
by contributions, was used in repairing the edifice. They have a 
membership now of over 300 and a Sabbath-school with an attendance 
of nearly 300 scholars. 

The German Reformed Church . — At an early day there was a 
large immigration into Pennsylvania from the Palatinate, Germany, 
and these immigrants in time sought other sections wherein to make 
their homes. Many of these came to the \ alley of Virginia and, of 
course, brought their religion with them. Those who came to this 




section at first had no regular pastors, and for many years were visited 
by both the German Reformed and Lutheran clenrv. Havinsr no 
church building services were held and sacrament administered at the 
dwelling of some member. In the year 1786 a log building was pur- 
chased in the town of Martinsburg by the Reformers and Lutherans 
jointly, where, on alternate Sundays, the two congregations worshiped. 
In the graveyard that surrounded the old church were buried many of 
the early pioneers of both the denominations named, and the grave- 
stones of those faithful old workers in the vineyard of the Lord can 
still be seen rearing their rude heads and pointing the way the souls 
of those underneath have gone. The church which was used jointly 
by the two congregations was found to be too small, and not well 
located for the increasing population; so in 1846 the Reformed congre- 
gation procured a more eligible location and erected a more commodi- 
ous building on Burk Street, at a cost of §5,000. The congregation 
that was at that time organized by a few persons, has now a member- 
ship of 250 and a Sunday-school of over 150 scholars. Some of the 
national prejudices and peculiarities of worship of the first members 
have yielded to the times. Services were formerly conducted in Ger- 
man, but they have long since been supplanted by the English. 

Rude and unpretentious as the first church was, it was not regarded 
as complete without an organ and a bell. The latter was purchased, in 
conjunction with the Lutherans, in 1808, and, as lias been stated in the 
sketch of the church named, was the first bell to be brought to this 
portion of the Valley. It was known as the “big bell” for many years. 
The organ, also, was the first instrument of the kind introduced here 
and was an object of great interest, many persons attending church at 
first for the purpose of hearing it. 

After the organization of the congregation the first regular pastor 
was Rev. George Adam Geting, who was succeeded by Rev. Jonathan 
Rahauser; Lewis Mayer, from 1808 to 1820; Samuel Helferstein, 
1820 to 1821; Jacob Beecher, 1826 to 1831; Robert Douglas, 1831 
to 1815; Daniel F. Bragonier, 1815 to 1860; William I). Lafevre, 
1866 to 1869; Stephen K. Kremer, 1870 to 1871; John A. Hoffheims r 
1875, the present pastor. 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church . — There were undoubtedly Catho- 
lics among the early settlers of the Shenandoah Valley, but for over 
half a century after that settlement there was not a Catholic church in 
this whole region. The first missionaries who came through here 




were from Frederick and Conewago, as well as from Baltimore. 
Fathers Fr.ambach, Gallitzen and Zocelii rode a circuit of 200 miles 
before 1800, which extended to Cumberland and southward to Win- 
chester. There is a tradition that French priests traveled through 
this valley during their occupation as early as 1730, doing work among 
the Indians. This tradition may arise from the fact that there were 
priests as chaplains with the forces that defeated Braddock in 1755, 
but none of that force ever reached the valley. In October, 1811, 
Rev. Father Cahill, then residing in Frederick, Md., was called upon 
to minister to the spiritual wants of the few Catholics in this county, 
and he came and held services in a private house. This was, doubt- 
less, the first public Catholic service held in Martinsburg. After his 
visit the town became a mission, subject to the pastor in Frederick. 
From 1811 to 1830 the mission was visited at intervals by priests 
from Frederick and Hagerstown, Md., and from Harper’s Ferry. 
Divine service was held at the residence of John Timmons, on E-ace 
Street, for the period of nineteen years. In 1830 the membership 
had increased to fifty, and during that year the pastor, Eev. Father 
Eedmond, undertook the erection of a church. Liberal were the sub- 
scriptions of the few Catholics, and liberally were they assisted by 
Christians of other denominations, and soon the church was under 
way, but before its completion the pastor was called to Fiome, Italy, 
where he died, much regretted by his spiritual children in Virginia. 
The church, however, was finished at a cost of §4,000. The mission 
was now on a solid basis. 

At this time Rev. Father J. B. Hilda was sent, who finished the 
church in a very short time considering the fewness of Catholics in 
this section at that time. He remained five years. Father Gilda 
was a priest of untiring energy, and peculiarly able'in matters of 
building temples to the Lord. Besides completing the Martinsburg 
Church he erected St Peter’s Church in Harper’s Ferry and the mag- 
nificent St. Vincent de Paul’s of Baltimore. In 1836 Eev. Vincent 
Wheelan took charge, remaining three years. While Father Wheelan 
was here, the province, in recognition of his piety, talents and ad- 
ministrative ability, sent his name to Rome as a suitable and worthy 
candidate for the new See of Wheeling. The Holy Father selected 
Father Wheelan, and he became the first Catholic bishop in western 
Virginia. His successor was Eev. J. O’Brien, who remained in the 
mission seven years, and during his pastorate the congregation 




increased. In 1848 Rev. J. A. Plunkett was sent, who, observing 
that the building was too small, commenced the erection of the 
present parish church. The corner-stone of this beautiful and sub- 
stantial edifice was laid in 1850, and two years afterward it w~as 
completed, costing about §40,000. 

When the diocese of Richmond was divided in 1850, Martinsburg 
and a few adjoining churches of Virginia in its, western portion fell to 
the old diocese, and so remained until 1889, when an arrangement 
between the bishops being effected, sanctioned at Rome, Martinsburg 
became subject to the bishop of Wheeling, W. Va. Distinguished 
churchmen have at various times had charge of the church at Martins- 
burg, among whom were Bishops Wheelan, of Wheeling; Becker, of 
Wilmington, Del., and Kain, of Wheeling, each being located here 
several years. 

St. Joseph’s is at present and has been for some time in quite a 
flourishing condition. They have a membership of about 1,200, a Sun- 
day-school of 250 children, and a large parochial school, with a force of 
competent instructors. Since the pastorate of the popular priest, Rev. 
J. McKeefry, many improvements have been added to the church edi- 
fice, notably the ornamentation of the steeple and several interior 

Methodist Episcopal Church . — Methodism in the Lower Valley, 
after the organization of two or three of the other denominations, was 
undoubtedly very early. Two Methodist ministers passed up the Val- 
ley and stayed over Sunday at the house of Lewis Stephens at Ste- 
phensburg, about the commencement of the Revolution, and, as they 
came from Pennsylvania, necessarily passed through Berkeley County. 
Whether they came by the way of Martinsburg is not now known, but 
it is more than likely they came by Sliepherdstown, and if so, as their 
mission was to preach at the settlements, they, of course, preached at 
Sliepherdstown. There is a tradition that Bishop Francis Asbury 
came to Martinsburg from Loudoun County, Va., in 1782, and delivered 
a sermon here. At this date, 1782, Martinsburg was beginning to be 
a town of considerable importance, and if there were any ministers in 
this section, they, undoubtedly, held services here. Berkeley County 
was included in the first circuit established west of the Blue Ridge, and 
soon after a society was organized in Martinsburg, and it continued 
until 1861, at the breaking out of the Civil war. Societies were also 
organized at other points in this section, and in the adjoining counties. 




A small log building on John Street was first used, but the members 
soon erected a stone church on the same street, south of the jail, 
which is still standing. Bells, to the early Methodists, and to many of 
them at the present time, were an abomination and a vanity not to be 
tolerated; so, the soft, persuasive notes of the tin horn were used to 
summon the worshipers to their house of devotion. Organs and a 
choir were equally tabooed, and nothing but the good old human voice 
was allowable in the sanctuary, but they have gotten bravely over these 
little peculiarities, and now have generally as fine music as any of 
their sister denominations. 

The Methodist Episcopal, as contra-distinguished from the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church South, was, as is well-known, opposed to slav- 
ery and were not exceedingly strong in the South. In fact, a divis- 
ion had occurred which gave rise to the slight variation in the titles. 
The society in this section, however, grew and flourished with the 
rapidity that accompanies Methodism everywhere, for the ministers 
of that church have the reputation of being great workers. In 1850 
the Martinsburg congregation became an independent charge, known 
as Martinsburg Station, with no dependence upon any other society 
for aid, and Bev. Henry Furlong was appointed by the Baltimore con- 
ference to thoroughly organize and concentrate the forces and re- 
sources of the society, which he did with good effect, after which he 
was appointed the pastor in charge. From this time until the Civil 
war in 1861 the membership grew from less than 100 to over 200. 
Then came the war and with it the cessation of all services in many of 
the churches. The Methodists especially, from the fact of their known 
hostility to slavery, suspended their services not only here in Martins- 
burg, but in the county and throughout the State, as well. In 1863 
owing to the almost uninterrupted occupation of the Federal forces, 
the church was re-organized throughout the county generally, by Bev. 
Dr. John Lanahan, presiding elder for the Virginia portion of the 
Baltimore conference. Dr. John M. Green was pastor in charge of 
the Martinsburg church at that time, and from thence forward Meth- 
odism has rapidly increased in every portion of the county, and espe- 
ciallv at Martinsburg. The societv here now numbers nearlv 500 
souls and the church property is valued at $10,000. A large Sabbath- 
school is attached to the church. From a very small membership at 
the beginning of the war, and with two ministers in charge in the 
entire county , the society now runs up to possibly 1,500, and with 

v ■ 

30 6 


from five to six preachers. The present pastor here now is John 

Methodist Episcopal Church South . — Owing to the occupancy of 
the field by the Methodist Episcopal Church, the history of which has 
just been given, there is little to be said in regard to this other branch 
of Methodism, the church South. Most of the members of this de- 
nomination at the breaking out of the Civil war took sides with the 
South in the great struggle, and when that sanguinary conflict ended 
the most of the churches were in the hands of the “ Northern side,” 
as it is termed by some, and especially was this the case along the 
border. But notwithstanding these facts, the “Southern church” ob- 
tained a foothold once more and has since gained much in strength. 
With the tenacity proverbial among Methodists, just as soon as the 
war closed, the Southern ministers began holding services, sometimes 
in court-houses, sometimes in private houses, but they held them, 
even if it was in a barn, or out in the open. They had few church 
buildings, but they had a united will, and so, along about December, 
1866, when the smoke of the cannon had scarcely disappeared from 
the battle-fields, Rev. David Shoaf and Rev. John A. Kearn began the 
reorganization of the scattered forces left after the flag of peace had 
once more been raised. Fifteen souls responded to the call and thus 
was once more a nucleus formed around which has since gathered a 
steadily increasing band of worshipers, until it now begins to com- 
pare quite favorably with many of the older congregations in numbers 
and work. They worshiped for nearly a year in a small school build- 
ing on John Street, but in 1867 they had erected a very neat church 
building on German Street, at a cost of over $3,500. This latter 
building, however, proved not to be commodious enough for the 
growth of the church. In 1884 an effort was made to raise funds for 
the purpose of building a larger edifice, and was crowned with such 
success that the foundation was laid the following year for a building 
on Martin Street, which w r as completed and dedicated October 2, 1887. 
It is a beautiful and well-arranged structure, and reflects much credit 
on those who had the matter in charge. The regular pastors in charge 
since 1869 were: Revs. J. L. Clark, Thomas B. Sargent, J. S. Maxwell. 
Wesley Hammond, Lewis C. Miller, Dr. John Poisal, P. B. Smith, 0. 
C. Beall, J. H. Davidson, John Landstreet, J. R. Andrews. Rev. H. 
H. Kennedy is the pastor in charge at present. The membership is 
now about 225, and a Sunday-school attached has over 200 scholars. 


l ■ 



Presbyterian Church . — Presbyterianism, or rather the possession 
of a building by that denomination in Martinsburg, was delayed to a 
comparatively late date, considering the fact that this is one of the 
first churches to plant itself in the valley after man’s arrival here 
along about 1730 or 1740. But it was not because there were no 
Presbyterians in the town. There were, and bore a large proportion 
to the balance of the population. A number of the most prominent 
leaders among the pioneers of this section were what is known as 
Scotch-Irish — a term very much misunderstood. A Scotch-Irishman 
was simply an Irish Presbyterian living in the north of Ireland, who 
applied the term to himself to emphasize the fact that he was not a 
Catholic. One never heard of an Irish-Scotchman. At any rate 
those Scotch-Irish were a splendid and substantial portion of the 
early settlers of the Valley of Virginia. They brought with them their 
sturdy habits, their thrift and enterprise, and their probity of char- 
acter. These are they who first set up their houses of worship. 
These are they who built “old Tuscarora” — that ruin of a venerable 
primitive temple— and in that old structure, possibly, one hundred 
and fifty years ago, they gathered to sing their psalms, and only 
psalms, for the early Presbyterians could not abide what we now call 
“hymns,” and as for an organ and a choir — phew! The rafters 
would have fallen at the groans of reed or pipe. But those good 
old servitors of the Lord could pray with an unction and a meaning 
that we have almost lost in this “progressive” age. Now, as the 
church was not in Martinsburg, and it could not come here, the mem- 
bers, like Mohammed, went to it. And they got so used to going out 
to “Old Tuscarora” on Sunday morning that they forgot the fact, till 
about 1825, that it was possible for them to have a church nearer 
where they resided. They did the same thing for nearly fifty years 
at Winchester — every Presbyterian in the town going two miles and 
a half to “Old Opequon” church, near Kernstown, until some brilliant 
genius sprang the idea, “Why can’t we have a church here?” Rev. 
Mr. Mathews, who had been serving the church at several points in 
Jefferson County for a number of years, came to Martinsburg to 
reside. The church edifice was built, or rather commenced to be 
built, not long after the organization began, but the exact date of its 
dedication is not now known to the writer. The ministers who have 
had charge of the church since 1830 are about as follows, as near as 
can now be conveniently ascertained: Revs. W. C. Mathews, Peyton 

I 0 



Harrison, John Bogg, William Love and R. L. Berry. After the resig- 
nation of Mr. Berry, a call was made to a number of ministers, who 
all declined, but in 1859 Rev. A. C. Hopkins accepted the invitation 
extended to him and after several months was installed pastor. Mr. 
Hopkins resigned in 1865, and the following year Rev. J. E. Hughs 
was installed. He died in 1868, and Rev. Dr. Riddle was invited 
and accepted, v r ho remained till 1877, when liis' failing health neces- 
sitated his resignation. In 1879 the Rev. F. M. Woods, the popular 
and talented gentleman at present in charge, was called and accepted 
the position. 

The Baptist Church . — -For a reason or reasons that seem to be in- 
explicable, the Baptists, as a society, have made but little headway in 
the Valley of Virginia. They have very few r churches on this side 
of the ridge. It is strange, when one considers the fact that they are 
very strong in the eastern portion of Virginia. It may be attributed 
to the fact that those who came here first had their religious beliefs 
settled permanently before they started from their homes in Pennsyl- 
vania, or Maryland, or New Jersey. The first settlers were either 
Episcopalians (Church of England adherents) ; Presbyterians, of Irish 
birth or descent; Lutherans or Reformed Calvinists, of German origin 
or descent, and a few’ Catholics. None of these came from the coun- 
ties of Virginia on the east side of the Blue Ridge Mountains, or at 
least very few, and they were all Episcopalians. There being no 
Baptist seed sown, there could be no fruit. But in the course of the 
years, about 1800 and after, a stray germ was carried over the mount- 
ains and it took root and grev r . The only exception to this general 
rule w T as at Gerrardstown, the founder of which was a Baptist minister, 
who induced a number of his friends, all Baptists, to settle at that 
now thriving locality. Farther up the Valley it quickened into fiow’er 
earlier than in this county, for not until 1858 was there an organization 
of this denomination in Martinsburg. The membership at first was small, 
there not being over a dozen souls in all who attended as members the 
ministrations of the first pastor, Rev. J. W. Jones. This gentleman 
conducted services for nearly tw T o years in an old stone building near 
the Episcopal Cemetery, but in 1859 a lot on King Street was pur- 
chased and preparations w ere made for the erection of a church edifice 
'thereon, but the Civil war shortly afterward came on and a partial stop 
was put to the project. From that time till the close of hostilities the 
church organization barely had an existence, yet sermons and services 



were occasionally held through the kind offers of two or three of the 
other denominations. In 1869 the building of the church was begun, 
but not until 1871 was it entirely finished, at which time it was dedi- 
cated, the dedicatory sermon being delivered by Rev. Dr. J. W. M. 
Williams, of Baltimore. The building is a very neat and substantial 
edifice and the membership is on the increase. Since the pastorate of 
Rev. Mr. Jones the following ministers have been located here in the 
work: Revs. W. S. Penick, P. P. Murray, A. E. Rogers, R. H. Pitt, 
and F. P. Robinson, the present pastor, who has given great satis- 
faction in his work whilst in Martinsburg, many having been added to 
the church. 

United Brethren in Christ Church . — This denomination, like its 
sister of the Baptist faith, was long delayed in obtaining a foothold in 
this section, but not from the same causes which kept back the latter. 
The United Brethren Church is of comparatively recent organization. 
The first conference of the church was held just one hundred years ago, 
but it has grown mightily since then, and now can point to forty- 
eight conferences in the United States, and one each in Canada, Ger- 
many, and Vv 7 est xlfrica. It has fine newspapers and other journals, 
and schools and colleges in its interest. Education Js receiving much 
attention of late years, but in the early days of the society, godliness, 
earnestness, industry, the gift of prayer and a good voice that had no 
uncertain sound, were considered as paramount to technical knowl- 
edge, hair-splitting theories, and a faculty for saying fine things. 
And, if one comes down to the gist of the matter, our humble old 
United Brethren preachers were not less than half right, — if not 
wholly so. The term “ united brethren ” is said to have originated 
with William Otterbein and Martin Boehm, at a meeting, where one 
of them spoke so effectually that when he was through the other 
embraced him, saying, “we are united brethren,” there having been 
a difference of opinion between the two old worshipers. The first 
conference of Virginia was organized in 1858, and a great falling off 
occurred during the war, but in West Virginia alone there are now 
nearly 8,000 members, thirty-six charges or stations, and three presid- 
ing-elders. The church in Martinsburg was organized in 1856, and a 
building for their use was completed the following year, but the 
structure was injured very much during the late war. They have, 
however, repaired their house of worship, and are now flourishing 
with the balance of the denominations. Rev. J. It. Ridenour is in 




charge at the present time. The church government of the United 
Brethren in Christ is very similar to that of the Methodists, they 
changing their ministers yearly, if the conference deems it fitting to 
do so. 

The Colored Churches . — There are two colored societies in Mar- 
tinsburg: Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal and Dudley Chapel Free- 
Will Baptist. The first was organized in 1866 with eighteen mem- 
bers, and they now’ have over 100, and a fine brick church on Martin 
Street; the other church was instituted by Miss Dudley, a philan- 
thropic lady from the North. The building was erected in 1868, at a 
cost of about §8,000, the funds being collected by Miss Dudley. 

Educational . — From a report of Prof. J. A. Cox is gleaned the 
following in regard to the Martinsburg schools: “The public schools 
of Martinsburg were organized in 1865. A part of the old Kroezen 
property, near the center of the town, w’as purchased for the purpose 
of opening a graded school. About 500 pupils, taught by a corps of 
eight teachers, w r ere accommodated in this building. As the popula- 
tion increased new houses were erected, until we now have four sub- 
stantial ward school buildings, three of brick and one of stone : a neat 
brick building for the colored school; and the high school, a two-story 
brick edifice, erected in 1884, pleasantly located, and furnished with 
heating apparatus, and all other modern improvements. The enroll- 
ment, in the city schools, is over 1,200. * * * * * 

We employ in all twenty-two teachers, twenty w r hite, two colored. 
Martinsburg has every reason to feel proud of her most excellent pub- 
lic school system, and every reason to expect even more rapid advance- 
ment in the future, in the cause of education, than she ever ex- 
perienced in the past.” 

The schools of the county are in equally as flourishing condition, 
and under the management of Supt. Dodd are doing a work that 
cannot fail to be of lasting good to the county. There is in Martins- 
burg a parochial school in charge of Sisters of Charity from Em- 
mettsburg, under the pastoral care of Father McKeefry, of St. 
Joseph’s Catholic Church. There are also two fine classical private 
schools under the direction of ladies in Martinsburg, which afford 
excellent facilities for those who do not wish to send their children to 
the public schools. No better advantages can be offered for an edu- 
cation than Martinsburg affords. 

Public and Private Enterprises . — The city of Martinsburg is well 




supplied with the finest water, and those who have gotten used to it 
wonder now how they did without it so long. From the abundant 
and pure spring known as “Boiling Spring,” one of the largest in 
this valley of large and famous springs, a supply of water is brought 
in pipes to the works that is practically inexhaustible. The spring 
known as the Town or Stephen’s Spring, and originally as “Morgan’s 
Spring,” which latter title so puzzled those who have had occasion to 
examine the old records, and which was used in former times by the 
thrifty housewife to do her week’s washing in, before the trustees of 
1813 stopped it, was the main source of water supply, but now water 
is brought to their kitchen doors without their effort. In 1873 the 
city council decided to adopt a system by which the spring named 
above could better be utilized, so they passed an act in relation 
thereto, but submitted it to the people by ballot. It was carried, and 
the Holly system was selected. The work was completed in January, 
1874. Considerable opposition was manifested by some of the older 
citizens, who did not wish to be taxed for a convenience they could 
use but a short time at best. They thought not of those who were to 
come after them. The cost was about <$90,000, and the tax has never 
been felt. There are over 600 service pipes, and the supply is quite 
sufficient for any fire that may occur in the city. Ordinarily enough 
power is furnished by water to supply the demand, but there is a fine 
engine always ready in case of an emergency. In 1873 gas was in- 
troduced into the city, a number of the trenches dug for the water 
mains being used to carry the gas mains as well. 

There are two banks, both of which are on excellent footing: The 
First National Bank was organized in 1865, with a capital stock of 
$50,000, but it has now a capital stock of $400,000. The People's 
National Bank was organized in 1873, with a capital stock of $12,000. 
It was originally conducted as a bank of deposit, but shortly afterward 
was reorganized upon its present basis. In 1888 it was designated 
as a depository of the United States. An excellent fire department 
was organized in 1870, the company forming the department 
having an improved Silsby rotary steam engine, which has proven 
itself to be all that is required in Martinsburg to conquer any 
ordinary conflagration, taken in connection with the splendid water 
system. Towns with one good fire company have less fires than towns 
with two and three. This seems to have an illustration not far away. 
The Farmers’ & Mechanics’ Mutual Insurance Company was organized 




in 1877, and competes fairly with any of the larger companies of the 
East. It deserves home patronage, for its standing financially can be 
known to all. There are several building and loan associations, all of 
which are doing much good to the poorer and houseless worker. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has its immense shops in Mart ins- 
burg. Hundreds of families have subsisted for years on the earnings 
supplied by work of this great system. The numbers of trains pass- 
ing this point daily enlivens the old town wonderfully, giving it the 
appearance more of a city of 50,000 than 8,000 population. The 
Cumberland Yallev extension of the great Pennsylvania system has 
been running to Martinsburg for many years, but during the present 
year (1889) a still further extension has been completed to Winches- 
ter, which furnishes the town with a direct north, south, east, and 
west road, two of the directions controlled by the Baltimore & Ohio 
and two by the Pennsylvania — two of the most powerful and at the 
same time antagonistic systems of the country. The latter fact 
insures competition, and as per consequence — low rates. Fine turn- 
pikes and other roads traverse the county of Berkeley in every direc- 
tion, thereby affording facilities to the farmer for conveying easily 
liis products to the railroads for shipment. 

There are three very excellent newspapers published in Martins- 
burg, one at Gerrardstown, and two or three other religious, semi- 
religious and class papers. The first four wield the influence, and are 
accepted as “the mirrors of the time” of the county. They are all 
well conducted and ably edited, and have better offices and do better 
work than the average country newspaper. The Independent, a strictly 
Republican journal, is edited with marked ability by Mr. J. Nelson 
Wisner, assisted by Mr. U. S. Grant Pifczer; the Statesman, a stanch 
Democratic newspaper, is edited and conducted with enterprise and 
a strict adherence to Jeffersonian principles by Messrs. AVestenhaver 
& Boyer; the Herald, the last to enter the field at the county seat, 
is edited and managed by Mr. John T. Reily, an excellent news- 
paper man of experience and skill not only in the use of his pen 
but of his type and presses; the Herald is Republican. The Ger- 
rardstown Times was started in 1870 by Mr. J. B. Morgan and 
has been ably and carefully conducted and edited; politics, neutral. 
In regard to the ante bellum papers, from the spring of 1798 to 1861, 
the extracts from those papers give sufficient of their history for the 
purposes of this work. 




Fraternities, and Societies . — Martinsburg lias for almost one hun- 
dred years been foremost in Masonic and other fraternal and social 
orders. As far back as 1812. Masonic notices are found in the old 
newspapers, and there was doubtless a lodge here during the Revolu- 
tionary period, for Gen. Adam Stephen, Gen. Darke, Gen. Gates, Sam- 
uel Washington, Thomas Bryan Martin, the Colstons and other prom- 
inent men were Masons. Winchester had a lodge in 1769, and there 
can be but little doubt that there was a lodge established here soon 
afterward. At present the fraternity is represented by symbolic, cap- 
itular, cryptic, martial and appendant Masonry, and the ranks are filled 
up by the best citizens. 

Equality Lodge No. 44, A. F. & A. M., is the oldest organization 
in Martinsburg. Just when the charter was granted can not now be 
given. They have one of the finest halls in the State, and their mem- 
bership is about 100. 

Robert White Lodge No. 67, A. F. & A. M., was instituted in 
1875. They meet in Grantham hall. 

Berkeley Consistory No. 21, A. S. R., meets in Equality Lodge No. 
44, the third Tuesday in each month. 

Lebanon Royal Arch Chapter No. 2, was instituted by dispensation 
in 1847. The name was originally Mount Horeb, and the number 17, 
which was changed the year following the institution by dispensation. 

Palestine Commandery No. 2, Knights Templar, w~as granted a dis- 
pensation in 1850. The regular conclaves are held on the first Mon- 
day night of each month, in Grantham hall. 

Tuscarora Lodge No. 24, I. O. O. F., came into existence through 
the lapsing of Maffitt Lodge No. 21, which was organized sometime 
about 1840 or 1842. Another lodge, Marengo No. 109, sprang into 
existence also, shortly after the organization of Tuscarora, and they 
both acted under Virginia Grand Lodge charters till 1861, when the 
members became scattered and everything lost that belonged to the 
lodge. In 1865 Tuscarora was revived and received its present num- 

Washington Lodge No. 1, K. of P., meets every Thursday night 
in People’s Bank Building. 

Horeb Encampment No. 12, I. O. O. F., meets in Tuscarora Lodge, 
second and fourth Tuesday nights of each month. 

Lincoln Post No. 1, G. A. R., meets in their hall corner Queen and 
Burk Streets, Thursday evenings. 





Talley Lodge K. of H., meets second and fourth Friday of each 

Bethany Lodge No. 7, D. of R., have quite a numerous lodge and 
in good working order. 

Prosperity Lodge No. 29, I. O. G. T., meets Monday evenings. 

Franklin Assembly K. of L. meets Saturday nights in G. A. R. 

Key Council, Royal Arcanum, meet first and third Friday nights 
in the G. A. R. Hall. 

Local Branch, No. 29, O. I. H., meets second and fourth Thursday 
nights in K. of H. Hall. 

Berkeley Lodge, Order of Tonti, meets first and third Thursday 
nights in K. of P. Hall. 

Federal Lodge, No. 152, K. of W. meets second Tuesday in each 
month, in Peoples’ Bank Building. 

Mount Pisgah Lodge No. 3, A. Y. M., meets Thursday nights 
on South College Street. 

There are two more than ordinarily good bands in Martinsburg, 
one of which has no equal outside of the larger cities, and very few 
equal in those same cities. 

In the country districts there are five granges of P. of H. : Pomona 
Grange, located in Martinsburg; Cherry Grove Grange, in Opequon 
District ; Tuscarora Grange, in Hedgesville; Swan Pond Grange, in 
Opequon, and Mill Creek Grange, in Gerrardstown District. 

Towns and Villages . — Gerrardstown is next to Martinsburg in 
size and importance in Berkeley County. It was established by a 
Baptist minister named David Gerrard, v T ho came to this section at 
an early day. He laid it off in 1787 into one hundred equal lots, and 
'William Henshaw, James Haw, John Gray, Gilbert McKewen, and 
Robert Allen were appointed trustees of the village. It has a popula- 
tion of about 260, and is situated on Mill Creek not far from the 
North Mountain, eleven miles southwest of Martinsburg. It is an 
old settlement and there were very good business houses — stores — at 
the beginning of this century, and they had the enterprise to advertise 
their w r ares in the newspaper published at the county seat in 1810 and 
before. There are at present four stores and a number of other en- 
terprises, including a tannery. Four churches furnish spiritual food 
for the citizens: Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal, and 

Methodist Episcopal South. There are two fine schools, one primary 




and one of a higher grade. The town was at first called Middletown, 
but in consequence of there being another Middletown in Frederick 
County not far off, the name was abandoned for its present title. 

Darkesville, named in honor of Gen. William Darke, the gallant 
Revolutionary soldier, who was one of the magistrates of Berkeley 
County, is situated near the junction of the Winchester and Martins- 
burg turnpike with Mill Creek. It has never .made much headway, 
but it is possible that the completion of the new railroad will give it 
an onward impulse. It is surrounded by finely cultivated farms. It 
was sometimes called Bucklestown, after Gen. Buckles, who resided 

Hedgesville is one of the oldest settlements in the valley of Vir- 
ginia, for the name Hedges in a matter of several land transfers in 
Frederick County occurs as early as 1743. The original Hedges in 
these parts came, undoubtedly, with the first tide of emigration, and 
have always been among the leading citizens of the county. One of 
the oldest church buildings in the valley is claimed by Hedgesville, 
and although the town was not formally established till 1830, or 
thereabouts, there has been a settlement there for over 125 years. It 
is located in a gap of the North Mountaiu, seven miles north by 
west of Martinsburg and a mile from the Baltimore & Ohio station, 
known as North Mountain Station. 

Ganotown, originally called Jamestown, is, also, an old settlement, 
as an advertisement of a store or two in in that place occurs in the 
Martinsburg Gazette at the beginning of this century. Just when it 
became to be known distinctively as a village doth not appear. 
There is in the hamlet a very pretty and comfortable Methodist church. 

Bunker Hill although not containing much population made, or 
rather had made, a history for itself during the Civil war that has 
given it almost as much notoriety as its Boston namesake. It is on, 
or near, or both, the turnpike where Mill Creek strikes that thorough- 
fare. There is one of the oldest churches in the valley at this point, 
or rather the site of the old church, for the original passed away 
nearly 100 years ago. The old one was an Episcopalian chapel, where 
the present one now stands, and there is, also, a Methodist Church. 

Shanghai is the euphonious title of a village situated one mile 
west of Back Creek. In addition to a number of minor business en- 
terprises, there is a stock company known as the Shanghai Manu- 
facturing Association, which manufactures lumber, grinds bark, pre- 







pares sumac, etc. They have a Presbyterian Church and a public 

Falling Waters gained quite a reputation during the late war, it 
being a principal crossing for the armies. It claims to have had 
one of the earliest churches in the valley. It is quite a thriving little 
station on the Cumberland Yalley Extension Railroad. Among the 
series of appalling disasters in May, 1889, Falling Waters can claim 
its place. One of the most terrific storms of wind and rain struck 
that locality, and literally swept everything before it. One life was 
lost and several persons injured. Through a piece of timber the resist- 
less cyclone cut a swath as clean as a scythe would in the wheat-field, and 
where it struck the Potomac it lifted the waters upward and before it 
till the rocks at the bottom were plainly visible. Consternation 
prevailed for some time in the little settlement and much suffering 
has been caused by the awful visitation. 

There are a number of other small villages, such as Bedington, on 
the Cumberland Yalley Railroad, a noted place of resort during the 
summer season; Jones Spring, west of Back Creek, which lias a 
United Brethren in Christ Church, a store or two and a blacksmith 
and wagon shop; Little Georgetown, greatly in favor as a fine point 
for piscatorial sports, on the glorious Potomac, and containing a 
school and all other accompaniments of comfort and civilization; 
Tomahawk, south of Hedgesville; North Mountain, a station on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; Soho, twelve or fifteen miles northwest 
of Martinsburg; Glengary, about fifteen miles southwest of the 
county-seat, and several others, too numerous and too diminutive 
to mention. 

Two events of much local importance occurred, the one in May 
and the other about two weeks afterward, in Martinsburg, in 1889. 
The first was the terrific rainfall of May, when on the fateful Friday 
the city of Johnstown, Penn., was almost wiped out of existence by the 
bursting of a reservoir. On this same Friday night the Tuscarora 
Creek, which passes through Martinsburg, became so swollen as to 
overflow its banks. It swept away almost all the bridges in the lower 
portion of the county, and inundated hundreds of fields and gardens, 
destroying the growing crops. In the town several residences were 
almost ruined, and thousands of dollars worth of timber and other 
movable stuff, fences, outhouses and farming implements in course 
of construction at a factory, were carried away or rendered worthless 




or useless for tlieir original purpose. The second calamity, about 
two weeks after the first, was a terrific hailstorm, pronounced by old 
residents the severest known to them. A great deal of wheat, corn 
and vegetables were literally cut to pieces or ruined otherwise. 
Thousands of dollars were again lost by this second visitation of the 
enraged elements. 

A number of other matters more nearly connected with the war 
period, in regard to Martinsburg and Berkeley County, will be found 
in the closing chapters of tin’s work, wherein the Civil war is treated 
upon separately. 



Before the Creation of Jefferson County— Standing of Her Early Set- 
tlers— Leading Xames— The Washingtons — The Rutherfords—' The 
Morgans— The Swearingens— The Hites, Bedingers, Lucases, Shep- 
herds, Briscoes, Smiths, Porterfields, Davenports, Masons, Lemons, 
Lees, Baylors, and Others — First Settlement in the Valley — The 
Old Packhorse Ford— The Great Indian Highway— The Beautiful 
Potomac— The Germans— Date of Their Arrival— Splendor of Scen- 
ery — The East Virginia Settlers— The Cavalier Stock— “ Courage, 
Courtesy, and Hospitality”— Why the Jeffersonians Make Good 
Soldiers— The Famous “Morgan Spring” Company— Captain Hugh 
Stephenson— Description of the Company and its Start— Interest- 
ing New Facts About Generals Lee, Gates and Stephen— Their 
Residences — Gates’ Letter— Some Errors Corrected — Was Lee a 
Traitor? — Was Charles Lee the Author of the “Junius” Let- 
ters ? — Remarkable Coincidence. 

A LTHOUGH about seventy-five years had elapsed from the date 
of the first settlement of the lower portion of the great valley of 
Virginia, and although that first settlement was made within her pres- 
ent limits, yet the county of Jefferson had no existence by name un- 
til the year 1801. First being a portion of the indefinite outskirts of 
•one of the eastern Virginia counties, then, in 1720, claimed as a part 
of Spottsyl vania, and held as such till 1734, when Orange County 
was created; continued as such till 1738, when Frederick was cut 
•off from Orange; remaining with the latter county till 1772, when 






Frederick was divided into three parts: Dunmore (Shenandoah), War- 
ren, and a portion of Page, being the southern third; Frederick and 
Clarke the central, and Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan, the lower, or 
northern division, being known respectively as Shenandoah, Frederick 
and Berkeley Counties. In 1801, however, the population had so in- 
creased, and the distances had grown so long, in consequence of the 
improved and improving ideas of comfort and convenience, prompted 
by the march of civilization, that application was made to the General 
Assembly of the commonwealth for the cutting off and erecting another 
county out of the plentiful substance of Berkeley, which reasonable de- 
sire was accorded, and the fledgeling was launched forth and named 
Jefferson, in honor of the illustrious statesman who was then president 
of the great republic, in whose behoof he had done so much. 

Yet, notwithstanding the fact of the late creation of Jefferson 
County, distinctively as such, she had, from the very first entrance of 
the white man into the Valley, her full proportion of the intellect and 
courage of the early settlers. Among her citizens were some of the 
most noted men of their day. The first sheriff, appointed in 17 48, at 
the first session of the first court ever held in the valley of Virginia, 
or west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, for that matter, was Thomas 
Rutherford, the father of Robert Rutherford, who represented this dis- 
trict in Congress several times, who was a resident of what is now Jef- 
ferson County. Two or three of the leading justices of the first com- 
mission of the peace were from this section, and the ancestors of many 
of those who became famous in the various branches of the profes- 
sions and in war resided in the northern third of the vast county of 
Frederick. Here originated the numerous families of Washingtons, 
the Morgans, the Swearingens, the Lucases, the Bedingers, the Shep- 
herds, the Davenports, the Porterfields, the Baylors, the Moores, the 
Lees, the Hunters, the Whites, the Masons, the Helms, one branch of 
the Hites, the Lemons, the Mercers, the Briscoes, the Rutherfords, 
the Smiths, the Worthingtons, and numbers of other prominent fami- 
lies. Here also resided atone time five generals of the Revolutionary 
army: Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, William Darke, Adam Stephen and 
Robert Buckles. And greater than all these, was an humble resident 
of Shepherds town, James Rumsey, the undoubted inventor of the steam- 
boat, as will be shown conclusively in another chapter of this work. 

Jefferson County has the honor, beyond all peradventure, of being 
the seat of the first settlements of the white man in the great valley 






•stretching its fertile hills and dales from the Potomac southward for 
over one hundred miles. Undoubtedly the first white man who built 
a cabin south of the Potomac, did so upon the spot where now stands 
the ancient and pleasant little village of Shepherdstown. In addition 
to the existence of grants still preserved in several families, dating 
back to as far as 1729, the fact is apparent for many reasons that 
here were the first settlements. At the date -named, and for many 
years thereafter, the old ford about a mile below Shepherdstown, 
known a hundred Years ago as the “Old Packhorse Ford,” was the 
only crossing of the Potomac River for many miles east and west of it. 
Ferries there were none, and, of course, no bridges; and persons 
seeking the valley country were compelled to cross at the old ford. 
Now, all emigration to this section came down through Pennsylvania 
and Maryland, and that being the case they landed on the Virginia 
side, near the famous spot where the Corn Exchange regiment was so 
badly used up on the morning of the 19th of September, 1862. Sup- 
posing those emigrants from Pennsylvania to be in search of lands 
whereon to settle, and supposing the lands of the valley from the 
Potomac to what is now the upper line of Shenandoah County to have 
been open to settlement, but not a settler upon them, what would be 
the result? Would it not be entirely natural for them to seize upon 
the beautiful land that lay before them, rather than go thirty-five 
miles farther south, to poorer land, and into the heart of the Indian 
settlements? Yet, this latter supposition v/as advanced many years 
ago, and has become the accepted view of tlie matter. Why a settler 
of the period spoken of should, after a long journey in search of a 
spot upon which to build his cabin and make a home, pass over as 
good land as there is on the surface of the earth, is a mystery. But 
it never happened that way. Here was a beautiful river with a stretch 
of placid stream extending several miles with scarcely a ripple, filled 
with fine fish, and the scenery along its banks grand and lovely 
beyond description ; numbers of excellent springs, with timber and 
the best building stone in abundance. And the ford itself was 
sufficient inducement to settle near it, for in case of Indian incursions 
it offered a means of escape into the settlements over in Pennsylvania. 
Oh, no; the pioneer of the great valley of Virginia did not settle five 
miles south of where now stands Winchester: he knew better. The 
first white persons who entered the gateway at Shepherdstown after 
the knightly Spottswood and his company of gay cavaliers and 


k ' 





retainers rode to the apex of Swift Bun Gap in 1716, and drank in 
the grand scene that opened upon their astonished gaze, were Ger- 
mans from Pennsylvania: thrifty husbandmen, skilled workmen in 
the various trades, hardy and industrious. They built them a village 
and called it New Mecklenburg, in honor of, possibly, their native 
city in Vaterland, and their names are here to-day, some of the 
representatives having filled in years past the most prominent posi- 
tions within the gift of their fellow-citizens, whilst at the present 
time many are filling with ability various responsible positions in 
public and private life. 

And the old ford itself, that was the means of inducing or securing 
settlements near it, deserves a passing notice. Very few persons 
realize the importance, or appreciate the great utility, that this natural 
highway has proven in the past, before the days of ferries and bridges. 
How long it has been used is a matter of conjecture. It was the 
“bridge,” so to speak, upon the great Indian highway running north 
and south, and along its path what thousands upon thousands of the 
aborigines must have passed! Here, at this old ford, on both sides 
of the river, have occur rred some of the bloodiest battles between 
hostile tribes, as the number of arrowy-heads and other Indian relics 
attest. Here, too, doubtless marched the myriads of warriors of that 
mysterious race which has left not a trace of its language or history — 
whose antiquity is so great as to constitute them a lost race in reality, 
far more effectually lost than the Assyrian or Babylonian, for they 
have left monuments and inscriptions- — the Mound Builders. Aloug 
this ford, in all probability, rushed the great foe of the Indian, as he 
pushed him back to the Atlantic, vdiere he, the Indian, reaching his 
last resort, in turn rallied and drove his conqueror westward. The 
feet of human beings who lived thousands of years ago doubtless trod, 
our humble ford, as w T ell as the gallant boys in gray and blue from 
1861 to 1865. 

The date of the arrival of these German pioneers of the Yalley 
has been variously put. There is nothing of record, so far as is knovm, 
by which the exact time may be ascertained, but it is evident that 
they were here some time before 1730. As early as 1725 has been 
surmised, but 1727, or thereabout, is more likely to have been the 
date. That they came before 1729 is pretty surely known, for in that 
year a number of grants were issued by Gov. Gooch, and had the 
settlers come in after these grants were issued, they w T ould, doubt- 



less, have gone a little farther along, where land was apparently 
free. But they were “ squatters,” afterward buying from Richard 
Morgan and Thomas Shepherd, one of whom had an original grant. 
These grants are not recorded in the Valley, and are, therefore, not 
easy of access. There was no organized government west of the Blue 
Mountains, as they 'were originally called, and no court nearer than 
Spottsylvania Court-house, and this fact of course, accounts for any 
lack of knowledge in regard to these early settlers, by means of 

The country entered by these enterprising people was found to be 
a land of milk and honey, and they prospered accordingly. The 
scenery was magnificent, and those who stretched out toward the- 
Great Falls, now known as Harper’s Ferry, were no doubt amazed at 
the splendor of the mountains and the rivers. With one grand river 
flowing the entire length of the section on the north, and another large 
river and a chain of lofty mountains on the east, what more could be 
desired after the fertility of the soil was ascertained, and the health- 
fulness and salubrity of the climate became assured? At that early 
day and to the present time, Jefferson County has had no superior for 
richness of soil and desirability as a home. 

In addition to the settlers who came down through Pennsylvania 
and Maryland to Jefferson County, and located along the Potomac 
River from Harper’s Ferry (or as it was then known, the Great Falls), 
westward on that stream, there was a tide of immigation from Eastern 
Virginia. Numbers of the old families, descended from the gentry 
who came over from the mother country early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury — people of mark and standing — sold out their property in the poor- 
lands of the tide-water region, and obtained large tracts of land from 
Lord Fairfax, in some cases at merely nominal prices. This influx of 
some of the best material in the Old Dominion: the cavalier stock wln> 
were always true to “ King and Merrie England ” in the days of 
the unhappy Charles, and when loyalty was better than straightlaced 
Cromwellism, but who, when America raised the standard of inde- 
pendence, were first to flock to the banner of liberty, and first to lay 
down their “ lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor ” in that 
cause; these gently-nurtured settlers, who left, in most cases, luxu- 
rious homes “ across the Ridge ” to begin again the founding of a new 
State, as it were, have impressed upon their descendants, traits that 
obtain to this day, in as full force as they did one hundred and fifty 







years ago. “ Courage, courtesy and hospitality,” those triune virtues 
of the age of chivalry, is not a myth in old Jefferson. The number 
of soldiers furnished in the Revolution of 1776, and the conspicuous 
gallantry and ability of the officers and men alike is known to all. 
And in the Civil war, Jefferson was famous for her hard-riding troop- 
ers — the dash of her splendid cavalry, and the endurance, the patience 
and the self-sacrificing spirit of all classes -alike. Numbers of her 
leaders, many of whom still survive, have had no superiors and few 
peers in any army, ancient or modern. Some of those gray-haired 
veterans may be seen daily, riding into the towns as erect on their 
horses as ever, and some may be seen attending to the avocations of 
civil life, with as much nonchalance as though they had never heard 
of war, or were not immortalized in the histories of their country. 
This immigration from Eastern Virginia began about 1760, many fam- 
ilies coming before that time. Lawrence Washington, as shown by 
the records of 1743 to 1750, purchased from Fairfax a large number 
of tracts of land, and from other parties as well. He did not reside 
in the Valley, but it laid the foundation for the various branches of 
the Washington family. Samuel Washington and Charles Washing- 
ton, brothers of the illustrious general, moved to Jefferson, or rather 
to Frederick County. Samuel was a conspicuous member of the court 
of justices, lieutenant of the county, and lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia; also one of the first justices of the peace at the organization 
of the county of Berkeley. Charles was the founder of Charlestown 
and a liberal-hearted citizen. 

By the opening of hostilities in 1775 Jefferson had increased con- 
siderably in population, almost entirely from east of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, and after the struggle was over in 1781, a still greater 
tide of settlers came in from the same section, the rich lands of this 
county being the predominating inducement. In the very early years 
after the creation of Frederick county (1743) comparatively few had 
come from across the mountains, as there were no good roads, none 
in reality save narrow trails, impassable except to the Indian and the 
hunter, and this was the leading reason, doubtless, that operated in 
this instance against the popular theory that t; westward the star of 
empire takes its way.” The tide from the north, principally Germans 
and Irish, after a few years went further south : to localities beyond 
Winchester, to w r hat is now Shenandoah, and still farther along. In 
this second tide went the wealthy and enterprising German, Jost Hite, 





with his three sons -in -law, Bowman, Chrism an and From an, and a 
number of other families, who settled about five to ten miles above 
Winchester on the Qpequon and Cedar Creek, and whose descendants 
are still to be found near where their ancestors located about 1732-33. 
Considerable having already been said in another portion of this work 
about the early settlers of this section, the foregoing is deemed suf- 

In another portion of this work some account has been given of 
the soldiers of the Valley in the Revolution: the promptitude with 
which they sprang from civil life into soldiers of daring, and the gal- 
lant manner in which they demeaned themselves on all occasions. 
Morgan and his riflemen have been, as far as the writer is able, ac- 
corded the praise so justly due that extraordinary general, and from 
an eye-witness, almost, have been given descriptions of the company 
he started with from Winchester, encamping the first night at a spring 
near Shepherdstown. There were two companies that went from the 
Valley to Boston to the army of Washington, and some pleasant con- 
troversy has been indulged in by the adherents of each as to which 
company started first, and which reached the seat of war first. In this 
laudable and good-natured contest as to wdiose ancestors is due the 
meed of praise for first springing to arms in defense of the general 
weal, and of first endeavoring to fling out the banner of liberty in the 
common cause, there have been brought forward proofs upon both sides. 
Frederick County claims that Daniel Morgan started first and landed 
in the camp of Washington first. Berkeley and Jefferson (at the time, 
one county), claims that Hugh Stephenson started and landed first 
with his company. But to narrow it down, Winchester and Shep- 
herdstown are the particular localities where there is more heard from 
the advocates of the two heroes, for Martinsburg and Charlestown 
were small villages in 1775 as compared to the towns named. The 
Winchester case has been stated, and it would be rank injustice to 
withhold the Shepherdstown plea, especially as the latter seems to 
have certain points of evidence that are extremely conclusive. 

On the 2d of September, 1858, a grand “civic and military 
barbeque” was held at Morgan’s Spring, and numerous speeches were 
delivered. The opening address was made by Hon. Alex. R. Boteler, 
who greeted the assembly with such words of welcome as friendship 
prompts and courtesy demands. He w r as followed by Hon. Charles 
James Faulkner, in an eloquent oration, after which Hon. Andrew 



Hunter delighted the crowd with an impromptu intellectual treat, 
“which was so highly appetizing,” says our informant, that when he 
concluded he left his listeners, like Oliver Twist, asking for “more.” 
The oratorical abilities of the three distinguished gentlemen named 
are so well known that mere ordinary praise falls flat. Two of them 
have passed to their reward, and the third, now far advanced in life, 
stands a representative of the old regime, a' gentleman of the old 
school, a compeer of the great men of his time, and one -whose char- 
acter is, and always has been, sans reproche. From a little pamphlet 
written by and printed for Col. Boteler, more for private than public 
circulation, in 1860, entitled, “My Bide to the Barbecue,” the writer 
has been permitted to make the following extracts, which are so inter- 
esting and cover the points intended so nicely that further “defence” 
of the Jefferson County company could not be desired: 

“It seems that when the momentous drama of the Bevolution was 
about to begin, and the heart of Virginia was throbbing in responsive 
unison with the eloquence of Patrick Henry, whose memorable words, 
‘We must fight — I repeat it, sir, we must fight!’ leaped like ‘live 
thunder’ through the land, nowhere within the borders of the good 
old commonwealth was there a more prompt and determined response 
to the fervid appeal of the ‘forest-born Demosthenes’ than the patri- 
otic citizens of Shepherdstown and its vicinity, where a company of 
riflemen, consisting of more than a hundred men, was immediately 
raised ‘for the protection of American liberty.’ The officers of this 
celebrated corps were: Hugh Stephenson, captain; Abraham Shep- 
herd, first lieutenant; Pendleton, second lieutenant, and 

Scott, third lieutenant; William Pyle was appointed ensign and 
Henry Bedinger sergeant. Their banner was emblazoned with the 
device of the ‘Culpepper minute men ’ — a coiled rattlesnake ready to 
strike, and the significant motto, ‘ Don't tread on me.' For their 
uniform, they adopted home-spun hunting-shirts, made of tow linen 
(fringed around the^neck and down the front), leather leggings and 
moccasins. Each wore a buck tail in his hat, and had a tomahawk 
and scalping-knife in his belt. 

“ Thus organized and equipped, these gallant men held themselves 
in readiness to march at a minute’s notice, and wherever their serv- 
ices might be required to defend the rights of the colonies from the 
encroachments of the British Crown. Accordingly when on the 14th 
of June, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved ‘ That two compa- 



nies of expert riflemen be immediately raised in Pennsylvania, two in 
Maryland, and two in Virginia, and that eacli company, as soon as 
completed, shall march and join the army near Boston,’ the Skep- 
herdstown riflemen obeyed the summons with alacrity, and their’s was 
th q first company f rom the SoiLth that rallied by the side of Washing- 
ton v’hen Boston was beleagured. 

“ The 17th of July, 1775, v r as the day set for their departure, and 
Morgan’s Spring was their rendezvous. True to their appointment, 
they all met there on the morning designated: not a man was missing. 
Having partaken of a frugal meal, they arose from the grass and rev- 
erently received the blessing which a holy man of God invoked in 
their behalf, after which, solemnly agreeing together that as many of 
them as might be alive on that day fifty years should meet again at 
Morgan’s Spring,* they shouldered their rifles and forthwith began 
their march, ‘ making,’ as one of them expressed it, ‘ a bee-line for Bos- 
ton,’ which they reached on the 10th of August, having made the 
journey of 600 miles in twenty-four days. 

“As they approached the camp of Cambridge, Washington, who was 
making a reconnoissance in the neighborhood, descrying the Virginians 
in the distance, galloped up to meet them, and when Capt. Stephen- 
son, saluting him, reported his company ‘ from the right bank of the 
Potomac,’ the commander-in-chief, unable to resist the impulse, sprang 
from his horse, and beginning with the captain, went from man to 
man, shaking hands with each, tears of joy rolling down his cheeks as 
he recognized his friends and fellow-soldiers from the South. 

“Morgan’s riflemen reached the camp a day or two after Stephen- 
son, and Cresap’s company from western Maryland, arrived a few days 
after Morgan. 

“ An accurate idea of the men w T ho were mustered in these three 
rifle companies may be had from the following extract of a letter to a 
gentleman in Philadelphia, dated Fredericktown, Maryland, August 
1st, 1775. [FuZc Am. Archives, Vol. 3d, 1775, page 1, 2.] 

“ 1 Notwithstanding the urgency of my business, I have been de- 
tained three days in this place by an occurrence truly agreeable. I 
have had the happiness of seeing Captain Michael Cresap marching at 
the head of a formidable company of upward of one hundred and 
thirty men from the mountains and backwoods, painted like Indians, 

*0n the 17th of July. IS'-'o, there were but four of the riflemen living, viz. : Maj. Henry Bedinger, 
of Berkeley County ; his brother. Michael Bedinger, of Blue Lick, Ky.; Peter Lauck, of Winchester * 
Va., and Hulse, of Wheeling, W. Yu. 










armed with tomahawks and rifles, dressed in hunting-shirts and mocca- 
sins; and though some of them had traveled hundreds of miles from 
the banks of the Ohio, they seemed to walk light and easy, and not 
with less spirit than at the first hour of their march. 

14 4 Health and vigor, after what they had undergone, declared 
them to be intimate with hardship and familiar with danger. Joy 
and satisfaction were visible in the crowd that met- them. Had Lord 
North been present, and been assured that the brave leader could raise 
thousands of such-like to defend their country, what think you — 
would not the hatchet and the block have intruded upon his mind? 

“ ‘I had an opportunity of attending the Captain during his stay 
in town, and watched the behavior of his men, and the manner in 
which he treated them ; for it seems that all who go out to war under 
him, do not only pay the most willing obedience to him as their com- 
mander, but in every instance of distress, look up to him as their 
friend or father. A great part of his time was spent in listening to 
and relieving their wants, without any apparent sense of fatigue or 
trouble. When complaints were before him, he determined with kind- 
ness and spirit, and on every occasion condescended to please without 
loosing dignity. Yesterday (July 31st, 1775) the company were sup- 
plied with a small quantity of powder from the magazine, which 
wanted airing and was not in good order for rifles; in the evening, 
however, they were drawn out to show the gentlemen of the town their 
dexterity at shooting. A clap-board with a mark the size of a dollar 
was put up; they began to fire off-hand, and the by-standers were 
surprised, few shots being made that were not close or into the paper. 
When they had shot for some time in this way, some lay on their backs, 
some on their breasts or sides, others ran twenty or thirty steps, and 
firing as they ran, appeared to be equally certain of the mark. With 
this performance the company were more than satisfied, when a young 
man took up the board in his hand, not by the end, but by the side, 
and holding it up, his brother walked to the distance and coolly shot 
into the white; laying down his rifle, he took the board, and holding 
it as it was held before, the second brother shot as the former had 
done. By this exhibition I was more astonished than pleased. But 
will you believe me when I tell you that one of the men took the 
board, and placing it between his legs, stood with his back to the tree 
while another drove the center? 

“ £ What would a regular annv of considerable strength in the for- 

o w O 




ests of America do with one thousand of these men, who want nothing- 


to preserve their health and courage but water from the spring, with 
a little parched corn (with what they can easily procure in hunting), 
and who, wrapped in their blankets at the dead of night, would choose 
the shade of a tree for their covering and the earth for their bed.’ ” 

In one of the chapters of this work, more especially bearing upon 
Berkeley County prior to the division, are incorporated sketches of 
the three prominent and unfortunate generals, who resided, all of them, 
in that portion of the county now comprised in Jefferson, but the fol- 
lowing additional facts in regard to those worthies, written by the 
same talented gentleman who furnished the editor of this work with 
the preceding account of the famous company, is so readably prepared 
and embraces so many new ideas, that it is given a place here with 
pleasure. It also touches upon several other interesting points, so 
lucidly and freshly, that the extracts will be still further appreciated 
on that account. The writer was on his way to the barbecue, as above 
stated, and says: 

“We halted a few minutes at Charlestown, named after Washing- 
ton’s youngest brother, Charles, on whose land it was laid Out, and 
who is said greatly to have resembled the general in the dignity of 
his appearance as well as in his disposition and character. Resuming 
our seats we turned our horses toward Leetown, and resisting the 
temptation to stop and examine the picturesque ruins of an ancient 
church which we noticed near the road, and which is said to have been 
erected in the reign of George II., we drove slowly past Harewood — 
that tine old place of pleasant memories and patriotic associations, 
where Washington’s brother Samuel dwelt, where James Madison was 
married, and where Louis Philippe and his two brothers, the Duke 
de Montpensier and Count Beaujolais, with their faithful servant 
Beaudouin, were entertained — a time-hallowed stone mansion, moss- 
grown and gray, with its black marble mantels, the gift of La Fayette, 
and its hall hung with a quaint collection of family portraits, amongst 
which is that of its original proprietor surrounded by those of his 
five sons. The house having been planned and built under the per- 
sonal superintendence of Gen. Washington himself has, fortunately, 
been preserved from the desecration of whitewash and stucco, and we 
trust will continue to be guarded with jealous care from the senseless 
vandalism which has no regard for the recollections of our history, 
and which is ever ready to tear down or disfigure the venerable monu- 
ments built by the strong hands of our fathers. 




“Soon afterward we found ourselves in front of the former resi- 
dence of Gen. Charles Lee, of Revolutionary notoriety. The house is 
a long, low, quaint-looking building with a high-pitched roof and 
irregularly placed chimneys. It stands a short distance from the turn- 
pike road, and on rising ground, but is so hidden behind a tangled 
copse of neglected shrubbery, that it seems to seclude itself from ob- 
servation with the same pertinacious spirit of misanthropy that char- 
acterized the cynical soldier of fortune who once possessed it. Al- 
though it was built more than one hundred years ago, the solidity of 
its lime-stone walls and the soundness of its timbers give assurance 
that it will last at least another century, if not destroyed by the med- 
dlesome hand of ‘ modern improvement.’ When occupied by Lee, it 
is well known that he allowed no partition to divide its interior; but a 
huge chimney, which rises through the center of the building, served 
in some degree to separate the cooking department from that which 
was made to answer for a bed-room, parlor, library, dog-kennel and all. 

“ Here he was living, a soured, disappointed man, against whom 
the door of promotion had been closed in his own country when the 
war for independence began in ours, and hither he retired with a 
heart fuller than ever of bitterness and hate after the Continental 
Congress had confirmed the finding of the court martial that sat in 
judgment on his conduct at the battle of Monmouth. It certainly 
seems strange that such a man as Lee should have lived, and so lived, 
in this then retired place; that one whose attainments "were so great, 
whose career had been so eventful, whose ambition was so unsatisfied, 
‘ who had served in the famous campaigns of Europe, commanded Cos- 
sacks, fought with Turks, talked with Frederick the Great, been an 
officer under the King of Portugal, and aid-de-camp to Pianatowski, 
King of Poland,’ should have selected for his abode what was then 
comparatively 4 a lodge in some vast wilderness with a boundless con- 
tiguity of shade.’ But he was induced to do so by his friend and 
fellow soldier, Gen. Horatio Gates, whoresided in the same neighbor- 
hood, upon an estate called Traveler’s Rest; and as the letter he wrote 
to Lee persuading him to settle where he did, is both characteristic and 
rare (never having been printed in this country), I here insert it: 

Traveler’s Rest, Va., July 1st, 1774. 

“ 4 My Dear Lee: — I received your welcome letter by Mr. Worm- 
ley, and live in daily expectation of seeing you at my hut. I now wish 
more than ever for that satisfaction; as the alarms of the times make 





me earnest to consult and converse with you thereupon. Until actions 
convince me of the contrary, I am resolved to think Mr. Gage lias 
some secret medicine in his pocket to heal the wounds that threaten 
the life of American liberty. Surely a man so humane, so sensible, so 
honorable, so independent in his circumstances, and so great from fam- 
ily expectations, would never undertake a business fit only for an aban- 
doned desperado, or a monster in human shape, a General Murry, a 
Macro, or a Bavilliac. I cannot think what detains you so far southward 
at this season of tlie year: without any disparagement to Williamsburg, 
health and such as you like for associates are more certainly to be 
met with to the northward. I know not how you find it, but the older 
I grow, I become less and less inclined to new acquaintances. Selfish- 
ness and sycophancy possess so generally the minds of men, that I 
think the many are best avoided, and the few only who are liberal and 
sincere to be sought for and caressed. I therefore stick steadily to 
the cultivation of my farm, am intimate with few, read when I have 
time, and content myself wfith such domestic comforts as my circum- 
stances and fortune afford me. I wish, therefore, most anxiously, you 
would come to my retreat, and let us philosophize on the vices and 
virtues of this busy world, the follies and the vanities of the great, 
the vulgar, and the small — 

“ ‘Laugh when we please, be candid when we can. 

And justify the ways of God to man. 

“‘Mrs. Gates is earnest in desiring to see you under her roof, 
where a good bed is provided for you, two or three slaves to supply 
all your -wants and w r himsies, and space enough about us for you to 
exorcise away all your spleen and gloomy moods, whensoever they dis- 
tress you. 

“ ‘ In my neighborhood there is this moment as fine a farm-mill 
and tract of land to be sold as any in America, and provided it is con- 
venient to you to pay down half the price, I am convinced you may 
have it at a very great bargain. 

“ ‘It is altogether two thousand four hundred acres, at thirty shil- 
lings sterling an acre; I am satisfied you might have it so. 

“ ‘ By paying down about one thousand eight hundred pounds ster- 
ling, you may be put in possession of an estate that ten years hence 
will be worth seven thousand pounds sterling; and I take it for 
granted that you may have the payment of the rest of the purchase 
money at easy installments, and that, too, without interest; so by lay- 
ing out a thousand pounds sterling more in stocking and improvements, 
your produce will yield you a fine living, and wherewithal to pay your 
annual installments bargained for in the purchase. I suppose you 
have procured from Lord Duumore his warrant for your five thousand 
acres upon the Ohio; that will be, very soon, of considerable value. 

“‘As to the Indians, the behavior of certain of the white people 
is, beyond all comparison, abominable toward those unhappy natives. 






Not content with quiet possession of all the land on this side of the 
Ohio, they demand, as a preliminary to a peace, all the land between 
that river and the Mississippi ; but this story is too long for a letter — 
you shall know the whole of this iniquitous affair when we meet. 

“ ‘ The gentleman who does me the favor to present you this letter 
has the pleasure of your acquaintance, and can fully inform you of the 
exceeding wickedness and absurdity of the measures pursued and being 
pursued against the Indians. 

“ 1 1 have read, with wonder and astonishment, Gage’s proclama- 
tions; surely this is not the same man you and I knew so well in the 
days of yore; but that men should change, neither you nor I will be 
surprised at ; it is rather matter of amazement when they do not. 

“ 1 August 17th . — I am this instant returned from Baltimore, and 
hoped to have crossed upon you in your route northward, but, like 
Swift's Mordants, you were vanished. I was sorry for it, as I might 
have prevailed upon you to have tempered your zeal with caution, 
before all such persons as may reasonably be suspected to watch your 
words and actions. Where your zeal in the noble cause you mentiou 
can be exerted to effect, too much caution cannot be shown; but be 
careful how you act, for, be assured, Gage knows you too well, and 
knows you know him too well, not to be glad of any plausible pretense 
to prevent your good services in the public cause. Farewell, my 
friend; remember, I am what I have always professed myself to be, 
and that I am ready to risk my life to preserve the liberties of the 
Western World. 

“ ‘ On this condition would I build my fame, 

And emulate the Greek or Roman name; 

Think Freedom’s rights bought cheaply with my biood, 

And die with pleasure for my country’s good. 

“ ‘ While I live, I am, 

“ ‘Yours unchangeably, 

“ 4 Horatio Gates.’ ” 

“ After the reception of the foregoing letter, Lee lost no time in 
securing the estate it refers to; and having taken possession of it in 
the autumn of 1774, he lived there till the following May, when he 
repaired to Philadelphia, where the Continental Congress was in 
session, and was soon after appointed major-general in the American 

“From the time of his arrival with Washington on the 2d of July r , 
1775, till his suspension from command his history is well known to all. 
It was not until the spring of 1779 that he had an opportunity of visit- 
ing his Virginia plantation; but when he returned to it (as he said, 
‘to learn to hoe tobacco — which is the true school to form a consum- 
mate general, a discovery I have lately made’), he remained thereuntil 




the fall of 1782, when, although (according to his biographer) he had 
become ‘so rusticated that he could have lived in a tub with Diogenes 
he determined to sell the estate and settle near some seaport town. With 
this view lie went to Philadelphia, and took lodgings in the ' Slate Roof 
House,’ in which William Penn once resided; but a few days after his 
arrival he was seized with a fever, which caused his death on the 2d of 
October, 1782.” 

[Gen. Lee is said to have had a large number of dogs and was so 
fond of them that he drank his water from the same bucket as his 
canine friends, but the anecdote scarcely accords with his fastidious 
tastes in other matters. His affection for the dumb brutes, and his 
traditionary great care of them is rather an evidence of his kindness 
of heart than otherwise. And the stories of his naming his dogs after 
the Holy Trinity and the Apostles, seem not to be borne out by the 
facts. A man could scarcely be so sacrilegious as to do that and at 
the same time say, as he does in his will, “I most earnestly commend, 
my soul to the great Creator of all worlds and all creatures.” He was 
what would be termed to-day “an advanced thinker,” not a sceptic, in- 
fidel or atheist, as he has been called. He was not any more “ad- 
vanced,” however, than most of the intellectual religionists of this 
latter part of the nineteenth century, for they believe, with Charles 
Lee, that “the Creator is indifferent to the creeds of man,” whether 
that man be “Christian, Jew or Mahometan.”] — Editor. 

“But yonder is ‘Travelers’ Rest,’” continues the account from 
which these sketches are gleaned, “ a cluster of farm buildings on the 
left hand side of the road, and it reminds me of another incident in 
Lee’s life, which, as it happened in the very house to which w T e are going, 
will be an appropriate introduction to Gates’ domicil. 

“ It appears that both Gates and his wife, being fond of the pleas- 
ures of the table, were accustomed to linger over their wine and wal- 
nuts, which had the effect, occasionally, of making Mrs. Gates not only 
more loquacious than ladies generally are, but also more disputatious 
than they ever ought to be. When in these moods she sometimes so 
far forgot the proprieties of her sex as to berate her husband, even in 
the presence of company. Such scenes were especially disagreeable 
to General Lee who, in the latter days of his life, had so little fancy for 
the fair sex, that he would not sleep in a room where any article of 
female attire might happen to be left.* Well, one day after dinner her 

*But his will, printed in another portion of this work, shows that he had a housekeeper, a Mrs. 
Dun, to whom he bequeathed considerable of his personal effects.— Ed. 




ladyship was ‘ lording it over her lord ’ a little more Xantippe-like than 
usual, and in the course of the controversy she appealed to Lee for 
an expression of his opinion as to the position she had assumed. .Lee, 
hesitated, but, being pressed by the lady for an answer as to his opin- 
ion of her, said, as he took up his liat and a position near the door, 

■* Then, madam, you shall have it: My candid opinion is that you are a 
tragedy in private life and a farce to all the world.’ So saying he 
silently took his departure. 

“But here we are at the identical door through which the General 
deemed it so prudent to retreat, for the second time in his strange, 
eventful history, from the face of a British grenadier! 

“ The house at Traveler’s Best is similar in the general style of 
its architecture to that of Lee’s, but better .finished. It is substan- 
tially built of cut limestone — a story and a half high, with huge 
•chimneys and lofty roof. The windows are numerous and narrow 
(those in the basement looking like port-holes), the casements are 
clumsily constructed, and the glass in them nearly an eighth of an 
inch thick. The interior seems, to have undergone but little altera- 
tion since the days of its distinguished occupant. The principal 
apartments are paneled and ornamented with heavy cornices carved 
in the fashion most approved of by our fathers £ when George the 
Third was King.’ The crest and monogram of Gates (for he was of 
gentle lineage) are still to be seen, rudely cut with a diamond into 
-one of the small window panes. It is the General’s initials, sur- 
mounted by a horse’s head, rampant on the conventional losenge. 

“Descending the rocky hill on which the house is placed, a parting 
look was cast at the venerable edifice once occupied by the brilliant 
and soldierly Gates — the god-son of Horace Walpole (to whom, 
indeed, some say, £ he stood in filial relationship of a less sanctified 
'character’), and the thought came forcibly to our mind, what a small 
event it is sometimes sends a man’s name down the corridors of time 
freighted with ignominy — perhaps undeserved. 

“Not having time, it was a matter of regret that we could not pay 
a visit to that other major-general of the Devolution, who, too, stands 
smirched to this day for an offence that time seems constantly endeav- 
oring to make less and less flagrant. 

“Maj.-Gen. Adam Stephen was a native of Scotland. In 1710 he 
took the degree of Master of Arts at King’s College, Aberdeen. In 
1745 he went to London, and was appointed surgeon’s mate on a man- 






of -war; but disliking tlie regular service, came over to Virginia as 
surgeon on a merchantman. Dr. Stephen, returning to England on 
the same vessel upon which he had come out, the Neptune, gave the 
first evidence at this time or the stern stuff that was in him. When 
in the Channel they were attacked by a French privateer, and Tvere 
on the point of being boarded, when Stephen addressed the officer in 
command and begged the use of four nine-pounders which were in 
the cabin, and with the assistance of two young sailors directed the 
guns so effectively that they swept the forecastle and bowsprit of the 
enemy, thereby saving the Neptune and her cargo of four hundred 
hogsheads of tobacco. The ancient account says: ‘The sailors 

spreading abroad the report of this occurrence’ in London, occasioned 
the merchants to take much notice of the Doctor, and he was offered 
the surgeoncy of an East Indiaman, with considerable privileges. 
Not liking a sea-life, however, he declined the offer and came to 
America, landing in Maryland in the spring of 1748. Shortly after- 
ward he moved to Fredericksburg, and practiced his profession with 
success until the spring of 1754, when, at the solicitation of William 
Fairfax, he agreed to enter the service, and by Mr. Fairfax’s direc- 
tions, Col. George Washington called at his house and left him a com- 
mission for the first captaincy,’ in consequence of which he forthwith 
repaired to the frontier and raised a company. He was with Wash- 
ington at the battle of Great Meadows, and the following year 
accompanied Braddock on his disastrous expedition, being himself 
wounded in that engagement. On this expedition it is probable that 
his first acquaintance began with Charles Lee and Horatio Gates, the 
former being an officer in the Forty -Fourth Begulars, and the latter a 
captain of an independent company of Boyal Americans, and was 
also wounded.” 

In addition to the above supplementary facts so kindly furnished 
the editor hereof, the writer has had put into his possession several 
other matters bearing upon the same subject. 

It has ever been the endeavor on the part of English writers to be- 
little and even blacken the character of Charles Lee, for the govern- 
ment of the mother country felt the loss of so able an officer when he 
espoused the cause of America. And when he was captured — after the 
scare that Washington gave them, when they threatened to take Lee 
to England and try him for treason, by sending Howe word that 
English officers in his (Washington’s) hands would receive the same 




treatment they visited upon Gen. Lee — the British government at first 
demanded six general officers in exchange for Lee. If he was of so 
little consequence why demand so high a ransom? These remarks are 
suggested by an article printed several years ago in the London Athe- 
nceum by a George H. Moore, entitled “ The Treason of Charles Lee,” 
and overflows with venom against that unfortunate soldier. This writer 
says he was a “ droll mixture of charlatan and hero,” that he was 
“ burning with resentment ” against England, and other such twaddle. 
Also that the people looked up to him as their leader, and that “ had he 
been an American he would have been nominated to the command of the 
army,” and that Washington’s “most cordial friends mistrusted his 
(Washington’s) military capacity.” The ideas of this writer do not 
agree with each other, however, for it is a singular state of feeling for 
one to be “burning with resentment” against a country and at the 
same time turn traitor to the country that was honoring him, for the 
benefit of the government he was “ burning ” against. 

To Charles Lee have, by several investigators, been attributed 
the famous letters of “Junius.” It is said that in the fall of 1773, 
Mr. Thomas Rodney was in America in company with Lee, when the 
subject of the authorship of the Junius letters came up. Mr. Bod- 
ney advanced the idea that no one but Lord Chatham could have been 
the author, when Lee with great animation said to his “ certain knowl- 
edge Lord Chatham was not the author, nor does he know who is; 
that there is not a man in the world, not even Woodfall, who knew; 
that the secret rested solely with himself, and would remain so.” To 
which Mr. Bodney, feeling very much surprised, replied: “General 
Lee if you certainly know what you have affirmed, it can no longer 
remain a secret ; no one but the author himself could know what you 
have just affirmed.” Becollecting himself, Lee replied, “ I have un- 
guardedly committed myself, and it would be folly to deny it to you , 
that I am the author ; but I must request that you will not reveal it 
during my life ; for it never was, and never will be revealed by me to 
any other man.” 

It is an extraordinary coincidence that Lee, Gates, and Stephen — 
all born in Great Britain, all captains on this continent in the old 
French war, all with the rash and unfortunate Braddock when he was 
defeated and killed, all wounded in that famous defeat, ail active and 
efficient promoters of the cause of the colonists in the morning of the 
Revolution — should, after having respectively reached the rank of 



major-general, Lave been court-martialed and deprived of tlieir com- 
mands, and finally be found living together on adjacent farms in the 
same locality. 



The County Court — First Commission of the Peace — Some Xoted 
Justices— First Clerk and Sheriff — Applicants for Admission- 
Gen. William Darke— Manumission of Slaves— Taverns— Erection 
of Public Buildings— Military Appointments— Ferdinando Fair- 
fax— Ministers Licensed— “ Jefferson and Cleveland, Persons of 
Honesty and Good Demeanor”— List of All the Justices of the 
County— The Civil War Period— Prompt Patriotism— Siiepherds- 


County Seat— Dr. S. J. Cramer— Thomas A. Moore— The Circuit 
Court— Its Able Judges— Richard Parker, Ossawattomie Brown’s 
Judge— xY Four Years’ Hiatus— Robert T. Brown, C. C. C — Tribute 
to a Good Man— The Later Judges— Complete List of Sheriffs. 

T HE records of Jefferson County, by the forethought of the late 
venerable and popular clerk, Mr. Thomas A. Moore, are, happily, 
intact from the day of the organization of the first court in ISO I to 
the present time. The thoughtful gentleman named seemed to fore- 
see the vandalism that would ravage Charlestown, and so, wisely, had 
the records all removed to Lexington, where they remained till the 
close of hostilities, when they were brought back to Shepherdstown, 
at which point the seat of justice for Jefferson County was established 
after the war, and where it remained till 1871, when it again took up 
its quarters in Charlestown. The first entry in the first order book of 
the justices reads as follows: 

Jefferson County, Set: 

Be it remembered that at the house of John Mines (formerly oc- 
cupied by Basil Williamson), in the town of Charlestown, on the tenth 
day of November, 1801, a new commission of the peace from His Ex- 
cellency, James Monroe, Esq., Governor of the Commonwealth of 
Virginia, dated the 26tli day of September, 1801, directed to John 
Kearsley, William Little, Joseph Swearingen, Alexander White, John 
Briscoe, William Darke, Richard Baylor, George Hite, George North, 
Daniel Collett, Abraham Davenport, Van Rutherford, John Packett, 



Daniel Morgan, Jacob Bedinger and Ferdinando Fairfax, was produced 
to the court and read, Whereupon the said William Little, Joseph 
Swearingen, Alexander White, John Briscoe and Richard Baylor, hav- 
ing first, taken the oath for giving appearance of fidelity to this com- 
monwealth, the oath in . support of the Constitution of the United 
States, and also the oath of office according to law, which w T ere admin- 
istered to them by John Kearsley, he the said Kearsley then took the 
same oaths, which were administered to him by Joseph Swearingen, and 
the said Kearsley then administered the same oaths to George Hite, 
George North, Daniel Collett, Abraham Davenport, John Packett, 
Daniel Morgan, Jacob Bedinger and Ferdinando Fairfax, who sever- 
ally took the same. Court Proclaimed. 

The wdieels of justice now being fairly in motion, William Little 
produced a commission from his excellency, Gov. Monroe, as sheriff of 
Jefferson County, and took the required oaths; also furnished his 
bondsmen, who obligated themselves in the required sum. 

George Hite was appointed clerk of the court, and Ferdinando 
Fairfax and Lawrence A. Washington acknowdedged themselves as 

o o 

bondsmen for the clerk. 

Cyrus Sanders, Benjamin Stephenson, William Little, Jr., and 
John Sanders were sworn in as deputy sheriffs. 

William B. Lowery w r as sw-orn as deputy clerk; John Baker was 
appointed and sworn in as deputy attorney for the commonwealth, 
and William McPherson was recommended as surveyor for the county. 

William McPherson and Joseph Swearingen were appointed com- 
missioners to confer with the commissioners appointed by Berkeley 
County Court to determine the boundary between the two counties. 

At a court held next day, the 11th of November, the following 
attorneys were admitted to practice: William McGuire, Edward 

Christian, Lewis Elsev, Mathew Whiting, John Dixon, Samuel Heed, 
Elisha Boyd, William Tate and Hugh Holmes. 

The following persons were appointed constables: Jacob Long, 

William Shope, John Grantham, Peter Martin and Christian Olliman. 

At the next (December) court, held on the 8tli of the month, 
Archibald Magill, one of a noted family of lawyers, there being three 
or four practicing at the same time in Frederick, Berkeley and Jeffer- 
son Counties, was admitted to practice. The Magills were residents 
of Frederick County. 

At this court a very prominent German divine, Freidreich Wilhelm 
Gausinska, appeared before the justices, and having produced a certifi- 




cate of his being a regular minister in the German Lutheran Church 
of Pennsylvania, was authorized by the court to administer the rites, 
of matrimony. The reverend gentleman at this time came to take 
charge of the Lutheran Church at Sheph erdstown . 

The county was laid off into two districts, for the purpose of speci- 
fying the bounds of the two overseers of the poor who were to be 

Gen. William Darke, who had been appointed one of the justices 
of the peace, died at this time. He was a man highly respected by 
ail, and although living in the same county with the three other 
generals, Lee, Gates and Stephen, seems to have held himself aloof 
from those three brilliant malcontents. Gen. Darke is represented to 
have been a gentleman of modest demeanor, but a soldier, every inch 
of him. His name may not have flashing about it the doubtful cor- 
ruscations of supposed genius, but he w T ent down to his grave an 
honored and honorable Revolutionary soldier, with no smirch upon him. 

December 9, 1801. — The records state that a “Mr. Rutherford” 
(evidently meaning Robert Rutherford, the Congressman) appeared 
before the justices and had placed on record the fact of his having 
manumitted three of his slaves, Menta, Joseph and Adam. This is 
the first case of manumission in the county, and is notable for the 
reason that it was long before any anti-slavery agitation occurred. It 
is altogether probable that this course (manumission) w r ould have 
been generally pursued, in the border States, at any rate, had not vio- 
lent agitators risen to attempt to force the matter. Some horses may 
be led, but not driven. Numbers of other cases occurred similar to 
that of good, plain old “ Robin ” Rutherford, whose heart is said to 
have been far out of proportion with his small frame. 

In those early days the justices were sometimes judge, jury, witness 
and executioner. Their sway simply covered almost all matters in 
which the community was interested. They regulated the prices of 
general commodities to a certain extent, and seemed to have special 
care for the keepers of taverns (ordinaries). Here is a list of the- 
prices made out and promulgated for the use of the proprietors of or- 
dinaries in 1801 : 

For one dinner $ 40 

For one breakfast 23 

For one supper 30 

For one lodging 

For one quart Madeira wine 



For one quart sherry wine. . . 
For one quart Lisbon wine. . . 
For one quart port wine. . .. 

For one quart punch 

For one quart toddy 

For one bottle London porter 

For one gill spirits 

For one gill French brandy. . 
For one gill peach brandy. . . . 
For one gill apple brandy. . . . 

For one gill whisky 

For one gill bounce 

For one quart beer or cider. . . 
Stabling and hay per night. . . 

Corn and oats per gallon 

Pasturage per night 

1 00 
12 * 
6 * 
6 * 
6 * 
12 * 

February Court, 1802. — Abraham Morgan was recommended as a 
proper person to be appointed major of the First Battalion, Fifty-fifth 
Regiment, Virginia Militia, in the room of Henry Bedinger, removed. 
Jacob Haines was recommended for captain in same battalion. 

Christian Fouke was recommended as lieutenant in the Fifth Bat- 
talion, also Jacob D. Williamson for a similar position, Azariah Thorn- 
burg for a captain, and John Unsell and Conrad Shingler, for ensigns 
in the same battalion. 

Matthew Frame, Thomas Hammond and David Humphrey were 
requested to continue their services as solicitors for subscription to 
the fund for the purpose of erecting public buildings for the accom- 
modation of a court of justice; and also to collect the arrearages due 
from subscribers, and to report progress. 

From this entry in the old records it appears that the public build- 
ings were erected by the voluntary contributions of the citizens of the 

The first case of crime brought to the notice of the justices was 
that of Peter Lung, who was charged with having “ stolen two silver 
dollars,” but there was not enough evidence to convict him. The first 
grand jury empaneled was at the March court, 1802: George Wash- 
ington was foreman, Lawrence A. Washington, Leodovick Fry, Eli 
Phelps, Zachariah Buckmaster, Richard Hardesty, Nicholas Shall, 
Beverly Whiting, John Sheelv, John Lemon, Alexander Burnett, 
Samuel Wright, Jacob Moler, James Likens, Jacob Smurr and Samuel 

. By December of this year (1802) the public buildings were under 
construction, as the sheriff was ordered to pay to John Young $100 

:V • 



out of the depositum in his hands for the purpose of carrying on the 
public buildings of the county. On February 9, 1803, another §100 
was paid to Young. 

About this time a negro belonging to George H. Norris was hung 
for committing an outrage, and his master was paid §333.33 for the 
loss of his slave, which was in accordance with the law then prevailing. 
John and Robert, negroes belonging to Robert Baylor, were convicted 
of stealing a vest and two yards of calico, and sentenced to be “burned 
in the hand and receive twenty lashes,” “within the benefit of clergy,” 
all “in the presence of the court.” 

In February, 1805, an account of the expenditures attending the 
public buildings of the county was inspected by the court and the claim 
was allowed. These first buildings seem to have been only temporary, 
as will be seen farther along. The same court ordered the clerk to 
advertise for “plans and proposals for building a jail of brick or stone, 
with or without a wall enclosing the same, with estimates according 
to each plan.” 

Just one year from the time mentioned above, the justices ordered 
that a jail be built of brick, two stories high, with three rooms on the 
first floor, and two above, the building to be “ 28x21 feet from- out to 
out.” The contract was to be given out by three commissioners, 
Richard Baylor, Abraham Davenport and Joseph W. Davis. The com- 
missioners w^ere to advertise the letting of the same to the lowest 
bidder, on March 8, next. David Humphrey v r as appointed to super- 
intend the work, at a salary of §200. Ferdinando Fairfax, one of the 
justices, w r ho is said to have been a man of not only fine attainments, 
but of great foresight and business judgment, dissented from the order 
for the reason that the proposed plan was too small, and insisted that 
it was false economy to so build it, as future expenses in altering and 
enlarging it, vdiich w’as sure to occur, would greatly increase the cost 
over what it would be to at once build it right. The contract w'as let 
as proposed, but at the May court following, the ideas of Fairfax w'ere 
adopted, as an addition w r as ordered as follows: “An addition of 13 

feet in the clear, furnishing rooms for the jailor, to be built uniform 
with the other.” 

This Ferdinando Fairfax, who owned and resided upon the Shan- 
nondale estate, v r as the third son of Bryan Fairfax, who at the death of 
Robert, Lord Fairfax, the seventh lord of that name, became the eighth 
Lord Fairfax. Bryan lived at his seat of Tolston, in Virginia, and 

2 I 

; r- v ' - 





when Robert died he went to England and claimed his right to the 
peerage. He was the last of the tory Fairfaxes, for his son, Ferdi- 
nando, although falling heir to his father’s titles as “Lord Fairfax, 
Baron of Cameron,” etc., never claimed his undisputed right, con- 
sidering the honor of being an American citizen quite sufficient in 
this free land. Ferdinando inherited his beautiful estate from George 
William Fairfax, of Belvoir, on the Potomac nearly opposite Mount 
Vernon, whose father, William Fairfax, was a cousin of our Lord Fair- 
fax, proprietor of the Northern Neck. George William made provis- 
ion in his will that at the death of his wife the estate should go to 
Ferdinando. He (G. W. F. ) was about the same age as Washington, 
and when the illustrious general was about sixteen he and young Fair- 
fax began surveying all this lower Shenandoah Valley, or a great part 
of it at least. 

The next year, February, 1807, Abraham Davenport, Benjamin 
Bell, and David Humphrey, were appointed a committee to ascertain 
what repairs were necessary to be made to make the old jail suitable 
for a clerk’s office, and to let the remodeling of the same out to the low- 
est bidder. Also, Richard Baylor, David Humphrey and William H. 
Harding, were appointed a committee to examine the clerk’s office then 
used, and report in what condition the records and papers were. 

June Court, 1807. — It was ordered that the county be laid off into 
two districts, to be determined by the “ main road from the Loudoun 
line by Keyes’ : thence with Hite’s road to Lee and thence with the 
main road by Robert’s ford on the Opeckon to the Berkeley line, to be 
called the Northern and Southern districts: that on the Northern side 
to be the Northern District and that on the Southern side the Southern 

During this year there were a large number of slaves manumitted, 
but the particular cause of it does not appear. The punishment of 
branding, or burning with a hot iron into the hand, seems to have 
been administered nearly as much as whipping at the “public post.” 

1808. — Lewis Mayers, of Maryland, of the German Reformed 
Church, was licensed to perform the rites of matrimony. 

1809. — In the county levy the sum of §200 is appropriated for the 
purpose of making window-shutters above and below, and glazing the 
windows of the court-house; for erecting a “ stocks and pillory;” for 
purchasing plain tables and benches for the jury rooms; for making 
stone steps to the court-house and clerk’s office, and making “ neces- 
sary repairs to ye jail.” 





1810. — Obed Waite was admitted to practice in Jefferson. The 
previous year to this he had been made clerk of the circuit court 
holden in Martinsburg. He filled the position of clerk till 1824. 
Robert C. Lee and Edward Colston were also admitted to practice 
their profession — the law. Rev. John Price, a Protestant Episcopal 
minister, who had charge of the Episcopal Churches at Charlestown 
and Shepherds town, and a number of chapels elsewhere, who is said 
to have been the last rector of the old church, now such a picturesque 
ruin near Charlestown, was licensed to administer the rites of matri- 
mony. Rev. Francis Moore, a Baptist minister, was accorded the same 

1811. — Dr. Samuel J. Cramer, William McElroy, Thomas Carson, 
Joseph Cresw'ell and David Gray were naturalized, “ they having com- 
plied with the law in taking the several oaths.” 

The county was pretty well supplied with taverns at that early 
day, as at one court the following persons were licensed to “ keep an 
ordinary ” : Henry Gilbert, Henry Garnliart, Casper Walper, Catharine 
Wiltsheiner, John Conaway, Henry Haines, John Anderson, John G. 
Unseld, Basil Williamson, John James, Christian Fouke, George 
Little, Jacob Alstadt, Curtis Grubb. Owing, possibly, to the existence 
of some of these “ ordinary” places the following entry was made on 
the old minute book: “ William Rhonomus proved that John Welsh 

bit off his left ear in a fight.” 

But liquor selling and liquor drinking, for that matter, was not 
accompanied by the same, if any, stigma that it has attached to it at 
this day, for a few years later than the last date given above, so 
respectable a firm as “Jefferson & Cleveland” dispensed the ardent 
This firm name appears to a petition to the justices as follows: “Upon 
the petition of Humphreys & Keyes, Robert Keyes & Co., Jefferson & 
Cleveland, William Hooff, John & James Stephenson, David Humph- 
reys, George Humphreys, W. & J. Lane, William F. Lock, Lanes & 
Timberlake, Matthew Frame & Son, Samuel K. White, Maslin & Co., 
J. N. Carter, Weed & Dudley, Michael Garry, William Anderson and 
Ransdell Brown, for permission to sell spirituous liquors by retail, 
the court doth certify that they are persons of honesty, probity and 
good demeanor.” 

The first court-house was built about 1808, or at least finished then ; 
the second one, almost totally destroyed during the late war, was built, 
or rather finished about 1836; the present handsome and substantial 






structure, on the ruins of the second, was remodeled and finished in 
1871. As showing the increase in population, the tithables of 1808 
and 1819 are given, the first date showing 2,583 and the latter 3,460. 

The following is a complete list of the justices of the peace from 
the organization of the first court: 


Jolm Kearsley, 

Richard Bajdor, 

' Van Rutherford, 

William Little. 

George Hite, 

John Packett, 

Joseph Swearingen, 

George North, 

Daniel Morgan, 

Alexander White, 

Daniel Collett, 

Jacob Bedinger, 

John Briscoe, 

Abraham Davenport, 

Ferdinando Fairfax. 

David Humphrej’S, 


Jacob H. Manning, 

William Brown. 

John D. Orr, 


Joseph W. Davis. 

William H. Harding, 


Jacob D. Williamson, 

William Byrd Page, 

John Wager, 

Jesse Moore, 

James Hite. 

Benjamin Bell, 

Gershom Keyes, 

William P. Flood, 


Carver Willis, 

Richard Williams, 

William Lee, 

Matthew Ransone, 

John T. A. Washington. 

John Lyons, 


Samuel J. Cramer, 

Presley Marmaduke. 

Benjamin Davenport, 


Edmund Downey, 

Benjamin Bell. 

Richard Williams, 
Lee Griggs, 


Durst Long, 

Sebastiau Eaty, 

George W. Humphreys. 

John H. Lewis, 

Richard Dulbeld. 

Smith Slaughter, 


Henry Boteler, 

David Snively, 

John Moler. 
William Butler, 


John Yates, 

John A. Washington. 

George Reynolds, 


John S. Gallaher. 

Fontaine Beckham, 


Samuel K. White, 

James Shirley, Jr., 

Joseph McMurran. 
George B. Stephenson, 


Baker Tapscott. 


James B. Wager. 

Bushrod C. Washington, 


Thomas Timberlake, 

John Quigley, 

James Griggs. 

l ■ 



Thomas Hite, 
William F. Turner, 
Thomas Briscoe, 
William Grantham. 

John C. R. Taylor, 

Jacob Morgan, 

John T. Henkle, 
John Stephenson, 
John J. H. Straith, 


Samuel W. Lackland, 
Braxton Davenport, 
Thomas H. W r illis, 


Alex. R. Boteler, 


Charles Harper, 


John Strider, 
Anthony Kennedy, 

William F. Lock, 

G. W. Hammond, 
Robert Worthington, 

Richard Henderson. 

G. B. Wager. 

James Grantham, 
William O. Macoughtry. 

1852. — An act of the Legislature empowering a change in the man- 
ner of selecting justices of the peace and providing for an election and 
distinct term of service for those officials, having been passed by the 
General Assembly of the Commonwealth, the following gentlemen 

were chosen : 

District No. 1.— Jonas Walraven, John C. R. Taylor, Logan Osburn, John J. 

District No. 2. — John F. Smith, Robert W. Baylor, Jacob W. Wageley, David Fry. 
District No.. 3. — Braxton Davenport, Thomas W. Keyes, John J. Lock, Horatio 
N. Gallaher. 

District No. 4. — John Avis, Jr., Samuel Ridenour, George B. Beall, John T. 

District No. 5. — Lewis Lucas, Vincent M. Butler, John Hess, David Bilmeyer. 
District No. 6. — Minor Hurst, John Quigley, John Keplinger, Alexander R. 

District No. 7. — John Moler, William Turk, James Logie, Joseph L. Russell. 
District No. 8.— Armistead M. Ball, George W. Little, Thomas W. Shriver, George 
W. Tacey. 

Braxton Davenport was selected by his associates as presiding 
justice, to which position he was successively elected till his death, in 


1856. — The following are those elected in 1856, the term of service 
being four years: 

District No. 1. — Roger Chew, Charles H. Lewis, Logan Osburn, John J. Grantham. 
District No. 2. — John F. Smith, Robert W. Baylor, Meredith Helm, David Fry. 
District No. 3. — Braxton Davenport, John J. Lock, Horatio N. Gallaher, T. W. 

District No. 4. — Andrew Kennedy, Samuel Ridenour, John T. Henkle, George B. 
Beall, William T. Alexander, serving unexpired term. 

District No. 5.— Lewis Lucas, Jacob W. Reynolds, John Hess John F. Ham- 

District No. 6. — Joseph Welshans, John Quigley, John Keplinger, Alexander R. 
Boteler. 1 



District No. 7. — John Moler, William H. Turk, Samuel W. Patterson, Joseph L. 

District No. 8. — Armistead M. Ball, George W. Little, Israel Russell, George W. 

1860. — The following are those elected in this year. Some served 
out their term, only in name as the war coming on a year afterward 
nearly all official business was for four years in Jefferson County al- 
most estopped for that period: 

District No. 1. — Logan Osburn, Charles II. Lewis, Fisher A. Lewis, John W. Mc- 

District No. 2. — John W. Grantham, JolmF. Smith, J. Gregg Gibson, David Fry. 

District No. 8. — John J. Lock, Samuel Ridenour, Braxton Davenport, Thomas Hite. 

District No. 4. — William F. Alexander, George W. Eichelberger, John Moler, 
John M. Engle. 

District No. 5. — L. C. Heskett, Jacob W. Reynolds, Samuel Knott. George Lick- 

District No. 6. — Vincent M. Butler, John Quigley, John Keplinger, Joseph Wels- 

District No. 7. — William Smallwood, William McCoy, Edward H. Chambers, Rob- 
ert N. Duke. 

District No. 8. — Charles Johnson, John A. Brooks, A. H. Herr, Rezin Cross. 

“ May 22, 1861. — At a court continued and held this day, present 
Braxton Davenport, presiding justice, and Charles H. Lewis, Fisher 
A. Lewis, John TV. McCurdy, John TY. Grantham, John F. Smith, J. 
Gregg Gibson, David Fry, John J. Lock, Samuel Bidenour, William 
F. Alexander, George TY. Eichelberger, John Moler, John M. Engle, 
George Licklider, Samuel Knott, Jacob TY. Reynolds, Y. M. Butler, 
John Keplinger, Joseph TYelskans, Edmund H. Chambers, Robert N. 
Duke, William Smallwood, A. H. Herr and Charles Johnson. 

“ The justices having been summoned to consider the propriety of 
accepting or adopting an act of the Legislature of this State, passed 
January 19, 1861, to authorize the county courts of the several coun- 
ties of the State to make appropriations to arm the militia, etc., the 
court by a unanimous vote accepted the said act-of the assembly, and ap- 
pointed a committee, composed of Braxton Davenport, Thomas Ruth- 
erford and Humphrey Keyes, to negotiate a loan of $12,500, to be ap- 
propriated to the use of the soldiers of this county and their families.” 

The above literal extract from the records shows the unanimity of 
the people of Jefferson in stepping to the front in the defense of what 
they believed to be their rights. Her gallant soldiers died on every 
field, and the names she has furnished the pages of history are as nu- 
merous and as brilliant as any of her sister counties, even if any other 



county can make as glorious a showing. To assist the raising of the 
appropriation and to make the tax less onerous, the public schools 
were ordered to be closed, thereby saving the outlay for school ex- 

At the December term, 1862, of the court there appears among the 
proceedings a “ Tribute of Respect to Col. Braxton Davenport, late 
Presiding Justice,” who had just died. The deceased had for many 
years been presiding justice, was an upright, honorable citizen, and 
highly respected. He was the father of Col. H. B. Davenport, who 
resides near Charlestown. 

At the beginning of hostilities all the court records, as has been 
stated, were carried into the interior of the State, with the exception 
of one each of the last books. Very little or no business w r as trans- 
acted for several years, an occasional meeting occurring, the last one 
under the old State laws in 1864. 

In the meantime the State of West Virginia had been created, 
upsetting the old methods, and Shepherdstown having been made the 
county seat, the first proceedings are held in that town, and are in 
substance as follows, recorded April 25, 1865: 

The first minutes of the proceedings of the board of commission- 
ers at this date states that they met for the purpose of dividing the 
county into townships, and counting the votes cast at an election for 
township officers recently held. It w~as found that voting occurred 
only in four townships: Chapline, Shepherd, Bolivar and Harper’s 
Ferry. J. Thomas Chapline, Daniel Cameron, Alexander Fossett and 
T. W. Potterfield were elected supervisors. Alexander Fossett was 
elected by the board its president; Joseph A. Chapline was elected 

About the same time an election v r as held with the following result: 
County treasurer, Joseph Welshans; superintendent of schools, S. V. 
B. Strider, and several minor officers. 

For some time, as per the records, the principal business seems to 
have been the granting of licenses to sell liquor and the counting of 
the votes at the frequent elections. The mass of the people of the 
county appear to have taken very little interest in the new order of 

In June a “Recorder’s Court” was organized, with George Byers 
as recorder. 

January, 1866. James Logie, president of the supervisors; H. C. Entler, clerk. 




January, 1869. Jno. D. Staley, president of the supervisors; M. T. Ingles, clerk. 
January, 1870. Charles H. Traynor, clerk. 

September, 1871. J. H. Haines, president of the supervisors; G. H. Turner, clerk. 
April 11, 1871. — The county seat having been by act of the Legis- 
lature moved back to Charlestown, the supervisors met there in 
Hooffs Hall. 

1872. — William H. Kable was president of the county court. 
Under the new constitution the magisterial districts were seven, with 
two magistrates to each. An election was held August 22, 1872, and 
* resulted as follows: 

Charlestown. — Hiram O’Bannon, B. C. Washington. 

Harper’s Ferry. — Basil Avis, J. J. Kern. 

Middleway. — John F. Smith, 31. Helm. 

Osburn. — Samuel L. Rissler. Solomon Fleming. 

Potomac. — E. G. Herr, William Rightstine. 

Bolivar. — Joku G. Crockwell, John T. Henkle. 

Shepherd.— W. B. Daniels. William Lambright. 

January 1, 1877. — President of the court, Eobert W. Baylor. 

Potomac. — William Rightstine, Jacob S. Melvin. 

Bolivar. — John G. Cockrell, A. M. Sponceller. 

Harper’s Ferry. — Basil Avis, Thomas Thrasher. 

Osburn. — Randolph Custer, Charles C. Conklyn. 

Middleway.— Joel W. Roberts, John F. Smith. 

Shepherd. — D. S. Rentch, William B. Daniels. 

Charlestown. — John F. Lock, Hiram O’Baunon. 

January 1, 1881. — Eobert W. Baylor, president. 

Charlestown. — William Burnett, John Avis. 

Osburn. — Charles H. Kable, Solomon Fleming. 

Middleway. — Meredith Helm, John F. Smith. 

Potomac. — Jacob Ferrels, Adam Link. 

Shepherd. — John M. Engle, T. W. Latimer. 

Bolivar.— John G. Cockrell, William I. Moler. 

Harper’s Ferry. — Joseph Barry, Basil Avis. 

January 1, 1885. — The county was again redistricted, being re- 
duced to five, instead of seven, magisterial districts. I. H. Strider 
was made president of the court. The others were: 

Charlestown. — David Howell, C. W. Trussell. 

Kabletown. — Thomas Lock, C. C. Conklyn. 

Midleway. — Samuel D. Engle, George D. Johnson. 

Shepherdstown. — D. S. Rentch, John D. McGary. 

Harper’s Ferry. — L. W. Delauder, Charles H. Briggs. 

January 1, 1887. — James Law Hooff being elected president of 
the court, died before the expiration of liis term, and W. H. T. Lewis was 
appointed to fill the vacancy, but afterward elected to the position. 
He is the present incumbent (1889), and the following are the court: 



Charlestown. — C. Frank Gallaker, David Howell. 

Kabletown. — Thomas Lock, B. F. Johnson. 

Mid die way. — A. H. Tanquary, George D. Johnson. 

Sliepherdstown. — D. S. Renteh, A. S. Link. 

Harper’s Ferry. — Charles H. Briggs, William J. Moier. 

The first clerk of the court was George Hite, who served from the 
organization of the county, in 1801, till 1817, when he died, and his 
son, Robert G. Hite, was appointed and served till 1828, when he dy- 
ing, Dr. Samuel J. Cramer was appointed, who served till his death, 
in 1840. Thomas A. Moore, son-in-law of Dr. Cramer, was then ap- 
pointed, and served till 1889, when he died. Jared D. Moore, the 
former deputy clerk, was appointed to fill the vacancy, and is the 
present incumbent. 

Dr. Cramer, who served for nearly twenty years as clerk of this 
court, was a gentleman of much culture, and was highly respected for 
his many virtues by all who came in contact with him. He was of 
Irish birth, and was educated as a physician at the University of Ed- 
inburgh, Scotland, where he graduated. He came to Jefferson County 
not long after the organization of the county, and was naturalized, as 
has been stated, in 1811, and shortly afterward was appointed a magis- 
trate. The Doctor used to tell of his acquaintanceship with Sir 
Humphrey Davy, the eminent Scotch physician and scientist. When 
young Cramer was graduated he selected for his thesis, “ The Varia- 
tions in Skin-Color,'’ and had occasion to quote from a small obscure 
pamphlet some facts bearing upon his subject. The quotations were 
so full of thought and freshness that the faculty questioned Cramer 
about their authorship, and in company with two of them sought out 
the unknown author, whom they found to be a young clerk in an 
apothecary’s shop by the name of Humphrey Davy. 

Thomas A. Moore came to Jefferson County in 1824, and served 
altogether, as deputy clerk and clerk, fifty -two years. He deservedly 
ranks as one of the “ old clerks,” of the grand old commonwealth. 
In a little work recently issued, written by one of the “ old clerks ” 
of one of the central counties of the State, entitled, “ The Old Clerks 
of Virginia,” which gives sketches of all the clerks since the organiza- 
tion of the State, or at least gives the names of all those that were at- 
tainable in what is now old Virginia, the author has made an exception 
in the case of Mr. Moore, who a portion of his time served in West 
Virginia. It is the only sketch of a West Virginia clerk, in the book, 
and the author has done himself honor by the insertion of it. Next to 




James Keith, clerk of Frederick County, who served sixty-two years and 
five months, Mr. Moore served the longest of any valley county clerk 
He led Mr. Thomas S. Tidball, of Frederick, two years in the race. 
One clerk across the ridge, or rather in Central Virginia, served sixty- 
six years. No rotation in office about that. 

The Circuit Court . — The following entry in the first order-book of 
the Circuit Court speaks for itself : 

“ Be it remembered that in pursuance of an act of the general as- 
sembly of Virginia passed on the 16tli day of April, 1881, entitled ‘An 
act to establish a Court of Law and Chancery in each of the counties 
of the Commonwealth, anel in certain corporations therein mentioned,’ 
a special term of the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery 
was held in and for Jefferson County, at the Court-House of the said 
county in Charlestown on the 28th day of May, 1831. 

“ Hon. Richard E. Parker, a J udge of the General Court and 
Judge of the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery of the 
Thirteenth Circuit and in the Seventh District, having been assigned 
to the said circuit, presided at the session of the court on the day 
above given and appointed Robert T. Brown Clerk of the same, who 
took the required oath and entered into bonds for the faithful per- 
formance of his duties, with the following gentlemen as his sureties: 
James Brown, William Brown, George W. Hammond, William Lucas, 
Leonard Sadler and Robert Lucas.” 

At the September term of the court Judge John Scott presided. 
John E. Page was appointed attorney for the commonwealth for this 
court. Robert Y. Conrad was the first lawyer to apply for admission 
to practice in this new tribunal, September 1, 1881. 

In consequence of some business matters Judges Parker and Scott 
exchanged circuits for a few months, but at September term, 1832, 
Judge Parker appeared and so continued till his death in 1836. 

In the following June, 1837, Hon. I. R. Douglass, having been 
appointed judge of the court, took his seat and presided as such till 
his death in 1S50. 

Hon. Richard Parker, son of the former judge of that name, was 
appointed to the position made vacant by the death of Judge Doug- 
lass, and took his seat upon the bench at the May term, 1851. In 
1859 Judge Parker presided at the trial of John Brown and his asso- 
ciates, who were convicted and hung. The proceedings of those 
famous trials are to be found in the records intact, and will be noticed 



In the chapter devoted to the u John Brown Raid.” Judge Parker is 
still living (1890) in his quaint and comfortable mansion at the 
southern edge of Winchester. The edifice was built by Judge Hugh 
Holmes, at the beginning of this century, on a plan furnished by the 
illustrious statesman and president, Thomas Jefferson, being one of 
two designed by the author of the Declaration of Independence, the 
•other being in Staunton. The venerable Judge Parker, although now 
nearly eighty years of age, walks as erect and seems fis hale and hearty 
as ever. He is of medium stature and compactly built. 

At the February term, 1860, Hon. John Kenney, judge of the 
Twelfth Judicial Circuit, held a special term in consequence of the 
absence of Judge Parker, but from October, 1861, a break in the pro- 
ceedings of the court occurs, nothing being recorded, no business, evi- 
dently, transacted, with the exception of the record of two judgments 
confirmed by the Court of Appeals at Richmond. Then a hiatus 
occurs till May, 1865, when the Circuit Court is opened at Shepherds- 
i;own, with Hon. L. P. W. Balcli, judge of the Tenth Judicial Dis- 
trict of West Virginia, and William A. Chapline, clerk of said court. 
William Rush was appointed by the court sheriff of the county. 

April 10, 1866, Judge Ephraim B. Hall was appointed and pre- 
sided till March, 1867, when Joseph A. Chapline was invested with 
the ermine and presided till 1870, w r hen Judge Hall again came to the 
front in September of that year. 

September 12, 1871, the Circuit Court having been removed from 
Shepherdstown in consequence of the restoration of the county seat 
to Charlestown, met in Lee Hall with Hon. Thayer Melvin, judge of 
the First Judicial Circuit presiding, but the November term of the 
same year Judge E. B. Hall once again took the judicial reins and 
held them till the September term, 1872, when Judge John Blair 
Hoge w 7 as elected. 

In November, 1872, Robert T. Brown was restored to his former 
position, as clerk of the Circuit Court which he had so ably and 
acceptably filled for many years. 

In March, 1877, Mr. Brown died, and Judge Hoge appointed 
Bushrod C. AVashington clerk of the court to fill the unexpired term. 
R. T. Brown had been clerk of this court from 1881, nearly fifty 
years, and resolutions of respect were ordered to be spread upon the 
minutes of the court, a meeting of the bar and other persons was 
held with Hon. Andrew Hunter as chairman. Hon. D. B. Lucas drew 
up the resolutions and, after their passage, they were duly recorded. 




Hon. Charles James Faulkner, Jr., was elected in 1880, judge of 
the Circuit Court, and presided for the first time at the January term, 
1881. Judge Faulkner served till his election as United States Sen- 
ator from West Virginia, in 1887, when Hon. Frank Beckwith, of 
Charlestown, was appointed to fill the unexpired term, Judge Faulkner 
of course having resigned. Hon. Joseph S. Duckwall was elected in 
the fall of 1888 and is the present incumbent. 

After B. C. Washington’s term of service expired Frank Lynch 
was made clerk and served till 1887, when T. W. Latimer, the present 
incumbent, was elected. 

The following are the sheriffs who have served, from the organi- 
zation of the county to the present time: 1801, William Little; 1803, 

Joseph Swearingen; 1805, Alexander White; 1807, John Briscoe; 
1809, George North; 1811, Daniel Collett; 1813, Abraham Daven- 
port; 1815, Van Butherford; 1817, John Packett; 1819, Daniel 
Morgan; 1821, Jacob Bedinger; 1823, David Humphreys; 1826, 
James Hite; 1828, William P. Flood; 1830, Carver Willis; 1832, 
Bichard Williams; 1834, John T. A. Washington; 1836, John 
Packett; 1838, George W. Humphreys; 1840, Sebastian Eaty; 1842, 
Bichard Duffield; 1844, David Snively: 1846, John Moler; 1848, 
George Beynolds: 1850, David Humphreys; 1851-52, Fontaine 
Beckham, a portion of the time; 1852, John W. Moore; 1855, Bobert 
Lucas; 1858, James W. Campbell; 1860, Joseph Crane; 1861 to 
1865, a sheriff did not amount to much in Jefferson, ‘as the military, on 
one side or the other, were amply sufficient. West Virginia having 
been sliced off of the Old Dominion, whether she wanted it or not, 
a sheriff would go stark mad in trying to find out where his jurisdic- 
tion lay — what State he was living in. In 1865, however, when 
matters again became comparatively normal, William Bush was 
sheriff; 1867, T. W. Potterfield; 1870, George W. Chase; 1873, 
Edward Tearney; 1876, Eugene Baker; 1880, John S. Moore, elected, 
died, and his son George filled the unexpired term; 1884, J. Garland 
Hurst; 1888, Eugene Baker, present incumbent. 






Early Settlers and Settlements— Braddock’s Route— The Old Ruin- 
Establishment of the Town — Charles Washington— An Early Race- 
Course— Primitive Sports— Cart. William Cherry— The Famous 
Old Tavern— Illustrious Guests— Military Companies— Some Early 
Merchants— Opening of Schools — Business Prospects— The Mexican 
War — Gallant Officers — Col. H amtramck — Old St. George’s 
Chapel— A Picturesque Ruin — Sketch of the Ancient Landmark — 
Its Origin— Zion’s Episcopal Church— Fresb yterianChurch— Baptist 
Church— Methodist Church— Catholic Church— Colored Churches— 
Schools— The Press— Societies— Public Officers— Lawyers— Enter- 

N OT long after the creation of Frederick County in 1738 and its 
organization in 1743, Lawrence Washington, elder brother of 
the afterward illustrious Gen. George Washington, came into this sec- 
tion and purchased numerous tracts of land, lying principally in what 
is now Jefferson County. He bought mostly from Lord Fairfax, but 
a number of plantations from other persons as well. He never resided 
in the Valley, but remained upon his estate, afterward known as 
Mount Vernon, which at his death passed into the possession of his 
brother George. Samuel Washington also came to the great Valley 
and purchased land, where he and his descendants lived and became 
locally prominent men. Samuel was one of the justices of Frederick 
County before the Revolutionary period, and in 1771 was appointed 
colonel of the militia of that county, in which position he had the honor 
of selecting as one of his captains the afterward famous Gen. Daniel 
Morgan, the hero of Cowpens. Morgan at the time was an obscure 
farmer living near Battletown, from whom the title undoubtedly orig- 
inated, in consequence of the numerous personal rencounters in 
which the redoubtable Daniel was said to have been engaged. 

Charles Washington, the younger brother of George Washington, 
an amiable, modest, and dignified gentleman, also came to what is 
now Jefferson County, purchased a large tract of land and settled 
near the present site of Charlestown, for whom it afterward was 





p" . ' nucleus of a town was here as early as, possibly, 1755,. 

.dock’s army, or at least one of the regiments of his unfort- 
command, passed through this section, And in this connec- 
hon a word of explanation in regard to the route taken by Gen. Brad- 
dock may not only serve to reconcile some misconceptions in regard 
to it, but at the same time be of interest: Braddock arrived at Alex- 
andria with two regiments of English regulars, and after making the 
necessary preparations for his long trip, started westward. One regi- 
ment proceeded out through Maryland to Frederick, the other more 
directly westward to Winchester by what was known as early as 1750’ 
as the “great road to Alexandria,” which ran through Berryville. 
The first portion after a short rest at Frederick, Md., proceeded across 
the Potomac somewhere above Harper’s Ferry, possibly at the Pack- 
horse Ford near Shepherdstown, and so on to the vicinity of what is 
now Charlestown, where they remained about a mile west of that site 
till they received orders to march forward and join the other regiment 
which had gone to Winchester, and where Col. Washington joined the 
force with his Virginians. Braddock was with the force at Winches- 
ter, where it is also said that Benjamin Franklin met the party. Win- 
chester being the only town on the then Wstern frontier, supplies,, 
pack-horses and wagons were there obtained, after which the little 
army moved forward by the “ Warm Spring road ” (so called as early 
as 1750), it being the only regular road then laid out bearing to the 
northwest. The force from near Charlestown, or rather its site, 
joined the main portion to the westward of where now stands Martins- 
burg, but which at that time had no existence. The entire party then 
moved, byway of the Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), to its sad 
fate not long afterward. This understanding of the matter ex- 
plains the fact of so many “ Braddock roads,” and makes it entirely 
reasonable that Frederick, Md., Charlestow n, Berryville, Winchester, 
Martinsburg, and a dozen other localities, should each have one of the 
rash and unfortunate general’s “ roads ” in their vicinity, as well as 
one of the “ w r ells,” his soldiers are credited with having dug. 

Charlestowm has in its vicinity one of these wells, and the “ road ” 
is plainly pointed out by the vista in a stretch of woods not far to the 
west of the town. Now whether there was a town or anything resem- 
bling a village at this early day (1755) is not certainly knowm, but 
there w'as certainly a mill, and perhaps a blacksmith shop along the 
little creek that passes by the ancient village. The mill w~as there be- 


3 DO 1 

fore 1750, and of course a residence or two. The location is so beau- 
tiful, the scenery so delightful, and the air in consequence of its ele- 
vated and protected position, so healthful, of the Charlestown of to-day, 
that it could not have failed to attract the attention of the early settlers, 
to say nothing of the splendid church whose ruins still give evidence 
of its colonial grandeur, that was right in their midst.* The popula- 
tion of this section was almost entirely made up of adherents to the es- 
tablished church, the Church of England. Charles Washington re- 
sided here in a log cabin, and it is more than probable that before 1770 
there was considerable of a village on the present site of Charlestown. 
At the date given and for sixteen years thereafter it had not been es- 
tablished by law, as Winchester, Stepliensburg, Mecklenburg and Mar- 
tin sburg had been, but the village evidently grew rapidly, so that by 
the close of the Revolution, its proprietor, Charles Washington, in con- 
junction with a number of other gentlemen, applied to the General 
Assembly of the State to have it established by an act of that body,, 
which was accordingly done as follow's : 

(Passed October, 1786.) 

CHAPTER LXXX. — -An ad io establish a Town on the lands of 

Charles Washington , in the County of Berkeley. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That eighty acres of 
land, the property of Charles Washington, lying in the county of 
Berkeley, be laid out in such manner as lie may judge best, into lots 
of half an acre each, with convenient streets, which shall be, and is 
hereby established a town, by the name of Charlestown ; that John 
Augustine Washington, Robert Rutherford, William Darke, James 
Crane, Cato Moore, Benjamin Rankin, Magnus Tate, Thornton Wash-* 
ington, William Little, Alexander White, and Richard Ransone, gen- 
tlemen, are hereby appointed trustees of the said town, and that they, 
or a majority of them, shall have full power from time to time, to 
settle and determine all disputes concerning the bounds of the lots, 
and to establish such rules and orders for the regular building of 
houses thereon, as to them shall seem best; and in case of the death, 
removal out of the county, or other legal disability, of any one or more 
of the said trustees, it shall be lawful for the remaining trustees to 
elect and choose others in the room of those dead or disabled, and the 
person or persons so elected, shall be vested with the same powers 
and authority as any one in this act particularly appointed. So soon 
as the purchasers or owners of lots within the said town shall have 
built thereon a dwelling-house, sixteen feet square, with a brick or 

♦More extended notice of this famous old ruin will be found under the heading of " The 






stone chimney, sueli purchaser and owner shall be entitled to, and have 
and enjoy, all the rights, privileges, and immunities, which the free- 
holders and inhabitants of other towns in this State, not incorporated, 
hold and enjoy. 

The proprietor gave for the use of the town the four corner lots 
upon which now stand the court-house, post-office, jail, and the row 
of buildings on the northeast corner of the two intersecting streets 
where the buildings mentioned are located. In the list of trustees of 

the town are several well known names — names that have given luster 
to the community whereof they were a part: Gen. William Darke, a 
Revolutionary hero; Hon. Robert Rutherford, member of Congress; 
Hon. Alexander White, the distinguished lawyer and member of the 
convention of Virginia which ratified the national Constitution; Cato 
Moore, one of a line of eminent citizens and lawyers; Richard Ran- 
sone, the two Washingtons and others. 

At the time of the establishment of Charlestown by act and name 
there must have been considerable population and business. It con- 
tained two or three good taverns, and a number of stores and shops, 
and it was the center of the sporting gentlemen of the day throughout 
the entire, valley. The first advertisement or mention of horse racing 
occurs in April, 1786, six months before the above act was passed. 
There is no mention in either of the two Winchester papers of 1787-88 
of any race-course, but the following copied from the Virginia Jour- 
nal and Alexandria Gazette , shows that the lovers of horseflesh of 
Charlestown were far advanced in the “sport of speed:” 




Free for any horse, mare, or gelding the best two in three 3 -mile 
heats. Horses to be entered with Capt. William Cherry, the day be- 
fore the race; subscribers paying thirty shillings entrance money, or 
double at the post; and non-subscribers forty shillings, or double at 
the post. 

On Wednesday the 10th day of May, will be run for, over the same 
course, agreeable to the same rules, the Entrance Money of the day 
preceding, the best two in three 3-mile heats. 

Managers will be appointed for conducting the races and to de- 
termine all disputes that may arise. 

Charles-Town, Berkeley Co., Va., April 8, 1786. 




The Capt. William Cherry spoken of in the above advertisement 
was an old Revolutionary hero, and proprietor of the famous “ Old 
Cherry Tavern,” which was occupied for nearly a century, and which 
was only demolished a few years ago to give place to modern improve- 
ments. This ancient hostelry in its early prime sheltered many of 
the great historic characters of the infant days of the Republic, and 
even for half a century after the Revolution its rude walls resounded 
with the hilarity of the “bloods” of the lower valley. Here Wash- 
ington and Jefferson and Madison and La Fayette no doubt hob- 
nobbed over their French and Spanish wines, for those worthies and 
many more visited this section — Washington frequently. Here, too, 
that brilliant, erratic and misguided soldier of fortune, over-ambitious 
for self, but never a traitor to the American cause, Gen. Charles Lee, 
and his friends, Gen. Horatio Gates and Gen. Adam Stephen, drank 
many a bowl of punch, for they were boon companions, high livers and 
generous drinkers, all. 

Several other taverns were kept in Charlestown about the begin- 
ning of the century. Thomas Flagg was proprietor of one and 
shortly afterward Robert Fulton opened one. In those early days 
taverns, or ordinaries, as they were called, were more plentiful in 
towns than they are now, and possibly fully as well conducted. Trav- 
eling was mostly on horseback, and the traveler going on long jour- 
neys must, after twenty or thirty miles of riding over the miserable 
roads of that day, halt toward evening for rest. No railroads stretched 
their iron arms from point to point to whisk the anxious merchant or 
pleasure seeker from his very door almost hundreds of miles in a few 
hours. Therefore they must have the handy tavern at frequent 

In the Farmers' Repository of 1808 may be found the following 
advertisement, which shows that the ancient sport of horse-racing 
was still kept up: 

The Charlestown races will commence on the 2d Wednesday in 
October, 1808. Purses of 100 dollars for the 1st day; 60 dollars for 
the 2d day. To be conducted under the rules of the Charlestown 
Jockey Club. Four horses to start each day. Entrance 5 per ct. 

George Hite, 

John Anderson. 

The military spirit at this date, 1808, seems to have been quite 
popular, as there were two companies organized, but they were possi- 
bly scenting the battle between their own and the mother country that 




was approaching with silent but sure tread, for Jefferson has never 
been behind when the call for her sons to gird on their armor has 
been raised. Capt. Hite’s “Jefferson Troop of Horse” and Capt. 
Saunder’s “ Charlestown Blues,” are both ordered to meet for parade 
in the Repository of April 1, 1808. 

Two of the prominent mercantile firms of 1808 were George and 
J. Humphreys and W. AY. Lane, who kept general stocks of goods. 
Daniel Annin was a druggist, or at least kept a stock of certain kinds 
of drugs. He advertises 160 pounds of the best Peruvian bark, 50 
bottles castor oil, 10 gallons lemon shrub, and 61 gallons flax-seed oil. 
Ferdinando Fairfax, of Shannon Hill, advertises two barrels of apple 
brandy. Aaron Chambers and Benjamin Eagins were tailors; AVilliam 
Morrow and John Lemon were weavers; Charles G. Richter was an 
ornamental hair-dresser, and TYilliam Cordell taught an evening- 
school. Considerable building seems to have been going on about 
1810 to 1815, when the population had grown to not far from one 
thousand. Good schools were opened, several churches built, and alto- 
gether the little village seemed to have a hopeful future. 

The Lower Valley in the Mexican War . — The counties of Jefferson 
and Berkeley were principally instrumental in raising the volunteers 
sent from the lower valley to the Mexican war, and a number of the 
officers of the regiment contributed by Virginia were also from these 
counties. The regiment was composed of the full complement of ten 
infantry companies, but was increased by consent of the War Depart- 
ment to ten, and before the close of the war to fourteen companies. 
It was mustered into the service in December, 1846, and January, 
1847, and sailed in transports from Fortress Monroe in the latter 
month, landing at the entrance of the Rio Grande the last of Febru- 
ary. Thence the regiment proceeded in steamboats up the river 
named and the San Juan to Camargo, from which place it marched in 
detachments by way of Monterey and Saltillo to Buena Vista, the bat- 
tle at that point, however, having been fought before its arrival. The 
counties of Berkeley and Jefferson each sent one company to this reg- 
iment. The officers of the Berkeley company were: Ephraim G. Al- 
burtis, captain; Otho H. Harrison, first lieutenant; David W. Gray 
and George W. Chambers, second lieutenants. The officers of the 
company from Jefferson were: John W. Rowan, captain; John Avis, 
first lieutenant; Lawrence B. Washington and William McCormick,, 
second lieutenants. 




John F. Hamtramek of Jefferson County was appointed colonel 
of this regiment. He was a native of Michigan, and when but six- 
teen years of age was a sergeant in the United States army, on duty 
in the Northwest. For gallantry in an action with the Indians and 
British, July 19, 1814, the brave young Sergt. Hamtramek was ap- 
pointed a cadet in the United States Military Academy, where he was 
graduated in 1819. He resigned from the army in 1822, after- 
ward settled in Jefferson County, and at the time of his death, in 1853, 
was one of the justices of the county of his adoption. Col. Hamtramek 
was a gentleman of fine military instincts, a gallant and fearless sol- 
dier, and a rigid disciplinarian of the old school. His memory is re- 
vered by all who knew him, and his name lives in the honor paid him 
by christening the old time crack company of Shepherdstown, the 
“ Hamtramek Guards.” 

Upon the return of Gen. Taylor to the United States on leave of 
absence in October, 1847, the command of the army of occupation de- 
volved upon Gen. Wool, and Col. Hamtramek succeeded Gen. Wool 
in the command of the division stationed at and near Buena Yista, 
which command he retained until June, 1848, when the army began 
its homeward march. 

Thomas Beverly Randolph, of Warren County, was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of this regiment. He had entered the army from the 
military academy at the beginning of the war of 1812, and distin- 
guished himself in service on the northern frontier, especially in the 
attack on Fort George, Canada, in May, 1813. He resigned from the 
army soon after the close of the war, and retired to private life. Col. 
Randolph was an excellent officer and a cultured gentleman. 

George A. Porterfield, of Berkeley County, a graduate of the Vir- 
ginia military institute (now president of the Charlestown bank), was 
elected first-lieutenant of a company raised in the city of Richmond 
in June, 1846, and received into the service in December of the same 
year. The other officers of this company, all of whom were educated 
at the Virginia military institute, were: Edward C. Carrington, cap- 
tain; Carlton R. Munford and Henry W. Williamson, lieutenants. On 
July 10, 1847, Col. Porterfield was appointed adjutant of the Vir- 
ginia regiment, and October 17, of the same year, assistant adjutant- 
general to the division at Buena Vista, relieving Capt Irwin McDowell, 
which position he held till the end of the war. 

3 GO 



Old St. George's Chapel . — One of the most singular as well as un- 
fortunate results of the proneness of humanity to forgetfulness is evi- 
denced in the fact that all knowledge of the date of the building of 
the some-time splendid Chapel of St. George has entirely escaped the 
memory of the oldest residents of even the vicinity of the picturesque 
ruin that lies in such close proximity to Charlestown. Even Bishop 
Meade, who wrote extensively in regard to the early churches of the 
denomination that he so much honored, knew nothing of the origin of 
this grand old landmark of colonial days. He merely says, in his 
elaborate sketches of the “ Old Churches and Old Families of Vir- 
ginia, ” that it was an old ruin when he was a boy, and places the date 
of its erection some time between 1760 and 1770. There are actually 
no records, in the United States at least, in regard to the origin of 
this old church, for had there been, Bishop Meade w'ould have had 
access to them. It is inexplicable, for the devout and talented bishop 
has full and satisfactory accounts of many other churches that ante- 
date St. George’s by at least one hundred years. Just why the date 
of building is set down as 1760-70 does not appear, but probably 
arises from the fact that Norborne Parish was created between the 
dates named, but it does not follow that the chapel was built synchro- 
nologically with the creation of the parish. Now, the new parish, cut 
from the northern third of Frederick Parish, which extended from the 
upper or southern line of what is now Shenandoah County to the Po- 
tomac, and from the Blue Bidge Mountains to the Alleghanies, was 
named in honor of Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, who was 
governor of the colony of Virginia between the dates named above, 
1760-70. But the building may have been erected before 1760, and to 
bear out that idea there seems to be evidence in Hening’s Statutes at 
Large, where a church is referred to in an old statute, wherein mention 
is made of one of the chapels being more costly than any of the others. 
This mention occurs about the time that the church officials w’ere dis- 
placed and a new set appointed, in consequence of the misappropria- 
tion of the funds raised for church purposes. A portion of those 
charges may have had reference to the extravagance indulged in by 
the dispensers of the people’s money. But it is altogether probable 
that private contributions materially assisted in the erection of the 
splendid colonial chapel. There was considerable stir in church- 
building about 1752 and a little later, when Lord Fairfax gave a num- 





ber of sites for churches in various sections, and St. George’s may 
have been commenced at as early a date as that given. Near where 
it was located there were many wealthy Church of England people, 
who would have taken pride in outdoing all their neighbors in the size 
and magnificence of their chapel. At any rate, the present ruin was 
once grand for its time. The wails were twenty-two inches in thickness, 
and constructed of stone quarried in the vicinity. The rest of the 
material is believed to have been brought from England, as there were 
no manufactories of the articles used therein in the colony at that 
time. The roof was covered with sheet-lead. The window and door 
frames were of cedar wood; the floor was laid in tiling; the high- 
backed pews were of oak and the pulpit of the same wood, elaborately 
carved and projecting from the w r all considerably. The finishing and 
furnishing was rich, tasteful and harmonious. There were numerous 
graves marked by tombstones fifty years ago, but time and the ruthless 
hand of man have left not a trace of the latter and scarcely any indi- 
cation of the former. The ruin stands just as it did thirty or forty 
years ago, wflth barely any diminution in size. It is ivy-hung now 
as it was then. In summer it is an interesting and beautiful sight to 
behold the vines clinging and swinging in the soft breezes to the gray 
old walls that have stood there for 125 years. Through that once 
ornamented doorway Washington and many other illustrious men of 
his time often entered to take part in the ministrations led by Rev. 
Alexander Balmaine and Rev. Charles Mynn Thruston, the patriotic 
parson-soldiers of the Revolution. The venerable pile is situated in 
an uncultivated field on the lands of Col. H. B. Davenport, about on9 
mile from Charlestown, and the straggling grove of trees surrounding 
it seem endeavoriug to shelter their ancient friend from the rude 
winds, some of them, indeed, with their now leafless arms. 

Zion Episcopal Church . — Norborne Parish, in which this church 
was originally situated, and in which it continued to be for about fif- 
teen years, even after the separation of Jefferson from Berkeley County 
as has been previously stated, was created in 1769. The Episcopa- 
lians, until the erection of Zion Church, worshiped at the old chapel 
south of Charlestown, and the ministers of the parish, as far as can be 
ascertained, were: Revs. Sturges, Veasy, Wilson, Bernard, Page, Heath, 
Wilmer and John Price. These covered the time from about 1770 to 
1813. During the pastorate of Rev. Benjamin Allen, w'ho began his 
labors in 1815, the parish of St. Andrews was created, and about the 



same time, 1817, the first Zion Church was built. Since that date 
seven district parishes have emanated from the same source, viz.: 
Charlestown, Shepherdstown, Harper’s Ferry, Martinsburg, Bunker 
Hill, Smithfield and Hedgesville. St. Andrews Parish was cotermin- 
ous with the limits of Jefferson County, and was the mother of four of 
the above district parishes. Rev. Mr. Allen exercised his ministry at 
twelve points included in the seven parishes just named, and for nine 
years, when he was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin Bosworth Smith, sub- 
sequently made first bishop of the diocese of Kentucky, and after- 
ward the venerable presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church in this 
country. Rev. Alexander Jones was next rector for twenty-three 
years. During his incumbency, in 1838, the parish was subdivided 
by the organization of an independent congregation at Shepherdstown 
and again in 1819, by the separation of St. Johns Church, at Harper’s 
Ferry. In his time also a second enlarged church was built which 
burned to the ground a few months after its completion. The congre- 
gation at once set to work to restore it, and the present still further 
enlarged building was consecrated, in 1852, under the charge of Rev. 
Dudley A. Tyng, son of Rev. Dr. Stephen H. Tyng, of New York. 
During the late war this church was sadly disfigured by the Federal 
soldiery, and in 1867, when Rev. Dr. W. H. Meade, a grandson of 
Bishop Meade, took charge of it, it was in a sad condition. Several 
years ago the congregation lost its rectory by fire, and the new church 
was injured by a storm, but notwithstanding all these misfortunes the 
church is stronger than ever to-day. They have lately erected a beau- 
tiful chapel on the main street of Charlestown, which gives evidence 
of the prosperity of the church. Rev. Dallas Tucker is the present 
pastor, having succeeded Mr Meade April 22, 1883. 

Presbyterian Church . — The first Presbyterian Church in the ter- 
ritory now comprised within the boundaries of Jefferson County, ac- 
cording to Foote, in his '‘Sketches of Virginia,” was organized about 
1762, near the headwaters of Bullskin Run, probably near the pres- 
ent Summit Point, or Stone Chapel. The next was at Shepherdstown 
(then Mecklenburg) some time prior to 1775. Then followed Elk 
Branch, an off-shoot of the Mecklenburg Church, after 1775, and then 
Charlestown Church (not called by that name, however, until ten 
years afterward), but in common with the organization at or near the 
Bullskin, was known as “ Hopewell.” These societies called Rev. Will- 
iam Hill, a licentiate of Lexington Presbytery, to become their pastor, 

1 - 





in 1792. Up to this date all these churches relied upon the visits of 
missionaries, and occasional “ supplies,” almost identical with those 
grand old soldiers of the cross the Methodist brethren term “itiner- 
ants.” Mr. Hill was the first regular pastor of these associated bodies. 
He remained here until the year 1800, when he received a call to the 
church at Winchester, and was succeeded by Rev. Moses Hoge, who la- 
bored here until 1807. The Charlestown Church -was then for about 
eight years without any regular pastor, but was visited frequently by 
Rev. Mr. Kennon, of Berryville, and other ministers, until Rev. John 
Matthews became its pastor in 1815. At the time of Mr. Matthews’ 
selection as pastor, the society was reorganized by the election as rul- 
ing elders of Messrs. James Stephenson, Robert Worthington, Robert 
Slemmens, Thomas Likens and Andrew Woods. Upon the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Matthews, in 1825, Rev. William C. Warton supplied the 
pulpit until 1829, when Rev. Septimus Tustin became pastor. Mr. 
Tustin resigned in 1836 and was succeeded by Rev. Theodore Simpson, 
who was followed, in 1842, by Rev. Warren B. Dutton, who continued 
in charge of the church until 1866, when Rev. A. C. Hopkins succeeded 
to the pastorate, and has ably and acceptably filled the position since 
that time. Under the ministrations of this gentleman the church has 
prospered and he now enjoys presiding over a truly harmonious con- 

The first house of worship was a small stone edifice in the southern 
portion of the town, but this w r as replaced in the early part of the cent- 
ury by another of like material, but larger. In 1851 a brick church 
was erected on the main street of Charlestown on a most eligible lot do- 
nated by Mr. John Stephenson, who afterward gave other lots for the 
benefit of the church. Rev. Mr. Dutton was instrumental in having 
many improvements added to the church property, and in its pres- 
ervation during the late Civil war, and who deserves great credit for 
his untiring fidelity to his trust. In the division of the Presbyterian 
Church in 1838-39, in which Rev. Dr. Hill, the first pastor of the 
Charlestown Church took such active part, this congregation adhered 
to the old school portion, and in 1861 warmly espoused the Southern 
church side of the controversy. A number of young men have entered 
the ministry who were reared in this church, and it has always contrib- 
uted liberally to all worthy objects. It is strong in membership and 
some of the most influential citizens of the county seat as well as sur- 
rounding country, claim allegiance to its venerable associations. The 









cemetery dedicated to the use of the church contains the remains 
of many of the noted men and women of Jefferson County, running 
through nearly a century, and a stroll through the hallowed grounds 
of its “ God’s Acre,” takes one back to the infant days of the Great 

Baptist Church . — From a sketch written several years ago by Rev. 
T. B. Shepherd, a former pastor of the Charlestown Baptist Church, the 
main facts of the following are taken: At a very early period in the 

settlement of the Valley, a Baptist Church was organized at Gerrards- 
town (now in Berkeley County), but owing to frequent interruptions 
by the Indians it was removed to Loudoun County, and located on the 
Ketocton Creek, from which it derived its name. Revs. David Thomas 
and James Ireland seem to have been the first Baptist ministers, in 
addition to Rev. David Gerrard after whom the above town was named, 
who preached in the Valley of Virginia, or at least in the portion now 
comprising Jefferson County. One knows not whether to admire most 
the zeal of those old missionaries or that of the hearers; the one trav- 
eled fifty or sixty miles to preach the Gospel, and the other journeyed 
as far to hear it. Frequently a meeting would be announced a year in 
advance, and at the appointed time the people would come for many 
miles around, and remain for a week or more attending 1 religious serv- 
ices. The Baptists were the most uncompromising advocates of soul- 
liberty They wrote and plead for a total non-interference by govern- 
ment with religious matters, and Father Ireland, as he was termed, 
sleeps in the old Buck Marsh burying ground, near Berryville, but the 
principles he advocated have spread over the Continent. About 1850 
the Zoar Church was organized, mainly through the instrumentality 
of Rev. Christopher Collins; in July, 1856, its place of worship was 
removed to Charlestown, and in January, 1858, it directed its pastor, 
Rev. J. A. Haynes, to contract for the building of a house of worship. 
Dr. Haynes resigned on September 2, 1860, and was succeeded by 
Rev. T. B. Shepherd, under whose ministry the basement of the house 
was finished for a lectui;e-room, and a large congregation gathered. 
During the war the house was occupied by the Federal troops as a 
stable, the entire building excepting the roof and walls being destroyed. 
Like many other societies whose church buildings "were thus destroyed 
during the war, it presented a claim for reimbursement which has 
never been paid. In August, 1872, the present fine structure was fin- 
ished, and the Potomac Association met with this church, at w*hich 



session thirteen churches withdrew and formed the Shenandoah As- 
sociation. Thus, under great difficulties this denomination has grown, 
until now its membership is quite strong and all its surroundings are in 
a prosperous condition. After Mr, Shepherd came Rev. Frank McGee, 
who was followed by Rev. Frank Dickson, the present able and popu- 
lar pastor. 

Methodist Episcopal Church . — Methodism in Jefferson County 
runs back possibly to as early a period as any of the other denomina- 
tions that began to take root after the American Revolution, but it is 
not probable that there was any organized church in Charlestown ear- 
lier than from about 1805 to 1815, at which latter date a society of 
this denomination was organized in Shepherds town. Charlestown being 
quite a considerable village in 1800, and being upon the highway to 
the upper settlements of the Talley, it is certain that the voice . of 
the itinerant Methodist preacher must have been heard at various por- 
tions of Jefferson County and especially at this point. Owing, however, 
to the population being largely either Episcopalian or Presbyterian, no 
Methodist Church was built until a comparatively late date. The so- 
ciety has grow T n of late years and now has a very comfortable church 
building and a good membership. The present pastor is Rev. James 
S. Gardner, D. D. 

Ccdholic Church . — Not until the present year, 1889, has this denom- 
ination had a church edifice in the pleasant town of Charlestovm, 
although in times past mass has occasionally been said at private res- 
idences by different priests who visited some one or more of the faith, 
who could not make it convenient to attend services at the consecrated 
houses of worship at the neighboring towns. For a long time past 
Father Wilson, of Harper’s Ferry, has been endeavoring to have built 
here a church, and at last his worthy endeavors have been crowned 
with success, as on the 26th of May, 1889, a beautiful, neat and well- 
built edifice was dedicated to the service of God. The congregation, 
though at present small, is full of the zeal for the promotion of their 
religious interests, so characteristic of the adherents of the church 
founded by Peter. Father T. J. Wilson is untiring in his work for 
the church, and is a gentleman who has the respect of all who come 
in contact with him, be they Catholic, Protestant or otherwise. 

Colored Churches . — The colored people of Charlestown are abun- 
dantly blessed with houses of worship, as they have one Protestant 
Episcopal, one African Methodist Episcopal, one Free-Will Baptist 




and one Baptist (straight) Church, also an organization known as 
“ Gallilean Fishermen,” which is a benevolent institution. 

Educational . — Jefferson County was the first in the State of 
Virginia to establish free schools, which was long anterior to the 
late war, and did not arise out of any compulsion or influence brought 
to bear by politicians. There being a law in regard to the establish- 
ment of schools throughout the State, passed way, back at the begin- 
ning of this century, that law was permitted to become a dead letter, 
through opposition to it or in consequence of a feeling against “ free ” 
schools or on account of its apparent impracticability, in every county 
save old Jefferson, which went to work and put in operation a system 
that did honor to the hearts of the officials who were instrumental in 
bringing it about, and was a credit to those who supported it at a time 
when it necessarily met with considerable opposition. But there 
always have been fine schools at Charlestown. Nearly one hundred 
years ago a classical school for boys was in successful operation there, 
and as early as 1809 a young ladies’ seminary flourished. At present 
there are two good schools in addition to the public schools, all of 
which are well attended. 

The Press . — The first newspaper published at Charlestown was 
the Farmers ’ Repository , which issued its initial number Friday, 
April 1, 1808; Williams & Brown were the publishers. The Virginia 
Free Press, established at Harper’s Ferry in 1821, by John S. Gal- 
laher, was removed to Charlestown in 1827, and the Farmers' 
Repository merged into it, the paper retaining the name of the Free 
Press. During a portion of the time John S. Gallalier published his 
paper at the Ferry, he edited and published The Ladies ’ Garland , a 
distinctly literary paper, the second one of the kind published in the 
United States. The Free Press was published for many years by 
H. N. & W. W. B. Gallalier, but at present it is run solely by W. W 
B. Gallalier. During the late war the office was entirely demolished 
by the Federal soldiers, types, presses, everything being consumed by 
fire. It is useless to say that the paper w r as suspended , which fate 
would, possibly, have overtaken the editor had the vandals caught 
him, but he was out in the front in gray, backing his former editorials 
with his sabre. 

The Spirit of Jefferson , another old and stanch Democratic 
journal, was established in 1814 by James W. Beller, who successfully 
ran it for a number of years. In 1853 the office was destroyed by 




fire, but it was shortly afterward re-established, and passed into the 
control of Lucas & Donavin. It successively passed into the control 
of Donavin Douglass and Benjamin F. Beall, the latter running it 
for several years anterior to the late war, and owning it up to .1869. 
The paper was after the last date conducted by Dalgarn & Haines, 
then John W. Dalgarn and S. S. Dalgarn. From July 1, 1875, 
George W. Haines has edited and conducted the Spirit, and has made 
a live paper out of it. It, as well as the other two newspapers, are 
doing excellent work for their parties. 

The Democrat, edited and published by Mr. Thomas H. Mason, is 
a comparatively new candidate for patronage, it being established 
January 9, 1885. Mr. Mason is a young man of fine attainments and 
he publishes a very respectable paper. 

Societies. — Jefferson Chapter No. 5, B. A. M. — About forty 
years ago Jerusalem Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, obtained a charter 
from the Grand Chapter of the Commonwealth of Virginia, but it 
was permitted to partially lapse, and Jefferson County being attached 
to the new State of West Virginia so complicated the Masonic juris- 
diction that a new charter under the above name and number was 
obtained from the Grand Chapter of West Virginia in 1879. The 
membership of this chapter are among the best and most influential 
citizens of Jefferson County. 

Malta Lodge No. 80, A. F. & A. M . — This lodge obtained its 
charter about the year 1820, but was re-chartered by the Grand Lodge 
of West Virginia, December 28, 1872. It is very strong in member- 
ship and has a hall very tastefully and comfortably fitted up. They 
meet Friday nights before the full moon and two weeks following. 

Wildey Lodge No. 11, I. O. O. F . — This lodge was organized 
February 22, 1833, and was named after Past Grand Sire John Wildey 
of Baltimore, who introduced Odd Fellowship into the United States 
from England, where it originated. After the war the lodge was re- 
organized under the Grand Lodge of West Virginia, and the number 
changed to 27. It is in quite a prosperous condition. 

Olive Branch Encampment No. 16, 1. O. O. F., was organized 
in Charlestown about 1817. Shenandoah Lodge No. 32, I. O. G. T., 
was organized November 3, 1875, and the Y. M, C. A. began opera- 
tions on December 12, 1880. 

Public Officers. — William L. Wilson, representative in Congress 
from Second West Virginia district. 





Daniel B. Lucas, judge of supreme court of appeals of West Vir- 

Charles H. Knott, State senator, Thirteenth district. 

B. Preston Chew and Braxton D. Gibson, members of house of 

Members of county court — William H. T. Lewis, president; John 
Thomas Gibson, John G. Shirley, Lee H. Maler, Thomas B. Moore. 
Clerk of county court — Gerard D. Moore. 

Clerk of circuit court — Thomas W. Latimer. 

County surveyor — S. Howell Brown. 

Prosecuting attorney- — Forrest W. Brown. 

Sheriff — Albert Davis. 

Deputy sheriffs — William A. Morgan, Eugene Baker. 

Sealer of weights and measures — V. M. Firor. 

Jailer — S. C. Young. 

Assessors — B. A. Alexander, C. H. Trail. 

Justices of the peace — C. Frank Gallaher, David Howell, D. S. 
Bentch, A. S. Link, Charles H. Briggs, W. J. Moler, George D. 
Johnson, Thomas Lock. B. F. Johnson. 

County superintendent of schools — Emanuel Schaeffer. 

County boards of education — Charlestown district: John T. Colston, 
president; A. B. Yates, S. S. Dalgarn, commissioners; George T. 
Light, secretary board. 

Shepherdstown district — Joseph McMurran, president; N. S. J. 
Strider, William Butler, commissioners. 

Harper’s Ferry district — C. B. Wentzell, president; Bichard ften- 
derson, J. G. Flanagan, commissioners. 

Middleway district — John P. Kearfoot, president; M. E. Trussell, 
Samuel D. Engle, commissioners. 

Kabletown district — Thomas Lock, president ; Daniel Hefflebower, 
J. W. Boberts, commissioners. 

Charlestown Officials. — Mayor, Gustav Brown; recorder, W. L. 
Hedges; councilmen, C. Mason Hough, William Neill, D. S. Hughes, 
B. H. Phillips, Henry Dumm, David Howell; solicitor, George Bay- 
lor; police-sergeaiit, Thomas B. Young. 

Practicing Lawyers. — Daniel B. Lucas, William H. Travers, 
George Baylor, James H. Grove, Cleon Moore, A. E. Kennedy, Jos- 
eph Trapnell, Frank Beckwith, George M. Beltzlioover, Forrest W. 
Brown, T. C. Green, Jr., Braxton D. Gibson, Jacob F. Engle, Samuel 
W. Washington, James D. Butt. 




Charlestown Gas Light Company . — President, George W. T. 
Kearsley ; treasurer, David Howell; secretary, S. S. Dalgarn; super- 
intendent, O. M. Darlington. 

Charlestown Water Works Company . — President, R. Preston 
Chew; secretary, T. P. Lippitt; treasurer and superintendent, B. C. 
W ashington. 



First Settlers — Kohonk-ou-roo-ta — Tiie Germans— Establishment of 
Mecklenburg— A Ferry Contest— Partial Incorporation, 1793— The 
Trustee Form— The Act— First Officers— Some Well-Known Names— 
The Town Run— Posting and Railing the Streets— Two Newspapers, 
1795— Fire Engine of 1796— Additions to the Town— Change of Name 
to Shepiierdstown— Trouble About the Run— Market House— Large 
Firms of 1810 — The “Cossack” Celebration — Incorporation — The 

CERS — A Peremptory Op:der and a Scare — Another Change in 
Charter— Religious and Educational— History of the Churches— 
Shepherd College— Societies— Morgan’s Grove Fair— Newspapers— 
Towns and Tillages- The Famous Legend of the “Wizard Clip.” 

A S heretofore stated, Shepherdstown can undoubtedly claim the 
honor (and with reasons entirely justifiable) of being the spot 
whereon the first settlers located when they crossed the Potomac at what 
was afterward known as the Old Packhorse Ford. The river was known 
at that early day, and for many years afterward, as the Cohongoroota, 
Cohongorooton, Cohongoluta, etc., all of them perversions of the 
original Indian sounds, or name, of that stream. “Kohonk-ou-roo-ta” — 
wild-goose stream, or “Liver of the Wild-Goose” — was so termed by 
the aborigines from the great number of wild-geese that lived upon 
its beautiful bosom, the note of that bird suggesting the fact — 
“Kohonk! Kolionk!” The year of the Indian is rated by the same 
term — so many “Kohonks,” or returns of the wild-goose in his 

When the Germans came down from Pennsylvania and settled here 
they naturally lived in close proximity to each other, and for the usual 
reasons — mutual protection and the society of their fellow-man, for the 




human race is no exception to Nature’s great law of attraction; no ex- 
ception to the universal custom of all living things: to huddle together. 
Man is essentially gregarious. Settling thus, together, the sons of 
Vcderlancl named their little nucleus of a village New Mecklenburg. 
The precise date of their arrival can not now be ascertained, for there 
was no court or records at the time in the valley of Virginia. The 
section where they settled and the entire beautiful valley stretching 
from the Potomac to the southern boundaries of the State, was a vast 
fertile and untrod (save by the Indian) wilderness. It was the 
outer edge of Spottsylvania County, so remote from the settlements in 
Eastern Virginia as to be thought useless and worthless. The lands 
were not for sale, and it was several years after these Germans came 
before even a “grant” was made by Gov. Gooch. Lord Fairfax had 
not as yet arrived in the colony of Virginia, and had not, possibly, 
the remotest conception of his immense estate between the Bivers 
Eappahannock and Potomac, comprising about 5,500,000 acres of the 
best land on earth. These Germans simply “squatted” on the rich 
tract of virgin soil about the present site of Shepherdstown, and when 
Bichard ap Morgan, the Welshman, shortly after 1730 obtained his 
large grant from the colonial government, they paid for their farms, or 
claims, and received titles from him. Thus the ancestors of many of 
those who are now living on the original tracts, purchased their 
farms as stated. What that little village of Mecklenburg was, is now 
beyond surmise, even. It was, of course, thoroughly German. They 
doubtless had their school-house and their place of worship, and the 
language of their fathers must have been universally spoken. This 
settlement, or beginning of a town, antedates Winchester by twenty 
years, 1727, or thereabouts, five years before the immortal Wash- 
ington was born! And here that little village stands, not very much 
larger than it was over one hundred and fifty years ago. But Thomas 
Shepherd came in and, purchasing land, went to work to improve the 
picturesque little hamlet by the river. So, he posts himself off to 
Williamsburg and gets his town established, the General Assembly of 
the colony of Virginia in November, 1762, passing “An act for estab- 
lishing the town of Mecklenburg, in the County of Frederick,” as 
follows : 

“L WHEEEAS, It is represented to this General Assembly of 
Virginia that Thomas Shepherd, of the County of Frederick, hath laid 
off about fifty aeres of his land on Potowmack river, in the said county, 



into lots and streets for a town, and hath disposed of many of the said 
lots, the purchasers whereof have made their humble application that 
the said land may be established a town, being pleasantly and com- 
modiotisly situated for trade and commerce. 

“ Beit therefore enacted by the Lieutenant-Governor , Council and 
Burgesses of this present General Assembly , and it is hereby en- 
acted by the authority of the same , That the lots and streets so laid 
off on the said land be, and are hereby constituted, appointed, erected 
and established, a town, to be called by the name of Mecklenburg; 
and that the freeholders and inhabitants of the said town, so soon as 
they shall have built upon and saved their lots, according to the con- 
ditions of their deeds of conveyance, shall then be entitled to, and 
have and enjoy, the same privileges, rights and advantages, which 
the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns erected by act of as- 
sembly in this colony do at present enjoy.” 

Shepherd, it will be noticed, retained the ancient name of Meck- 
lenburg, by which it was known for many years after the above act 
In fact, when the town assumed the “ Trustee ” form of government 
in 1793 it was still called Mecklenburg, and so named in the act. It 
was only on its incorporation, after 1800, that the title Shepherd’s 
Town came into use. 

In October, 1765, an act of assembly gave Thomas Shepherd the 
privilege of establishing a ferry “ from his land in the town of Meck- 
lenburg, in the county of Frederick, over Potowmack Biver, to his 
land opposite thereto in the province of Maryland: the price for a man 
three pence, and for a horse the same.” But the following year, 1766, 
this ferry was ordered by the General Assembly to be discontinued, 
“ the same being at a very small distance from a ferry already estab- 
lished from the. land of Thomas Swearingen over Potowmac river to 
Maryland.” They did not permit any competition in those lordly old 
days, or perhaps Swearingen was a better lobbyist than Shepherd. 
Yet, it may have been unjust to Swearingen to permit a ferry so near 
to his, he having gone to the expense to establish it. 

lu November, 1766, public fairs were established at Mecklenburg 
by order of the General Assembly. Two were to be held annually: 
Second Wednesday in June and second Wednesday in October, to con- 
tinue two days each, “ for the sale and vending of all manner of cattle, 
victuals, provisions, goods, wares and merchandise whatsoever.” In 
October, 1778, the General Assembly prohibited by act hogs running 
at large in Mecklenburg, and it was lawful to kill any swine so run- 



ning at large, but the slayer was not to convert the meat of the dead 
hog to his own use; he had to notify the owner. 

The town continuing to grow the citizens were ambitious of ruling 
their own interests; to have the power to improve their streets; and 
to make all necessary repairs to roadways leading to the town, and to 
the ferry-landing; they therefore petitioned the General Assembly to 
place them under the “ Trustee” form of government — a kind of half 
incorporation — so the following act was passed: 

“ An Act of the General Assembly of Virginia concerning the Town of 

Mecklenburg , in the County of Berkeley, passed December 2,1793. 

“ Section 1 . Be it enacted by the General Assembly, that it shall 
be lawful for the freeholders, housekeepers and free male persons above 
the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been resident in the town 
of Mecklenburg and county of Berkeley, one year next preceding the 
election, to meet in some convenient place in the said town annually, 
on the first Monday in April, and then and there elect seven fit and 
able men, being freeholders and inhabitants of the town, to serve as 
trustees thereof, and the persons so elected shall proceed to choose out 
of their own body, a president whose authorities shall continue until 
the first Monday in April in the year succeeding, and no longer unless 
when re-elected. Every trustee before he enters upon the execution of 
the duties required by this act, shall make oath or affirm before a jus- 
tice of the peace for the said county, that he will faithfully perform, etc. 

“Sec. 2. The trustees of the said town of Mecklenburg, or a ma- 
jority of them, shall have power to keep the streets in said town in 
repair, as also the road from the said town to the ferry-landing, 
to have the footways in the town posted and paved at the ex- 
pense of the owners of lots and parts of lots fi’onting on the 
said streets, in case the owner shall refuse or neglect to post or pave 
the same, to remove nuisances out of the streets, alleys and public 
grounds of the said town, etc;” to determine disputes concerning lots, 
and the use of the mill-stream running through the town; to lew taxes 
not exceeding twenty-five cents on each tithable, and seventy-five cents 
on each hundred pounds worth of taxable property ; to purchase a fire 
engine; to appoint a clerk and collector; to meet once a month, etc. 

An election being held the ensuing April, as specified in the act, 
the result was the selection of the following gentlemen as trustees: 
Abraham Shepherd, Henry Bedinger, Conrad Byers, Jacob Haynes, 
John Morrow, Henry Line and William Chapline. At the first meet- 
ing in June the trustees being sworn by Joseph Swearingen, a justice 
of the peace, Abraham Shepherd was elected president of the body, 
and in July John Gooding was appointed clerk. Numerous rules and 





regulations for the government of the trustees were then formulated 
and passed. The first public business recorded was the complaint of 
John Morrow, executor of Thomas Shepherd, deceased, against Will- 
iam Brown for “refusing to. let the executor. take up the mill-stream 
in the lot of the defendant,” a matter that seems to have been one of 
those disputes so common along streams where more than one mill is 

An era of improvement commenced at this time, as various meas- 
ures were taken to get things in proper form in the little village. 
Jacob Haynes was ordered to have cut a ditch in the meadow of Abra- 
ham Shepherd for the better flow of the water “ into a sink-hole near Mr. 
Welch’s brick yard,” and that “the said Jacob Haynes do receive all 
private donations for that purpose”— -a mode of defraying the expenses 
of a public improvement that does not obtain to any great extent in 
this progressive but selfish age. It was also “ Ordered that twelve 
months from this date be allowed for posting and railing the footways 
on both sides of German Street, from Mill Street to Duke Street; also 
for posting and railing the footways on both sides of Princess Street, 
from Washington Street to John Woolford’s house, near Pocky Street, 
and that convenient intervals be left for the passage from the doors into 
the streets, also at the corners of streets.” The posts were “ to be 
made of locust wood at least four inches thick and six inches in breadth, 
and that the rails shall be at least three inches thick and five inches 
broad, and nowhere more than ten feet long, and that the posts rise 
three feet above the pavement,” and that “ the posts and rails be placed 
exactly ten feet into the streets and no further.” Orders were passed 
against firing of guns or pistols in the town, galloping of horses 
through the streets, and hogs running at large. An idea of the popu- 
lation, or rather the value of the property in Shepherdstown at this date 
(1793), may be gleaned from the fact that 3300 was the bond exacted 
from the collector of taxes. Maj. Henry Bedinger was appointed 
treasurer of the town. John Kearsley and Cato Moore were appointed 
a committee to expend the sum of 310 in the improvement of Wash- 
ington Street, and “exhibit to this court a statement of their accounts 
respecting the same.” 

At the next election in April, 1795, the inhabitants met at the 
house of Mrs. Thornberry and elected John Kearsley, Abraham Shep- 
herd, John Morrow, Henry Bedinger, John Eoff, Jacob Haynes and 
John Brown. John Kearsley was elected president, and John Gooding 


( . 



was continued as clerk. There was considerable trouble with Mr. 
William Brown in regard to his damming up the mill-stream, for in 
addition to the executor of Thomas Shepherd complaining of the mat- 
ter, Richard Henderson entered suit against him and Philip Shutt and 
other inhabitants did the same. Geese, about this time, were placed 
upon the same footing as hogs had been placed and prohibited run- 
ning at large. 

The election of April, 1796, resulted in the choice of the following 
gentlemen: Henry Bedinger, Abraham Shepherd, John Kearsley, 

Jacob Haynes, John Hite, John Thornborough and John Morrow. 
John Kearsley was elected president of the board, and John Gooding 
clerk. In 1797 John Kearsley, Abraham Shepherd, John Morrow, 
Henry Bedinger, Jacob Haynes, Philip Shutt and Peter Sinurr were 
elected, and John Morrow w r as selected by the board as president. At 
this date there were two newspapers, at least, published in Sheplierds- 
town, for one of the orders of the board of trustees reads: “Ordered 
that Henry Bedinger cause to be published a notice in the newspapers 
of this town a petition, etc.” 

In 1798 the General Assembly passed an act authorizing addi- 
tions to be made to Mecklenburg, said additions being laid off on the 
lands of Henry Cookus, William Brown, John Morrow and Richard 
Henderson, also the ground lying immediately between the town and 
the water’s edge of the Potomac River. At this time, also, the name 
was changed by act of the General Assembly from Mecklenburg to 
Shepherd’s Town. In this year, at the April meeting of the trustees, 
Jacob Haynes was appointed to go to Lancaster to purchase a fire- 
engine, and the sum of §16 was appropriated to defray his expenses. 
The justices elected at the beginning of the current official year, April, 
were the same, with one or two exceptions, as the last, with John 
Kearsley as president. As an illustration of how the early city fathers 
economized in the matter of their outlays for public improvements, 
Martin Entler is ordered to be paid “ eighty cents for making bridge 
on the road leading from Princess Street to the river,” and Adam 
Myers sixty-seven cents for repairing a bridge on High Street. 

Elections were held every April till the change in the form of the 
government took place in 1820, but enough of the officers have been 
given to show who were the leading men of those davs. In 1799 
John Kearsley had a tan-yard on the mill stream, and the owners of 
the mills laid complaint before the trustees that the said tan-yard was 



the means of keeping water from their mills, whereupon the trustees 
made a thorough examination, and after giving it their “ serious con- 
sideration and most mature deliberation are of opinion that the said 
complaint is groundless and absurd.” John Kearsley was president 
of this examining committee. 

Some trouble must have arisen between the manufacturer of the 
engine at Lancaster and the trustees, as an order appears in March, 
1800, to the effect that Peter Zin is authorized to proceed to Lancas- 
ter and demand from Peter Getz the fire-engine they contracted for 
or refund the money paid him, with interest. Mr. Zin is furnished 
the munificent sum of §5 to defray his expenses to and from Lancaster. 
This year a market house was ordered to be built at the intersection 
of King with German streets, on the south side of the street (Ger- 
man). The funds were partly raised by public and partly by private 
subscription. The building was finished promptly, having been be- 
gun in June, and was ready for occupancy in August. Stalls were 
sold to the highest bidder for cash. John Baker, the noted con- 
gressman from this district, who afterward voted solidly with the 
minority in Congress against any of the war measures of IS 12-11, 
v r as president of the trustees. He w~as the husband of Mrs. Ann 
Mark Baker, the little girl whom Bumsey helped on his steamboat 
in 1787, and who died not many years ago. The engine must have 
been received, but there is no note of it in the records, for Henry 
Line is ordered to build a house for it in May, 1801, on King street, 
at the distance of twelve feet from the market house. It appears 
that it was to arrive, but owing to a balance due on it, it was not 
sent. Walter B. Selby v 7 as then commissioned to procure it and pay 
at his discretion any sum he deemed just. The engine came at 
last, but 'was incomplete; so Jacob Haines, the blacksmith, who had 
in 1786 helped Itumsev to make the iron work of his steamboat, 
was engaged to complete ye ancient u machine.” 

In 1811, notwithstanding the evident progress that Shepherdstown 
was making in her commercial arid manufacturing interests, there was 
considerable depression in money matters, and property was either de- 
creasing in value, or at an entire standstill. A great deal of land was 
thrown upon the market in order to raise money. Yet Shepherds- 
town had a number of large mercantile establishments, some of them 
having no rivals in the Valley. Among those doing large businesses 
may be mentioned James S. Lane, Bro. A Co., wdiose store was near 

















4 . 





the market house; Walter B. Selby, R. Worthington & Co., and other 
smaller concerns. Jacob Sensebough was a tailor, and Dr. John Bris- 
coe announced in a newspaper that “ having settled in Shepherds-Town 
with a view of practicing physic, offers his professional services.” In 
1812, Worthington, Cookus & Co. advertised a large stock of goods, 
including 6,500 pounds of coffee and 50 barrels of whisky, also 
a large stock of books. James Brown A Co. open a large stock of 
goods, “ including,” as they say, “dry goods, school and other books, 
among which are ‘ A sero-ludricro-tragico-comieo Tale,’ written by 
‘Thinks I to Myself, Who?’ also, wines, brandy, spirits, Holland gin 
and rum.” Charles Potter opens house painting, glazing and paper 
hanging business. In 1813, Selby A Swearingen kept all kinds of 
goods from “silk shawls and changeable lute strings” to “pine plank 
and bar iron.” In 1814 Daniel Stailey, who had been keeping tavern 
for some time, transferred it to his son, Jacob Stailey. There were a 
number of other taverns. 

August 4, 1814, occurred the famous celebration, glorifying at the 
downfall of the great Napoleon, and known as the “ Cossack celebra- 
tion.” The paper from which these facts are gleaned says it was “for 
the celebration of the late glorious events in Europe, by which the 
deliverance of the world and the redemption of our own country 
from the fear of bondage has been accomplished.” In addition to 
other toasts, toasts were drank to the “magnanimous Alexander of 
Russia;” “the memory of the great and venerable Kutusoff, the 
avenger of humanity;” “the illustrious Blucher and Schwartzen- 
berg;” “ the restoration of the Bourbons;” “the fate of the remorse- 
less Napoleon;” “ the minority in Congress when war was declared” 
[against England] ; “the Emperor of Austria,” etc. 

In 1819 the two large firms of James S. Lane A Towner and 
James S. Lane A Tapscott were conducting merchandising, and in 
1825 Tapscott A Thompson and Lane A Towner w r ere merchants. 

In 1820, the town continuing to grov T in importance, an act of the 
assembly was passed, at the request of the citizens, entitled “ An act 
to amend an act entitled ‘ An act incorporating Shepherdstowm in the 
county of Jefferson, and for other purposes; passed February 18. 

“ Whereas, Many inconveniences are experienced by the citizens 
of Shepherdstown, in the county of Jefferson, in consequence of 
defects in the charter incorporating said town, for reasons whereof, 








“ Section 1. Be it en acted by the General Assembly, That it shall 
be lawful for the freeholders and house-keepers who shall have been 
resident in Sliepherdstown three months next preceding an election, to 
meet at some convenient place in said town annually on the first Mon- 
day in April, and then and. there nominate and elect by ballot twelve 
fit and able men, being freeholders and inhabitants of the town, to 
serve as Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common Councilmen for the 
same, and the persons so elected shall, within one week after the elec- 
tion, proceed to choose by ballot out of their own body one Mayor, one 
Recorder and four Aldermen ; the remaining six shall be Common Coun- 
cilmen, whose several authorities as Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and 
Common Councilmen shall continue until a new election shall have 
taken place, and those elected shall have qualified. 

“ Sec. 2 is in regard to the several officers taking the oath to. per- 
form their duties properly. 

“ Sec. 3. That the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common Coun- 
cilmen so elected and their successors shall be and are hereby made a 
body, politic and corporate, by the name of ‘ The Common Hall of 
Shepherdstown,’ and by that name to have perpetual succession, with 
capacity to purchase, receive and possess lands and tenements, goods 
and chattels, either in fee or any less estate therein; and the same to 
give, grant, let, sell or assign again, and to plead and be impleaded, 
prosecute and defend all causes, complaints, actions- real, personal and 
mixed, and to have one common seal and perpetual succession. 

“Sec. 4. That the Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen for the time 
being are hereby declared and constituted justices of the peace within 
the limits of the said town, which limits shall extend half a mile 
without and around the said town, and the like jurisdiction in all cases 
whatsoever originating within the limits aforesaid as the justices of 
the County Court, etc. 

“ Sec. 5. That the said Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen, or any 
four of them (the Mayor or Recorder being one of them), shall have 
power to hold a Court of Hustings, etc., with the usual powers. 

“ Secs. 6 and 7 are in regard to removals of officers, in regard to 
vacancies, etc., and Sec. 8 stipulates how the Common Hall are to be 
convened or summoned, and it is to consist of not less than eight of 
the twelve elected, who were called the ‘ commonhall.’ 

“ Sec. 9. Gives the powers of the * commonhall. ’ They were to 
have all legislative jurisdiction; have power to build a court house, 




market house, work house, house of correction, jail and all other build- 
ing's deemed necessary for the convenience or benefit of the town, to 
establish fire companies and purchase fire engines, to regulate and 
grade the streets and alleys of the town, to pave the same; lay and 
collect taxes. 

“Secs. 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, provide for the appointment of com- 
missioners of elections; mode of laying taxes ^improvements; penal- 
ties, etc.” 

At April court, 1820, the above act was ordered to be recorded, 
and at a comm onh all of Shepherdstown, held on the 3d of April, 
1820, Henry Boteler was elected mayor; Thomas Toole, recorder; 
James S. Lane, John T. Oookus, John B. Henry and John G. Unseld, 
aldermen. At a court of hustings held the 3d of April, 1820, James 
Brown was elected clerk of the court; Lewis Wisenall, sergeant; Dan- 
iel Miller, constable, and Adam Heyser, coroner. 

From shortly after 1820 till 1839 the records of the proceedings 
of the authorities of Shepherdstown by some means or other have 
been lost, but during that time a change occurred from the election of 
twelve conncilmen to ten. A number of gentlemen well known in the 
history of the ancient village occupied the positions of mayor, re- 
corder and aldermen, and among those was Col. John F. Hamtramck, 
a Mexican war veteran, and after whom the famous “Hamtramck 
Guards” were named. He was mayor from 1850 till the fall of 1854, 
when he resigned. 

Very little of more than ordinary consequence transpired until the 
Civil war period is reached. At the beginning of the great conflict it 
will be remembered that Federal troops were stationed along the Po- 
tomac on the Maryland side of the river opposite Shepherdstown, and 
some reckless persons had fired across at the Federal pickets. In 
consequence of this firing, the mayor of the town received the fol- 
lowing : 

Hd-Qrs. 12th PiEgt. Ind. Volunteers, 

Dec. 29, 1861. 

John Reynolds (Mayor), Shepherdstown, Va. 

Sir: This is to notify you that if the firing upon the pickets from 

Shepherdstown is not desisted in I shall be under the necessity . of 
shelling your town. I shall deplore resorting to so severe a measure 
on account of the women and children that may be injured or driven 
out; but 1 am satisfied that yourself and the citizens can prevent it if 
you wish. Be assured that 1 shall do just what I say, and if any of 


[ . 



my men are killed or injured by those skulkers firing upon them, I 
shall take ample vengeance. Very respectfully, 

W. H. Link, Col, 

12th Reg. Ind. Volunteers. 

This shot from the enemy gave the village a scare that brought 
together the city fathers in double quick time. They passed resolu- 
tions deploring the firing of irresponsible parties, and ordered strict 
measures to be enforced against any one who should be guilty of the 
act. They also prohibited the sale of liquor in the town. Appointed 
a committee of vigilance to assist the town sergeant. The mayor 
stated that a party had been caught and would be severely dealt with 
for having fired across the river. These resolutions were, of course, 
forwarded to Col. Link, and the mayor closed his communication to 
that officer with the following: 

Our town is filled with widows and children, most of them poor, 
and the entire population are non-combatants. If under these circum- 
stances and in spite of our pledges and utmost vigilance some reckless 
or malignant person shall elude our vigilance and select this place 
from which to fire across the river, and from my knowledge of the 
people, civil and military, I can give assurance in advance that no 
other will. We solemnly protest in the name of humanity and before 
the world against vengeance being wreaked upon the innocent, the 
unprotected and the unoffending. John Reynolds, Mayor . 

In 1882 J. H. Zittle and other citizens petitioned the Circuit Court 
to confer upon Shepherdstown a modification in the provisions of the 
charter of incorporation, by which the mayor and recorder might be 
elected direct, instead of by the selection of the councilman, as had 
been the law from 1816; also for reducing the number of councilmen 
to five, and to change the date of election from the first Monday in 
April to the second Monday in March. Judge Charles James Faulk- 
ner, Jr., granted the petition, and at the election following in March, 
1883, B. F. Harrison was elected mayor, and J. S. Fleming, recorder. 
The present corporate officers (1889) are: G. W. Hum rickhouse, mayor; 
J. N. Trussed, recorder ; James W. Kerney, J. W. B. Frazier, Joseph 
L. Cookus, John P. Hill and H. F. Barnhart, councilmen. 


When the Germans came to the vicinity of the spot where now 
stands Shepherdstown, they brought with them their religious customs 
and reverence for the worship of t lie Divine Master. Without religious 



services those pious old emigrants and followers of Luther would have 
thought their lot hard, indeed. They may not have had for many 
years after their settlement here, a house set apart specially for serv- 
ice, but they undoubtedly had prayer meetings and exhortations by 
those best gifted with the power of preaching. And they doubtless 
were visited occasionally by ministers from Pennsylvania, who held 
services at the cabins of the settlers. A well-authenticated tradition 
exists among the Lutherans of the Valley that Rev. Peter Muhlenburg, 
the father of the Rev. Muhlenburg who was rector of the Episcopal 
Church at Woodstock during the Revolutionary period, and who threw 
off his priest’s gown for a Continental uniform, and fought gallantly in 
that struggle, preached at the little settlement of New Mecklenburg 
about 1729-30. Rev. Mr. Muhlenburg, Sr., as well as his famous 
son, was a highly educated and eminent minister of the Lutheran 
Church, having been graduated at the most noted theological schools 
of Europe. He paid several visits to Maryland and to the new set- 
tlement across the river in Virginia, and, as many of the Germans, who 
reared their rude cabins here, were from the section of Pennsylvania 
where Mr. Muhlenburg ministered, it is entirely natural that he should 
have paid a visit to his old friends.* This being the case, the Lu- 
therans can claim the honor of instituting the first religious services 
in the Valley of Virginia. 

Lutheran Church . — The first regular congregation, with a house 
of worship, in New Mecklenburg was not organized till 1750-60, and 
the first regular pastor called was Rev. Mr. Bauer, about 1776. He 
served the congregation several years, and was followed by Rev. Mr. 

. Wiltbalin, who remained three years; then came Mr. Nichodemus, 
seven years ; George Young, four years, and Mr. Weyman, three years. 
About 1790 Rev. Christian Streit, who had located in Winchester, 
and who was serving the congregation at Martinsburg and several 
other points, took charge of the church here and visited it regularly 
for a number of years. Rev. David Young, of Pennsylvania, succeeded 
Mr. Streit, and during that gentleman’s pastorate, in 1795, the corner- 

* As much misapprehension has existed in regard to the denomination to which Gen. Muhlenburg 
belonged when he left the pulpit for the cause of his country, a word of explanation may be in place 
here. Episcopalian and Lutheran have each claimed him. He was both. Having been educated as a 
Lutheran minister, lie was called to -the church at Woodstock, Shensi ndoah County, the members of 
which were all Germans and Lutherans. But Mr. Muhlenburg, finding that the church could not pros- 
per without certain aid from the government < English), he concluded to “conform '* to the require- 
ments, and went over to England, took orders in the established church, returned and again became 
the pastor of the Woodstock church, using the Episcopal service, which at that time differed very little 
from that used by the strict Lutherans. 




stone of the church was laid. Mr. Young dying, Rev. Frederick 
William Gausinska took charge of the congregation at the beginning 
of 1802. This gentleman’s name appears in the records of the justices 
on December 8, 1801, where he is granted a license to administer the 
rite of marriage. He remained but a short time, which was during 
the period when the church was racked to its foundation with dissen- 
sions, induced, in part, if not entirely, by the transition from the use 
of the German to the English language in the service. Mr. Gausin- 

o o o 

ska was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Rabenach, who served several years, 
but the troubles in the church becoming so grievous, he left for an- 
other held. About 1818 Rev. John Kehler took charge, but only 
remained one year, when, on July 1, 1819, Rev. G. P. Krauth, the 
able and efficient minister, whose reputation at that day was wide- 
spread, became pastor of the church, and soon spread the oil of his 
splendid abilities and kindliness of heart upon the troubled waters of 
the perturbed congregation. English services were established, and 
the church took a new start. Dr. Krauth served about eight years, 
and in 1827 Rev. Jacob Medtart took charge; 1835, Rev. Dr. Reuben 
Weier; 1837, Rev. Charles Martin, D. D. ; 1842, Rev. Samuel Sprecher ; 
1843, Rev. Joseph Seiss; 1848, Rev. C. P. Krauth, Jr., son of the 
former pastor of that name; he remained only seven months, and was 
succeeded the same year by Rev. B. M. Schmucker; 1852, Rev. J. P. 
Smeltzer ; 1860, Rev. J. J. ‘Miller; 1866, Rev. J. F. Campbell; 1868, 
Rev. J. H. Bit tie ; 1872, Rev. Jacob Hawkins; 1875, Rev. R, H. Hol- 
land; 1878, Rev. D. M. Moser. During Mr. Bittle’s pastorate the 
church was remodeled, and a new parsonage erected. 

Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church . — The history of the Epis- 
copal Church of Shepherdstown, if it had any existence before the 
Revolution of 1776, can not now be ascertained. It is altogether prob- 
able that no movement v r as made here till about 1780-85, for the in- 
habitants were mostly of German origin, and they followed the faith 
of their fathers, not the English church. A church edifice, however, 
was built about 1785, which was used until 1840, when it was replaced 
by another, which was used till the present fine structure was erected. 
From a sketch furnished several years ago by Mr. D. S. Bragonier, 
the following is taken: “April 5, 1859, Bishop Johns, of Virginia, 

consecrated the present church building, which was commenced in 
1855, and cost about §10,000. About ten years afterward a chapel 
was built on the church lot. Both of these buildings are of cut native 

,.r. : 



stone, and, in connection with the rectory, are considered as fine 
church property as exists in the Shenandoah V alley. The church is 
located in the center of a lot, fronting 171 Y feet on the main street, 
with a depth of 206 feet. The rectory is situated on an adjoining 
street. The church was built through the personal efforts of Rev. 
Charles W. Andrews, D. I)., who was the rector in charge from 1842, 
until the date of his death, in May, 1875, a period of thirty-three 
years. He was a man who enjoyed a national celebrity, in the history 
of the Episcopal church, for his learning and piety, and highly esteemed 
for the good he accomplished in the community, both as a minister of 
the gospel and as a public-spirited citizen. The ministers in charge 
of the church, so far as known, are as follows: Revs. Sturges, Stubbs. 
Morgan Morgan (son of Morgan Morgan, who was instrumental in 
building the first Episcopal Church in the Valley of Virginia — the Mill 
Creek church at Bunker Hill, in Berkeley County), Veasy, Wilson and 
Page, all prior to 1800. In 1800, Rev. Mr. Heath; in 1810, Rev. John 
Price (the last rector of St. George’s chapel, the ruins of which now 
stand near Charlestown). After Rev. Mr. Price, until 1817, the church 
was without a regular minister, and at the latter date Rev. Benjamin 
Allen took charge, vdio was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin B. Smith, 
uow the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church; in 1823, Rev. Alex- 
ander Jones, D. D., for fifteen years; 1840, Rev. J. II. Morrison, first 
resident pastor ; 1842. Rev. Charles W. Andrews, 1). D., until his 
death, in May, 1875; October, 1875, until December, 1880, Rev. John 
P. Hubard; June 1, 1881, Rev. L. R. Mason, the present rector in 

Methodist Episcopal Church.— Although there was no church of 
this denomination in Shepherdstown until some time after 1S00, there 
was no doubt occasional preaching by the itinerant ministers of the 
Methodists. They passed through this section of country on their 
wmy farther up the Valley, and in those early times the traveling 
preacher preached vdierever he could get a congregation together. No 
opportunity was lost by those old pioneer workers in the vineyard of 
the Lord to sow good seed w herever they went, and as people in those 
days w'ere only too glad to hear the word of God expounded, they 
were not over particular in insisting upon the exact style of creed of 
the church to which they held allegiance. They were “soldiers of 
the Lord,” and it did not very much matter to them to what denom- 
ination their captain belonged, so that lie w r as a godly man and a soul- 



saving Christian. So it may safely be inferred that the preachers 
who carried Methodism way up above Winchester in 1775, scattered a 
few seeds along , their pathway southward. The first organization, 
however, in Shepherdstown occurred about 1815, and the pulpit was 
supplied by the “circuit riders,” as they were called, who came 
monthly at first, and then every fortnight. The first house of wor- 
ship was a small brick building in the southwest part of the town. 
The names of some of the early ministers were: Revs. Boylstou, 
•James Monroe, Robert C addon and James Larldn. The following are 
the names and dates of service of the ministers and presiding elders 
from 1840: David Thomas till 1841; 1841-42, S. S. Rossell; 1841-42, 
J. A. Collins, P. E. ; 1843-44, Joseph Plotner; 1845, John Guyer; 
1846-47, W. L. Spottswood ; 1843 - 46, John Smith, P. E. ; 1845- 49, 
John M. Green; 1850, John Brown; 1847-50, Henry Tarring, P. E. ; 
1851-52, John W. Tongue; 1853-54, John S. Deale; 1851-54, 
George Hildt, P. E. ; 1855-56, Elias Welty. In 1857 Shepherdstown 
circuit was formed, and Revs. James H. March and Samuel V. Leech 
were the ministers; 1858, James H. March and Thomas Briely ; 
1855-57, William Hirst, P. E. ; 1859, Isaac Gibson and J. M. Little; 
1858-65, W. G. Eggleston, P. E. ; 1861, Solomon McMullen and J. 
M. Littell; 1862, Solomon McMullen. In 1864 the feelings engen- 
dered by the w r ar caused a division in the church, and the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South was formed. In 1866 John M. Green was 
called; 1868-69, G. W. Feelemyer; 1870-71, Albert Jump; 1872, J. 
F. Ockermaii; 1873-74, Henry Nice; 1875-77, John W. Smith; 
1878-30, Durbin G. Miller; 1881-82. Charles O. Cook. 

Methodist Episcopal Church South .- — Until 1864 the Methodists 
of Shepherdstown had but one church, but the war caused differences 
of opinion in church as well as other matters, and the close of the 
great conflict witnessed strife for the possession of the church prop- 
erty. Those who had remained “ loyal to the flag,” no matter what 
their numbers were, claimed the church property in consequence of 
that same loyalty, and the “ other kind ” of Methodists also laid claim 
to that which they alleged they had contributed most to build. The 
government was appealed to and the property was in most instances 
handed over to the “loyal” saints, through the Federal courts, but 
just exactly what the Government had to do with the squabble is not 
quite as plain as the nose on a man’s face. True, Rev. Elisha Paine 
Phelps, sent down to Staunton, Va., to claim the churches for the loyal 



crowd, said before the congressional investigating committee of 1869 
—70 that “as the Northern Methodists had conquered the Southern 
Methodists just as the Northern soldiers had conquered the Southern 
soldiers,” why of course the property belonged to his side. See! At 
any rate those Methodists who cast their fortunes with the Confeder- 
ates had no church when peace once more waved her white wings 
over this sunny land, so they set about building, one, and by 1868 had 
completed a fine church that cost them §6,000, which has a member- 
ship at present of over 300 souls. The following list comprises the 
presiding elders and ministers from the new departure in 186-1: 1864— 
66, E. L. Kreglo; 1866, E. R. Yeitch, P. E. ; 1867, W. S. Baird, P. 
E.; 1867-69, William G. Coe; 1870, W. C. Cross; 1871, J. B. Fitz- 
patrick; 1871-72, W. H. Wheelriglit, P. E.; 1872-75, A. A. P. Neel; 
1874-76, Samuel Register, P. E. ; 1876-79, J. Lester Shipley; 1877- 
■80, Nelson Head, P. E. ; 1880-82, W. G. Eggleston. 

Reformed Church . — This denomination is one of the oldest in the 
Valley, and they were originally known as Reformed Calvinists. Their 
history is coeval with the settlement of this section, and although 
they had no church here until a late day, yet they organized shortly 
after the American war, about 1781-82. This denomination claims to 
have built the old Opequon Church above Winchester, about 1740, 
but the claim is disputed by the Presbyterians. At Shepherdstown, 
however, they had a small, unpretentious church edifice before the be- 
ginning of the present century. Rev. Michael Slaughter conducted 
services here as early as 1780, and was followed by Dr. Charles Meyer, 
who perfected the organization and remained for a number of years. 
Since then the following ministers have had charge: Revs. L. Beecher, 
S. Staley, Robert Douglas, D. G. Bragonier, J. M. Titzell, D. D.. 
Henry Wisler, H. Forney, J. T. Rossiter, J. C. Bowman; B. F. Bails- 
man resigned in spring of 1889, and the place is now vacant. 

Presbyterian Church . — There are no records in regard to this 
church of a very early date, but the denomination is one of the very 
oldest in the Valley, as lias been shown in other portions of this work. 
The church, or rather, the church society, was organized in 1780 to 
1790. The first pastor, as far as can now be ascertained, was Rev. 
John Matthews, in 1818. Rev. E. C. Hutchison followed Mr. 
Matthews, and then came John T. Hargave, who ministered to the 
spiritual wants of his congregation from 1834 to 1852. Henry 
Matthews then came in charge, and was succeeded by Robert L. Me- 



Murrau, and he in turn by E. W. Bedinger, who was followed bv 
James A. Armstrong, Rev. Charles Gheislin. The present church 
edifice was erected in 1837. 

Catholic Church . — The Catholics are usually the pioneers in re-* 
ligion in far distant countries; in sections where there is great hazard 
to life and health; and tlieir missionaries may be found in all remote 
sections. It is claimed that some priests of this denomination had 
penetrated the Shenandoah Valley many years before any settlers had 
located here, that they had sought out the Indians, and had baptized 
them into the faith of Rome. One church, at least, was built in the 
Valley before the beginning of this century (at Winchester). A 
church was established at Harper’s Ferry at an early day, but there 
has been none at Shepherdstown. Now, however, there is one about 
to be built, which will make nine churches in a population of 1,600. 
The site of the new church has been well chosen, and a neat edifice 
will soon make its appearance. 

Colored Churches . — There are two colored churches here — Baptist 
and Methodist. The Baptist was established through the efforts of 
Miss Anna S. Dudley, who obtained sufficient contributions in addi- 
tion to her own gifts, to build and furnish the edifice. It cost about 
$2,500, and is a neat and comfortable structure. 

Shepherd College . — This institution was established and opened in 
1871 for the purpose of affording instruction to young men and women 
in the English branches, and building upon this foundation a prepara- 
tory course in the classics and higher mathematics. In 1873 the State 
established herein a branch of the State Normal School for the instruc- 
tion and training of teachers for the public schools of the State. It 
has been quite successful, and a large number of its normal grad- 
uates are now engaged in teaching, whilst many of the graduates of 
the college department are filling professional and other responsible 
positions with credit to themselves and honor to their alma mater. 
The curriculum of the institution is adapted to the requirements of 
the State in the preparation of the youth for the higher institutions 
of learning — the universities. The classical course embraces a period 
of four years, and the normal three years. Diplomas are granted: 
by the regents of diplomas with the title of Normal Graduate, and by 
the trustees of diplomas with the degree qf Master of English Liter- 
ature. Both sexes are admitted to the schools, but no association 
within the institution is allowed, the students only coming together 
at recitations and public assemblages. 

• ' 



38 G 


The building is of brick, commodious and well adapted to school 
purposes, consisting of two large study halls and four recitation rooms, 
and is capable of accommodating 200 pupils. The main building was 
erected by the late li. 1). Shepherd, and the two wings have since been 
added. The use of the building has been donated to the trustees by 
Mr. Shepherd Brooks, of Boston, grandson of the original proprietor. 

Other Schools . — The Shepherdstown graded school affords ample 
facilities for a good ordinary business education, free of charge, the 
course of study being equal to that of any academy or high school in 
almost any community, and ranks as high in the town as any other 
school of the same grade. It is well classified and well conducted, 
and the pupils who stand a satisfactory examination are given certifi- 
cates that will admit them to the college without further examination. 

There are also several private schools in the town, all well con- 
ducted, and a public school for colored children, with two competent 

Societies . — Mount Nebo Lodge No. 91, A. F. A A. M., was first or- 
ganized in Shepherdstown in 1811. They have a membership of sixty 
and occupy a hall in Billmyer’s building. The lodge room is taste- 
fully arranged and fitted up at a cost of nearly §500. They meet on 
the first and third Monday nights of each month. 

Valley Encampment No. 6, I. O. O. F., was chartered December 5, 
1865. They meet on the first and third Mondays of each month. Cal- 
edonia Lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F., was organized October 9, 1843, under 
the Grand Lodge of Virginia, but is now working under the Grand 
Lodge of West Virginia. They have a neat and comfortable hall over 
the market-house, and meet every Saturday night. 

Potomac Lodge No. 34, 1. O. G. T., was organized by D. L. Bentch 
and J. W. Magaha in 1876. The society was mainly influential in 
causing the town to go “ dry ” a few years ago, but it soon became 
“ wet,” and now it once more (1890) has lapsed to its “ dry ” condition. 
Young Men’s Christian Association was organized in 1862, and has 
done much good work. It is non-sectarian, of course, and is helped 
in its work by all denominations of Protestant Christians. 

The fire department of Shepherdstown is a very efficient body of 
men. They have an excellent Silsby steam-engine, a hand-engine, 
two liose-reels, over a thousand feet of hose, and a hook and ladder 
truck, ladders, axes, etc. The Town Ilun and a number of cisterns 
afford an ample supply of water. 




Morgan’s Grove Agricultural Association is one of the most inter- 
esting and useful enterprises of the Valley of Virginia. It has already 
been of great benefit to the people of Jefferson County, as it gives a 
splendid opportunity for the interchange of ideas and commodities. 
It is, possibly* the only free agricultural show on earth. There is no 
admission fee to the public, and the funds to keep it up are obtained 
from an entrance charge to exhibitors, hawkers, hucksters, fakirs and 
people generally who get all the profit by selling their wares. This 
is just as it should be. It forces the rich agricultural-implement 
manufacturers and others to pay for the privilege of advertising their 
goods rather than to make the purchaser pay for the opportunity to 
see tlie article that he desires to purchase. The association was 
formed about six years ago, and was originally known as the “Mor- 
gan’s Grove Colt Show,” but it has outgrown its first modest pre- 
tensions, and is now attended by thousands from all sections of this 
and the adjoining States. The exhibit of September last ( 1889) was 
particularly fine, and the attendance very large, the number on the 
grounds on Thursday, the 5th, being computed at 10,000 persons. 

Shepherdstown is on the line of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, 
and five miles from the Baltimore A Ohio Road, and immediately 
opposite on the Maryland side of the river is the Chesapeake A 
Ohio Canal, running from Cumberland to Georgetown. There are 
turnpikes leading from the town to Charlestown, to Kearneysville and 
to Winchester ; also good country roads to Martinsburg and other 
points. Running through the town is a stream of wa|er formed from 
the outflow' of about a dozen springs, which has a fall of 100 feet in a 
very short distance. This run at one time operated three tanneries, 
three flouring-mills, two saw-mills, a cotton factory and a v r oolen-mill. 

In addition to the immense beds of limestone wfliicli have been 
quarried and burned into lime for the past seventy-five years, within 

sight of the town, there are valuable beds of hydraulic cement. The 

Potomac Cement Mills, a mile below' town, have been for years manu- 
facturing large quantities of excellent cement, and the Antietam Ce- 
ment Company, recently formed, has a large steam-mill on the Mary- 
land side of the Potomac. 

As shown in the records of the town on a previous page, there must 
have been one or more newspapers published in Shepherdstown as 
early as about 1795, but wdio published them, and what they wer e 
named is not now easily ascertained; the oldest and best informed eiU- 



zens can throw no light upon the subject; they seem to have been 
entirely forgotten. In 1815 the American Eagle was started by Max- 
well & Harper, and in 1823 John Alburtis, who had for many years 
published the Gazette of that town, removed to Shepherdstown and 
began the publication of the Journal. The Register was started in 
1549 by Hardy k McAuly, who published it till 1851, when J. T. II. 

•Bringman became proprietor, and continued till 1852, at which time 
John H. Zittle became its proprietor, and published it for nearly thirty 
years. In 1882 J. W. and H. L. Snyder purchased the establishment, 
continuing as that firm for some time. The paper is now conducted 
solely by Mr. II. L. Snyder, and is one of the best sheets published in 
the Shenandoah Valley. 

The Shepherdstown Bank, with Mr. Billmyer as president and 
Mr. B. F. Harrison as cashier, affords financial facilities ample for the 
accommodation of the public. There are a number of first-class mer- 
cantile establishments, all apparently doing a good business. 


Mid die? cay. -—This ancient village, formerly' known as Smithfield, 
and familiarly called “ Wizard’s Clip,’' or plain “ Clip,” for short, 
has a population of about 750 or 800 and is located seven miles south- 
west of Charlestown. Although the town was known as Smithfield, or 
Clip, before 1791, yet it was not regularly laid out till that date when 
John Smith had it surveyed into lots. William Smith, the father of 
John, came to Virginia in 1729, having been granted, by Gov. Gooch, 
a large tract of land, which he settled upon. There was, at a very 
early day, an Episcopal chapel at Smithfield, but the present church 
was organized in 1830, and Bev. Alexander Jones was the first rector, 
not stationary, however, only visitant. There are also here a Presby- 
terian, a Baptist and a Methodist Church. The town is noted far and 
wide as the spot where occurred the famous operations of the “clip- 
ping spooks,” doubtless a clever piece of primitive hocus-pocus on the 
part of somebody who wanted to get some property at a low figure. 
The same game has been played at divers times and places outside of 
Virginia. But here's the yarn: 

Wizard Clip . — A Pennsylvanian, named Adam Livingston, came to_ 
the vicinity of Smithfield about 1790, and purchased seventy acres of 
land and a house and lot. He immediately proceeded to settle down 
and have a quiet, comfortable life of it, but alas, for his happy antici- 




pations. They were all knocked into a cocked hat by the arrival at 
his humble domicile of a stranger, in 1794, who, after being entertained 
as a boarder for some time, fell sick. Now, Mr. Livingston was a 
Protestant of the tight-laced order, so runs the tale, and when the sick 
stranger informed the host that he was a Catholic, the said host was 
horrified in the extreme, but when the request was made that he would 
like to have a Catholic priest visit him, the landlord nearly went off 
into a “ conniption fit.” He, Livingston, calmly but pointedly, informed 
the Papist that there was no Catholic priest in that neck of woods, 
and if there had been that he should never darken his doors. The 
dying man repeated his request, for the sake of his soul, to try and 
get him some one to shrive him ere he launched into eternity, but no 
attention was paid to the prayers of the sinking stranger, and he was 
permitted to sail without his passport. But the heartless Livingston 
paid dearly for his ungodliness — lie was destined to rue the day he 
refused so reasonable a request. The night of the death, Jacob Foster 
was employed to act as wakesman to the corpse, but the solitary man 
comprising the wake had scarcely entered the room of death before 
the tallow-dip lie placed on a table flickered and went out. Other 
candles were tried, and they all refused to give light on the subject. 
Foster began to think tolerably hard about this mysterious t£ dausing 
o’the glim,” and he left the premises something after the style of Tam 
O’ Shunter. The next night operations were commenced in earnest: 
horses were heard galloping around the house, but there were no 
horses to be seen, not even a nightmare. These little idiosyncrasies 
of the offended spirit of the stranger might have been overlooked, but 
something more cereous than the going out of a candle soon happened : 
the following week Livingston’s barn was burned to the ground and 
his cattle all died. The crockery in his house took a tumble, his fur- 
niture would have a midnight dance, his money disappeared, the 
heads of his fowls all dropped off, and burning coals would leap from 
the fire-place and ricochet all around the room. The sound as of 
shears in the act of clipping could be heard, and his blankets, sheets, 
boots, clothing and saddles would be all clipped — all cut to the shape 
of a crescent. This continued for several months, and the vengeance 
was not visited alone upon Livingston, for an old lady of Martinsburg, 
it is claimed, who went over to the “ Clip” for the express purpose of 
testing the truth of these wonderful misdoings of the bad spirits, had 
a nice silk cap all cut to ribbons, and she had taken the precaution to 




carefully wrap up and stow away in lier pocket the unfortunate head- 
gear. An old writer states that Livingston ‘‘lost much rest,’ 7 so he 
applied to some conjurers, but they could not lay the ghosts. Then 
the wretched subject of these annoyances had a dream (that’s the way 
the novels always get in the explanation). In this dream Livingston 
was climbing a high mountain, catching at roots and bushes and 
things, but he got to the summit at last, and he saw an imposing 
figure dressed in robes, and somebody, in a stage whisper, said “This 
is the man who can relieve you.’ 7 He awoke the next morning and 
resolved to go to Winchester and get Mr. Alexander Balmaine, the 
rector of the parish, as he wore “robes.” But the Episcopal clergy- 
man did not come up to the description of the person he had seen in 
his dream, so he gave up that idea. He then applied to a Catholic 
family, who advised him to go to Shepherdstown the following Sun- 
day and see a priest who would be there. He went, and met Father 
Dennis Cahill, who accompanied him home and tried to exorcise the 
spirit by simple sprinkling of holy water, but this spirit was none of 
your ordinary holy-water spirits — oh, no! Father Cahill had to say 
mass before the “ghost would lay.” But it fetched him, and he has 
never been heard of since. The stranger is now, possibly, a full- 
fledged angel. What became of Livingston? Oh, he conveyed the 
“Clip” property to somebody who happened to want it, and went back 
to Pennsylvania . to live, a wiser but a poorer man. 

The above facts, or alleged facts, have so often been written that 
the writer refrains from further detail. The miracle, or rather the 
story, as given in our own language, appears in a number of Catholic 
publications, and it is said that it is believed by many persons. One 
old chronicler of the legend, to clinch the truth of his statement and to 
place it beyond any doubt wdiatever, winds up his proofs with the fol- 
lowing irrefragible evidence: “Fifty years ago the grave of the 
stranger could be distinctly pointed out.” 

Bolivar is a village containing about 350 inhabitants, and lies v r est 
of Harper’s Ferry three-fourths of a mile. It is incorporated and has 
considerable trade. During the late war it was the scene of main' 
conflicts, and the heights near it w r ere almost constantly occupied by 
soldiers of one army or the other. It has a very neat Methodist 
Church, also a colored Methodist Church, and several other creditable 
structures, including a printing office. The scenery surrounding 
Bolivar, like that of the Ferry, is grand. 



heetown , named in honor of Gen. Charles Lee, who settled upon 
this spot, and near where Gen. Horatio Gates resided, became a vil- 
dage after the death of the brilliant and over-ambitious soldier. It 
came gradually to bear the name of Lee from his having lived there, 
but was never established as a town. There is a large spring upon the 
old Lee plantation which for one hundred and twenty-five years has 
furnished fine water power. 

Halltown contains not much over 100 inhabitants, but a larsre busi- 
ness is conducted there. It is the site of the Virginia Paper Mills 
where are manufactured immense quantities of strawboard. The vil- 
lage was named in honor of Capt. John H. Hall, of Hall’s Rifle 
Works at Harper’s Fe^y, and was located about the time of the com- 
pletion of the Valley branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
which passes through it. There is a church, school-house, depot, 
post-office, stores, etc., here, and it is a very flourishing little hamlet. 

Kabletoim is situated about seven miles south of Charlestown, not 
far from the Shenandoah River, and on the Bullskin Creek. It is an 
old settlement, and there was a fine mill there before the Revolution 
of 1776. Daniel Kable was an early settler, and it was called after 
him. The village is situated in one of the richest sections of the 
country, the lands simply having no superior anywhere. 

Duffield's Depot is a station on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, six miles from Harper’s Ferry, and is a point where a large 
portion of the produce of the northern section of Jefferson County 
has been shipped from. It has a church and the usual comple- 
ment of stores, shops, etc. The population is about 125. 

Shenandoah Junction is a rapidly improving little village on the 
line and established at the opening of the Shenandoah Valley Rail- 
road, midway between Charlestown and Shepherdstown. Fine build- 
ings are constantly going up, and it is gaining in importance with 
every day. 

Rippon is a very pleasant little village, situated about six miles 
from Charlestown, and three-fourths of a mile from the Shenandoah 
Valley Railroad, where there is a depot. It contains an Episcopal 
Church, several stores and shops, and another church, Presbyterian, 
is located about one mile from the village, on the Bullskin. The 
Charlestown and Berry ville turnpike passes through Rippon, and is 
the great thoroughfare for that section of country. 

Summit Point is five miles soutlnvest of Charlestowm, on the Val- 







ley branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Kailroad, and is a growing village. 
It is situated in the midst of one of the best agricultural districts of 
Jefferson and Frederick Counties, and is the shipping point for great 
quantities of grain and produce. Its neat and business-like appear- 
ance indicates the enterprise of its citizens. 

Mechanicsville lies about four miles southeast of Charlestown, has 
a couple of stores, two churches, shops, etc., and several neat dwellings. 
My erst own and Uvillci are small villages, containing each stores, shops, 
etc. The first is located about a mile from Kabletown, near the river, 
“and the other between Shepherdstown and Duffi old’s depot. 



Something About Steamboats in General— Dreams and Crude At- 
tempts— Blasco de Garay— Worcester, Papin, Hulls, etc.— Birth of 
Rumsey — Early Efforts — As a Soldier— Petition of 1783 -—Pipe 
Boiler— Other Machines— Rumsey’s Struggles — Proofs of Priority"— 
The Boat of 1783— In Bath— Petition to V irg ini a^-Test i mon y of 
Gen. Washington— His Advice— John Pitch— His Admission— The 
Secret Trial— The Steamer at Shenandoah Palls— Its Mishaps— 
Removal to Shepherdstown— Washington’s Letter— Second Trial- 
Eye Witnesses— The Public Trial Trip— Graphic Description from 
First Hands— The Spectators and Passengers— Successful Sail- 
Some Well-Known Observers— Second Public Trial— Incontestible 
Proof— The Rumseian Society— Description of Boat— Rumsey Goes 
to England— His Success and His Sad Deat